Third Air Force
|Third Air Force|
|Active||18 December 1940 – present|
|Branch||United States Air Force|
|Type||Numbered Air Force|
|Role||Provides combat-ready air forces for U.S. European Command and U.S. African Command|
|Part of|| United States Air Forces in Europe
United States Air Forces Africa
U.S. European Command
U.S. African Command
|Garrison/HQ||Ramstein Air Base|
|Lt Gen Richard M. Clark|
|Lewis H. Brereton
Roscoe C. Wilson
Francis H. Griswold
|Emblem of the Third Air Force|
The Third Air Force (3 AF) is a numbered air force of the United States Air Forces in Europe - Air Forces Africa (USAFE-AFAFRICA). Its headquarters is Ramstein Air Base, Germany. It is responsible for all U.S. Air Forces in Europe and Africa operations and support activities in the U.S. European Command and U.S. Africa Command's areas of responsibility.
One of the four original pre–World War II numbered air forces, it was established on 26 March 1941, at Tampa, Florida with a mission of air defense of the Southeastern United States and Gulf Coast regions. During the war, its primary mission became the organization and training of combat units prior to their deployment to the overseas combat air forces.
The command directs all USAFE and AFAFRICA forces engaged in contingency and wartime operations in the United States European Command (EUCOM) and United States Africa Command (AFRICOM) areas of responsibility. It also has a unique mission as the U.S. military's primary liaison to the British government, which is conducted through the command's 3 AF-UK headquarters at RAF Mildenhall, England. As an integral part of America's commitment to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), Third Air Force's area of responsibility includes Air Force missions and personnel in Europe and Africa.
The command also serves as Headquarters United States European Command's "single point of contact" for representing U.S. forces in negotiations with the British government, Third Air Force oversees host nation support agreements for all U.S. military forces based in the United Kingdom through the command's 3 AF-UK headquarters at RAF Mildenhall.
Through the NATO Partnership for Peace program, Third Air Force manages military contact and assistance programs for a number of countries in Eastern Europe. Third Air Force is also responsible for contingency planning and support of American security interests in Africa.
It is composed of more than 25,000 Airmen. Third Air Force is assigned more than 200 aircraft, while tasked to provide support servicing to thousands of other transient aircraft that visit its bases each year.
Major operational units under Third Air Force are:
- 31st Fighter Wing, Aviano Air Base, Italy (F-16C/D Block 40)
- 48th Fighter Wing, RAF Lakenheath, United Kingdom (F-15C/D, F-15E,HH-60)
- 52d Fighter Wing, Spangdahlem Air Base, Germany (F-16C/D Block 50)
- 86th Airlift Wing, Ramstein Air Base, Germany (C-130, C-20, C-21A, C-37A)
- 100th Air Refueling Wing, RAF Mildenhall, United Kingdom (KC-135R)
- 435th Air Ground Operations Wing, Ramstein Air Base, Germany
- 501st Combat Support Wing, RAF Alconbury, United Kingdom
In addition, there are numerous minor units assigned to Third Air Force by HQ USAFE.
- 603d Air and Space Operations Center
- 603d Air Communications Squadron
- 4th Air Support Operations Group
One of the four original numbered air forces, Third Air Force was activated as the Southeast Air District of the GHQ Air Force on 18 December 1940 (which became Air Force Combat Command on 20 June 1941), at MacDill Field, Florida. It was redesignated Third Air Force on 26 March 1941 with a mission for the defense of the Southeast and Gulf of Mexico regions of the United States. It moved to offices in downtown Tampa on 8 January 1941.
MacDill Field was one of two major Army Air Corps bases established in the Tampa Bay area in the buildup prior to World War II. Tampa's Drew Field Municipal Airport, established in 1928 was leased by the Air Corps in 1940. A major expansion of the airport was initiated and Drew Army Airfield was opened in 1941. Two secondary Army Airfields, Brooksville Army Airfield and Hillsborough Army Airfield were built and opened in early 1942 to support the flight operations of MacDill and Drew Fields. The Bonita Springs Auxiliary Field, located near Fort Myers provided an additional emergency landing field for MacDill. All of these airfields came under the jurisdiction of Third Air Force. III Fighter Command, the fighter arm, was headquartered at Drew Field.
