Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Thionine, also known as thionine acetate or Lauth's violet, is a strongly staining metachromatic dye, featuring a phenothiazine core, that is widely used for biological staining. Thionine can also be used in place of Schiff reagent in quantitative Feulgen staining of DNA. It can also be used to mediate electron transfer in microbial fuel cells. The dye's name is frequently misspelled, with omission of the e. The -ine ending indicates that the compound is an amine.
When both the amines are dimethylated, the product tetramethyl thionine is famous as methylene blue, and the intermediates are Azure C (Monomethyl thionine), Azure A (when one of the amines is dimethylated and the other remains primary amine), and Azure B (Trimethyl thionine). When methylene blue is "polychromed" by ripening (Oxidized in solution or metabolized by fungal contamination, as originally noted in the thesis of Dr D L Romanowski in 1890s), it forms thionine and all the Azure intermediates.
Notes and references
- "Stainsfile — Thionin".
- Eugenii Katz; Andrew N. Shipway; Itamar Willner (2003). "21". In Wolf Vielstich. Handbook of Fuel Cells: Fundamentals, Technology, Applications, 4-Volume Set (PDF). Wiley. p. 5. ISBN 978-0-471-49926-8.
- Kiernan JA (2001). "Classification and naming of dyes, stains and fluorochromes". Biotech Histochem. 76 (5-6): 261–78. doi:10.1080/bih.76.5-6.261.278. PMID 11871748.
- Webster's Third New International Dictionary. G & C Merriam Co. 1976, p.2377.
- Dako Education Guide - Special Stains and H & E ” second edition Chapter 19: On Chemical Reactions and Staining Mechanisms by John A. Kiernan, Subsection What is Giemsa’s stain and how does it color blood cells, bacteria and chromosomes? p172
- J Exp Med. 1907 Nov 1;9(6):645-70. ON THE CHEMISTRY AND STAINING PROPERTIES OF CERTAIN DERIVATIVES OF THE METHYLENE BLUE GROUP WHEN COMBINED WITH EOSIN. Wilson TM.
- Marshall,PN (1978) Romanowsky-type stains in haematology. Histochemical Journal 10: 1-29.