Third Epistle to the Corinthians
The Third Epistle to the Corinthians is a pseudepigraphical text under the name of Paul the Apostle. It is also found in the Acts of Paul, and was framed as Paul's response to the Epistle of the Corinthians to Paul. The earliest extant copy is Papyrus Bodmer X, dating to the third century. Originally written in Greek, the letter survives in Greek, Coptic, Latin, and Armenian manuscripts.
Content and Theological Background
The text is structured as an attempt to correct alleged misinterpretations of the earlier First and Second Epistle to the Corinthians of which the author (usually called "pseudo-Paul") has become aware due to the (similarly dubious) Epistle of the Corinthians to Paul. According to the preceding part of the Acts of Paul, when the letter was written Paul was in prison, on account of Stratonice, the wife of Apollophanes. In particular the epistle seeks to correct the interpretation of the phrase "flesh and blood cannot inherit the kingdom of God" [15:50] by which some taught that the resurrection of the dead could not be physical.
Gnostics were known for quoting this part of 1 Corinthians, infuriating Christians such as Irenaeus who wished to claim that the dead were physically, rather than spiritually, resurrected. Irenaeus remarked "All heretics always quote this passage". It is thought[by whom?] that the argument of the Gnostics won so much ground that some orthodox Christians felt the need to forge 3 Corinthians to counter them.
In the West it was not considered canonical in the 4th century AD, becoming part of the New Testament apocrypha. In the East, in the Syriac Orthodox Church, Aphrahat (c. 340) treated it as canonical and Ephrem the Syrian (d. 373) apparently accepted it as canonical, because he wrote a commentary on it. The Doctrine of Addai includes it, but it was not included in the Syriac Peshitta translation of the Bible (but nor were 2–3 John, 2 Peter, Jude, or Revelation, which are almost universally recognized as canonical, see also Antilegomena). Although part of the Oskan Armenian Bible of 1666, it was in an Appendix to the Zohrab Armenian Bible of 1805 which follows the Vulgate canon, and it is not currently considered part of the Armenian Orthodox New Testament. It was not part of the canon list of Anania Shirakatsi in the 7th century but is part of the canon lists of Mechitar of Ayrivank` in the 13th and Gregory Tat`ew in the 14th.
According to the Catholic Encyclopedia:
The ancient Syrian (Edessene) Church revered as canonical a Third Epistle of St. Paul to the Corinthians, which is accompanied by a letter from the pastors of that Church, to which it is an answer. But about the beginning of the fifth century the Syrian Church fell under the influence of the Greek, and in consequence the spurious letter gradually lost its canonical status. It was taken up by the neighbouring Armenians and for centuries has formed a part of the Armenian New Testament. Latin and Greek writers are completely silent about this pseudograph, although Greek and Latin copies have been found. It was obviously suggested by the lost genuine Pauline letter referred to in I Cor. v, 9; vii, 1. It was composed by a presbyter about 160–170, and is a disguised attack on some of the leading errors of Gnosticism. This correspondence long had an independent circulation, but recently it has been proved that the document was incorporated into the Acts of St. Paul (q.v.).
- First Epistle to the Corinthians
- Second Epistle to the Corinthians
- Epistle of the Corinthians to Paul
- Charlesworth, James Hamilton (2014). Charlesworth; McDonald, Lee Martin; Jurgens, Blake A., eds. Sacra Scriptura: How "Non-Canonical" Texts Functioned in Early Judaism and Early Christianity. London: Bloomsbury. p. xix. ISBN 978-0-56714-887-2.
- G. J. Reinink; Alexander Cornelis Klugkist (January 1999). After Bardaisan: Studies on Continuity and Change in Syriac Christianity in Honour of Professor Han J.W. Drijvers. Peeters Publishers. p. 53. ISBN 978-90-429-0735-5.
- The Canon Debate, McDonald & Sanders editors, 2002, page 492, citing as reference Bruce M. Metzger's Canon of the NT, pages 219, 223; cf. 7, 176, 182.
- Canons & Recensions Of The Armenian Bible
- English Translation of the Third Epistle to the Corinthians
- English Translation of the Third Epistle to the Corinthians by M.R. James (with chapter numbers)
- Hovhanessian, Vahan. Third Corinthians: Reclaiming Paul for Christian Orthodoxy. Peter Lang Publishing, 2000. ISBN 0-8204-4527-4