World War II
Third Air Force initially provided air defense for the southeastern United States (1940–1941) and flew antisubmarine patrols along coastal areas of the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico from after Pearl Harbor. In January 1942, the command was withdrawn by Air Force Combat Command from the Eastern Defense Command and assigned operational training of units, crews, and replacements for medium bombardment, fighter, and reconnaissance operations.
In 1942, the antisubmarine patrols were turned over to the Coast Guard and other agencies and the command was engaged primarily in training replacements for combat units and operational training of units, crews, and individuals for bombardment, fighter, and reconnaissance operations. It received graduates of Army Air Forces Training Command flight schools; navigator training; flexible gunnery schools and various technical schools, organized them into combat groups and squadrons, and provided operational unit training (OTU) and replacement training (RTU) to prepare groups and replacements for deployment overseas to combat theaters. Third Air Force primarily trained B-25 Mitchell and B-26 Marauder medium bomber groups and A-20 Havoc and A-36 Apache light bomber groups. It also trained replacement fighter pilots, initially using P-39 Airacobra and P-40 Warhawks in 1942, later with P-47 Thunderbolts and P-51 Mustangs beginning in 1943 and 1944 as they became available. Third Air Force also provided support to the Army Air Forces School of Applied Tactics in Florida. By 1944, most of the Operational Training of groups ended, with the command concentrating on RTU training using Army Air Force Base Units (AAFBU) as training organizations at the airfields controlled by Third Air Force.
Also by 1944, the majority of the Numbered Air Forces of the AAF were fighting in various parts of the world, such as the Eighth Air Force in Europe and the Twentieth Air Force in the Pacific. They were supported by four numbered air forces located within the United States (known as the Zone of the Interior, or "ZI".) On 13 December 1944, First, Second, Third and Fourth Air Force were all were placed under the unified command of the Continental Air Forces, the predecessor of the later established Strategic Air Command, Tactical Air Command, and Air Defense Command, which were all established in 1946.
When the Army Air Forces reorganized in 1946, Tactical Air Command (TAC) was established as one of its three major commands. The USAAF Troop Carrier Command (TCC) was inactivated as part of this reorganization and Third Air Force was reassigned to TAC to control the troop carrier units formerly part of TCC. It was headquartered at Greenville AAF, South Carolina. The C-46 Commando and C-47 Skytrain were the primary troop carrier aircraft, but surplus C-54 Skymasters that had been originally purchased for the Air Transport Command (ATC) were made available for troop carrier use.
Third Air Force was inactivated on 1 November 1946 and TAC's troop carrier mission was reassigned to Ninth Air Force with its return from Europe and reassignment to Donaldson.
In August 1948, in response to the Berlin blockade, the U.S. deployed long-range B-29 Superfortress strategic bombers to four East Anglian bases. The USAFE 3d Air Division was activated to receive, support and operationally control the B-29 units deployed in England for training. It also provided aircraft maintenance support at RAF Burtonwood for C-54 Skymaster aircraft used in the Berlin Airlift. When the Berlin Airlift ended in 1949, the division participated in the Military Assistance Program in England and began an extensive air base construction program through May 1951
Briefly elevated to the Major Command level from 3 January 1949 – 21 January 1951, the 3d Air Division controlled large numbers of USAF organizations based in the United Kingdom and supervised a tremendous airfield construction program.
However With the advent of the Korean War and the growing Cold War threat of the Soviet Union, the U.S. and UK agreed to an even greater U.S. military presence in the United Kingdom. The resulting growing size and complexity of the American military presence required a larger command and organizational structure that could meet the needs of the increased operations.
Reactivation of Third Air Force
The 3d Air Division was discontinued on 1 May 1951, and in its place the USAFE Third Air Force was activated to oversee tactical air operations. Strategic Air Command's 7th Air Division controlled deployed bombardment and reconnaissance forces with Third Air Force providing its logistical support. From its headquarters at RAF South Ruislip near London, Third Air Force carried out that mission basically unchanged through 1966, when the 7th Air Division was inactivated.
