Thiocarboxylic acids are organosulfur compounds related to carboxylic acids by replacement of one oxygen centre by sulfur. There are two possible tautomers, RC(S)OH and RC(O)SH, which are sometimes written as 'carbothioic O-acids' and 'carbothioic S-acids' respectively. The carbothioic S-acid tautomer RC(O)SH is far more common.
In the laboratory, the most common thiocarboxylic acid is thioacetic acid. A naturally occurring thiocarboxylic acid is 2,6-pyridinedicarbothioic acid, which functions as a siderophore. Thiocarboxylic acids are more acidic than the corresponding carboxylic acids.
- C6H5C(O)Cl + KSH → C6H5C(O)SH + KCl
Dithiocarboxylic acids, with the formula RCS2H, are also known. They are less common than the monothio derivatives. Such compounds are commonly prepared by the reaction of carbon disulfide with a Grignard reagent:
- RMgX + CS2 → RCS2MgX
- RCS2MgX + HCl → RCS2H + MgXCl
- Cremlyn, R.J. (1996). An introduction to organosulfur chemistry. Chichester: Wiley. ISBN 0-471-95512-4.
- Paul Noble, Jr., D. S. Tarbell (1963). "Thiobenzoic Acid". Org. Synth.; Coll. Vol. 4, p. 924
- Ramadas, S. R.; Srinivasan, P. S.; Ramachandran, J.; Sastry, V. V. S. K. (1983). "Methods of Synthesis of Dithiocarboxylic Acids and Esters". Synthesis 1983 (08): 605–622. doi:10.1055/s-1983-30446.