Tactical Air Operations
The first tactical unit to come to England under Third Air Force was the 81st Fighter Bomber Wing based at RAF Bentwaters on 6 September 1951. The next assigned unit was the 20th Fighter Bomber Wing, assigned to RAF Wethersfield. These Republic F-84 Thunderjet/Thunderchief and North American F-86 Sabre units worked with Royal Air Force Fighter Command providing air defense for England. In addition, the attached Tactical Air Command 47th Bombardment Wing flew B-45 Tornado and B-66 Destroyer tactical bombers from RAF Sculthorpe and RAF Alconbury.
Initially the 49th Air Division functioned as the intermediate-level command authority for USAFE's wings in the UK, no operational combat groups were attached. The division supervised and participated in numerous training missions such as Quick Shot, Kingpin, and Bear Claw. it was inactivated on 1 July 1956
During the 1960s, Third Air Force has four to five combat wings and major changes occurred in the types of aircraft deployed in the United Kingdom. North American F-100 Super Sabres, McDonnell F-101 Voodoos, and McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom IIs replaced older fighter aircraft. Boeing KC-135 Stratotankers replaced older refueling aircraft.
In June 1972, daily operational control of tactical units in the United Kingdom was transferred to Headquarters USAFE at Wiesbaden Air Base, West Germany. Third Air Force still retained command of the units, but as a result of the change, the headquarters was reorganized, reduced in personnel strength, and moved to RAF Mildenhall, United Kingdom.
In 1979, NATO ministers decided to deploy BGM-109G Gryphon Ground Launched Cruise and Pershing II IRBM missiles to counter the growing Soviet SS-20 intermediate range ballistic missile threat. RAF Greenham Common and RAF Molesworth were selected as the beddown sites for the GLCM. The 501st Tactical Missile Wing (TMW) was activated at RAF Greenham Common in July 1982 and the 303d Tactical Missile Wing at RAF Molesworth in December 1986. In June 1987, Headquarters USAFE delegated tactical control of Third Air Force units to the Third Air Force commander.
With the signing of the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty in December 1987, GLCMs deployed to RAF Molesworth were removed to the U.S. and the 303rd TMW inactivated 30 January 1989. The last GLCMs at RAF Greenham Common were removed in March 1991, and the 501st TMW inactivated 4 June 1991.
When Iraq invaded Kuwait in August 1990, Third Air Force, like many other U.S. military units, received their trial by fire. However, for Third Air Force, the scenario was not similar to any which had been practiced in the past. Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm were not classic East-West confrontations in Europe that Third Air Force had been trained for. Thousands of miles removed from the Kuwait theater of operations, Third Air Force played a major support role, deploying half its combat aircraft, several thousand vehicles, approximately 50,000 tons of munitions, and many more tons of supplies and material. Third Air Force also provided 2,250 hospital beds by activating three of its contingency hospitals and was ready in the event of a large number of casualties were received.
Structure in 1989
At the end of the Cold War Third Air Force consisted of the following units:
- Third Air Force, at RAF Mildenhall, United Kingdom
- 10th Tactical Fighter Wing, at RAF Alconbury
- 20th Tactical Fighter Wing, at RAF Upper Heyford
- 48th Tactical Fighter Wing, at RAF Lakenheath
- 81st Tactical Fighter Wing, at RAF Bentwaters
- 78th Tactical Fighter Squadron, with 24x A-10 Thunderbolt II (based at RAF Woodbridge)
- 91st Tactical Fighter Squadron, with 24x A-10 Thunderbolt II (based at RAF Woodbridge)
- 92nd Tactical Fighter Squadron, with 24x A-10 Thunderbolt II
- 510 Tactical Fighter Squadron, with 24x A-10 Thunderbolt II
- 527th Tactical Fighter Training Squadron, with 16x F-16C Falcon fighters for aggressor training
- 513th Airborne Command and Control Wing, at RAF Mildenhall
- 303rd Tactical Missile Wing, at RAF Molesworth
- 501st Tactical Missile Wing, at RAF Greenham Common
- 11th Tactical Missile Squadron, with 96x BGM-109G Ground Launched Cruise Missiles
- 7020th Air Base Group, at RAF Fairford, US Air Forces in Europe only B-52 Stratofortress heavy bomber base
- 7274th Air Base Group, at RAF Chicksands
Post Cold War
The end of the Cold War with the former Soviet Union left in its wake many new military challenges, tensions and emerging conflicts. It also drew attention to the need for American military forces to operate in ways and locations outside the traditional NATO construct. The shift in East-West relations and the increasing focus toward Eastern Europe, the southern region and the Middle East led to a changing of the focus of Third Air Force as well. The U.S. Congress mandated large reductions in the American military budget and American military troop strength based in Europe. From a Cold War high of 450,000 in the late 1980s, American troop strength in Europe was reduced to 100,000 by the mid-1990s.
During the 1990s the USAF restructured itself to meet the emerging needs of the new world order. Several Third Air Force units returned to the U.S., and several more were inactivated. Third Air Force returned many of its bases to the British Ministry of Defence, and scaled down operations at other places.
In March 1996, Headquarters USAFE announced a major reorganization of its numbered air forces. The announcement included news of the inactivation of Seventeenth Air Force at Sembach Air Base Germany, transferring its responsibility for overseeing all U.S. Air Force units north of the Alps to Third Air Force. As a result of the changes, Third Air Force grew substantially, taking on two main operating bases, Ramstein Air Base and Spangdahlem Air Base, both in Germany, and five geographically separated units.
With this 1996 reorganization, Third Air Force was composed of more than 25,000 military people, and more than 35,000 family members. In terms of numbers of aircraft, Third Air Force had more than 200, including KC-135 and F-15 aircraft at bases in England, and A-10, F-16, C-9, C-20, C-21 and C-130E aircraft in Germany.
In addition to a larger area of responsibility, the command reorganization also brought about a subtle change in the mission of the Third Air Force headquarters element. Third Air Force was tasked to take a more active role in the leadership of operational contingencies, and provide trained staff to lead or augment joint and combined task force headquarters elements.
In 1998, Third Air Force provided the headquarters for JTF Eagle Vista, supporting the President's trip to Africa.
In 2005, USAFE once again realigned its numbered air forces. Sixteenth Air Force was aligned as the command's new Warfighting Headquarters. Third Air Force was inactivated on 1 November, ending the unit's prestigious 50-plus year legacy in the UK.
Just over a year after inactivation, Third Air Force was reactivated on 1 December 2006, at Ramstein AB, Germany, as USAFE's Air and Space Operations supporting U.S. European Command. Its new mission was to support the EUCOM commander's strategic objectives across the full range of military operations. When a joint task force is created in EUCOM, the Third Air Force commander is ready to assume the roles of Joint Forces Air Component Commander and Commander Air Force Forces, or lead the JTF as a Joint Force Commander.
- Established as Southeast Air District on 19 October 1940
- Activated on 18 December 1940
- Re-designated: 3 Air Force on 26 March 1941
- Re-designated: Third Air Force on 18 September 1942
- Inactivated on 1 November 1946
- Activated and organized on 1 May 1951
- Inactivated on 1 November 2005
- Re-designated Third Air Force (Air Forces Europe) on 29 November 2006
- Activated on 1 December 2006.
- General Headquarters Air Force
- (later, Air Force Combat Command), 18 December 1940
- Eastern Theater of Operations, 24 December 1941
- Air Force Combat Command
- (later, United States Army Air Forces), 5 January 1942
- Continental Air Forces, 13 December 1944
- Tactical Air Command, 21 March 1946 – 1 November 1946
- United States Air Forces in Europe, 1 May 1951 – 1 November 2005; 1 December 2006 – present.
- United States Air Forces Africa, 20 April 2012 – present.
- MacDill Field, Florida, 18 December 1940
- Greenville AAB, 28 March 1946 – 1 November 1946
- Victoria Park Estate
- (later, U.S. Air Base, South Ruislip; South Ruislip Air Station), England, 1 May 1951
- 1 Ground Air Support
- (later, I Air Support; I Tactical Air Division; III Tactical Air Division; III Reconnaissance)
- 12 August 1942 – 21 March 1946
- II Air Support (later, II Tactical Air Division): 25 January 1943 – 25 October 1945.
- 3d Air Force Service (later, 3d Air Force Base): 1 October 1941 – 19 May 1942
- 3d Air Support: 1 September 1941 – 16 March 1942
- 3d Bomber (later, III Bomber): 5 September 1941 – 21 March 1946
- 3d Interceptor (later, III Interceptor; III Fighter): 17 June 1941 – 21 March 1946
- III Ground Air Support (later, III Air Support; III Reconnaissance; III Tactical Air)
- 27 May 1942 – 24 October 1945.
- 49th Air: 5 June 1952 – 1 July 1956.
- "Chief Master Sgt. Philip L. Easton". United States Air Force. Retrieved 25 November 2016.
- "Third Air Force (USAFE) Fact Sheet". US Air Force Historical Research Agency. Retrieved 1 November 2016.
- "10 Air Base Wing (USAFA) Fact Sheet". US Air Force Historical Research Agency. Retrieved 1 November 2016.
- "20 Fighter Wing (ACC) Fact Sheet". US Air Force Historical Research Agency. Retrieved 1 November 2016.
- "48 Fighter Wing (USAFE) Fact Sheet". US Air Force Historical Research Agency. Retrieved 1 November 2016.
- "81 Mission Support Group (AETC) Fact Sheet". US Air Force Historical Research Agency. Retrieved 1 November 2016.
- "513 Air Control Group (AFRC) Fact Sheet". US Air Force Historical Research Agency. Retrieved 1 November 2016.
- "303 Aeronautical Systems Wing (AFMC) Fact Sheet". US Air Force Historical Research Agency. Retrieved 1 November 2016.
- "501 Combat Support Wing (USAFE) Fact Sheet". US Air Force Historical Research Agency. Retrieved 1 November 2016.
- Dragoner, O. W. (September 2013). "United States Air Force 1989" (PDF): 176. Retrieved 1 November 2016.
- Dragoner, O. W. (September 2013). "United States Air Force 1989" (PDF): 176. Retrieved 1 November 2016.
- "17th Air Force stands down, AFAFRICA mission carries on". U.S. Air Forces in Europe Public Affairs. Retrieved 1 May 2012.
- Fletcher, Harry R. (1989) Air Force Bases Volume II, Active Air Force Bases outside the United States of America on 17 September 1982. Maxwell AFB, Alabama: Office of Air Force History. ISBN 0-912799-53-6
- Lloyd, Alwyn T. (2000) A Cold War Legacy, A Tribute to Strategic Air Command, 1946–1992, Pictorial Histories Pub ISBN 1-57510-052-5
- Ravenstein, Charles A. (1984). Air Force Combat Wings Lineage and Honors Histories 1947–1977. Maxwell AFB, Alabama: Office of Air Force History. ISBN 0-912799-12-9.
- Steijger, Cees (1991), A History of USAFE, Airlife Publishing Limited, ISBN 1-85310-075-7
-  USAAS-USAAC-USAAF-USAF Aircraft Serial Numbers—1908 to Present
- US Air Force news story on Third Air Force reactivation at Archive.is (archived 2012-12-12)
- Third Air Force Factsheet
- Ruislip Online – large section on this base inc. pictures
- "Dismissal Of Air Force Officer's Sexual Assault Conviction Raises Questions", All Things Considered, March 8, 2013. Audie Cornish talks to Stars and Stripes reporter Nancy Montgomery about General Craig Franklin's overturning of Lt. Col. James Wilkerson's conviction, dismissal and one-year jail sentence by an Aviano, Italy, court martial. Three US Senators have questioned Franklin's action. Written testimony was given by the Aviano assault victim, amongst other witnesses who addressed the subject, before Congress, per "Sexual Assault Victims: Military's Criminal Justice System Is Broken", All Things Considered, March 13, 2013. The Aviano victim specifically questioned her going through the legal process only to have the conviction overturned by one person. The potential conflict of interest of having judicial and chain-of-command responsibilities overlapping was also addressed in the hearing. See also: Montgomery, Nancy, "Former Aviano IG is found guilty in sexual assault case", Stars and Stripes, November 2, 2012.