Third Hellenic Republic

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Hellenic Republic
Ελληνική Δημοκρατία
Ellīnikī́ Dīmokratía  (Greek)
Flag of Greece
Coat of arms of Greece
Flag Coat of arms
Motto: «Ελευθερία ή Θάνατος» (traditional)
"Freedom or Death"
Location of  Third Hellenic Republic  (dark green)– in Europe  (green & dark grey)– in the European Union  (green)  –  [Legend]
Location of  Third Hellenic Republic  (dark green)

– in Europe  (green & dark grey)
– in the European Union  (green)  –  [Legend]

Capital
and largest city
Athens
37°58′N 23°43′E / 37.967°N 23.717°E / 37.967; 23.717
Official language
and national language
Greek
Religion Eastern Orthodoxy; Greek Orthodoxy (prevailing faith)
Demonym
Government Unitary parliamentary
constitutional republic
Prokopis Pavlopoulos
Alexis Tsipras
Nikos Voutsis
Legislature Hellenic Parliament
Formation of the Republic
25 March 1821 (traditional starting date of the Greek War of Independence), 15 January 1822 (official declaration in the First National Assembly at Epidaurus)
3 February 1830
11 June 1975
Area
• Total
131,957 km2 (50,949 sq mi)[1] (97th)
• Water (%)
0.8669
Population
• 2015 estimate
10,955,000[2]
• 2011 census
10,816,286[3] (80th)
• Density
82[4]/km2 (212.4/sq mi) (120th)
GDP (PPP) 2016 estimate
• Total
$287.114 billion[5] (51st)
• Per capita
$26,606[5] (44th)
GDP (nominal) 2016 estimate
• Total
$194.594 billion[5] (44th)
• Per capita
$18,035[5] (38th)
Gini (2014) Negative increase 34.5[6]
medium
HDI (2014) Increase 0.865[7]
very high · 29th
Currency Euro () (EUR)
Time zone EET (UTC+2)
• Summer (DST)
EEST (UTC+3)
Date format dd/mm/yyyy (AD)
Drives on the right
Calling code +30
ISO 3166 code GR
Internet TLD .gra
  1. The .eu domain is also used, as in other European Union member states.

Third Hellenic Republic (Greek: Γ΄ Ελληνική Δημοκρατία) is the period in modern Greek history that stretches from 1974, with the fall of Greek military junta and the final abolition of the Greek monarchy, to the present day.

It is considered the third period of republican rule in Greece, following the First Republic during the Greek War of Independence (1821–32) and the Second Republic during the temporary abolition of the monarchy in 1924–35. The term "Metapolitefsi" (Μεταπολίτευση) is commonly used for this period, but this term concerns more often with the first years immediately after the fall of the military junta. While the First and Second Hellenic Republics aren't in common use except in a historiographic context, the term Third Hellenic Republic is used frequently.[8][9]

Features of the Third Hellenic Republic are the development of social freedoms, the human growth,[clarification needed] the European orientation of Greece and the political dominance of the parties ND and PASOK. On the contrary this period includes high corruption, deterioration of some economic indexes such as the public debt and nepotism mostly in political scene and the state seats.[10][11][12]

Events[edit]

This period is marked by great changes. In 1981 Greece joined in EU. Simultaneously the centre-left party PASOK won the election and changed the Greek political scenery. During 1990 the living standard of Greeks was improved importantly, nevertheless the Olympic Games of 2004 was the climax. On 1 January 2001, Greece adopted the Euro that was introduced in the country on 1 January 2002. At the last months of 2009, the Greek debt crisis broke out, an event that brought about great changes both social and political level.

Presidents of the Third Hellenic Republic[edit]

Main article: President of Greece

Political parties in Third Hellenic Republic[edit]

1974–1989[edit]

This period began with the centrists and centre-right being dominant, though the former lost support in the late 1970s with the rise of PASOK. Also the Communist Party of Greece was allowed to take part in elections for first time after the end of the Greek Civil War. The table below shows the results of elections during this period.

Political position/
Ideology
Political Party 1974
Legislative
Elections
1977
Legislative
Elections
1981
Legislative
Elections
1981
European
Elections
1984
European
Elections
1985
Legislative
Elections
1989
European
Elections
1989 June
Legislative
Elections
1989 Nov
Legislative
Elections
% % % % % % % % %
Communist KKE 9.36 10.93 12.84 11.64 9.89
KKE interior 1.37 5.30 3.42 1.84
Left-wing United Left 9.47
SPADE 2.72
SYN 14.31 13.13 10.97
Centre-left PASOK 13.58 25.34 48.06 40.12 41.58 45.82 35.96 39.13 40.97
Ecologists Alternative Ecologists 1.11 0.58
Centre Centre Union 20.42
EDIK 11.95 0.40 1.12 0.28 0.28
KODISO 0.72 4.26 0.80
Liberal Party 0.37 1.04 0.35 0.17 0.40 0.10 0.08
Christian Democracy 0.15 1.12 0.45 0.41 0.20
Liberatists New Liberals 1.08
Centre-right New Democracy 54.37 41.84 35.88 31.34 38.05 40.85 40.41 44.28 46.19
DIANA 1.36 1.00
Right-wing EDE 1.08
National Alignment 6.82
Progressive Party 1.69 1.96
Far-right EPEN 2.29 0.60 1.16 0.30

1990–2007[edit]

This period began with the fall of communist regimes in eastern Europe. It is characterized by the reinforcement of bipartisanship with the two main parties (New Democracy and PASOK) regularly polling over 80% of the vote between them, even reaching 86%.

Political position/
Ideology
Political Party 1990
Legislative
Elections
1993
Legislative
Elections
1994
European
Elections
1996
Legislative
Elections
1999
European
Elections
2000
Legislative
Elections
2004
Legislative
Elections
2004
European
Elections
2007
Legislative
Elections
% % % % % % % % %
Communist KKE 4.54 6.29 5.61 8.67 5.52 5.90 9.48 8.15
Left-wing SYN/SYRIZA 10.28 2.94 6.25 5.12 5.16 3.20 3.26 4.16 5.04
Centre-left PASOK 38.61 46.88 37.64 41.49 32.91 43.79 40.55 34.03 38.10
DIKKI 4.43 6.85 2.69 1.79
Ecologists Alternative Ecologists 0.77
Ecologist Greens 0.67 1.05
Centre Union of Centrists 0.23 1.19 0.70 0.82 0.34 0.26 0.56 0.29
Liberatists The Liberals 1.62
Centre-right New Democracy 46.89 39.30 32.66 38.12 36.00 42.74 45.36 43.02 41.84
DIANA 0.67 2.79
Right-wing Political Spring 4.88 8.65 2.94 2.28
Far-right EPEN 0.14 0.78 0.24
Golden Dawn 0.11 0.07
LAOS 2.19 4.12 3.80

2009–2015[edit]

This period corresponds to Greek debt crisis, that changed dramatically the political stage. Early in the period, PASOK were able to capitalise on a loss of support for ND. However, by the early 2010s, PASOK were also attracting blame for their handling of the crisis, and the radical party SYRIZA became the largest party on the left. The position of the far-right was also strengthened in this period.

Political position/
Ideology
Political Party 2009
European
Elections
2009
Legislative
Elections
2012 May
Legislative
Elections
2012 June
Legislative
Elections
2014
European
Elections
2015 Jan.
Legislative
Elections
2015 Sept.
Legislative
Elections
% % % % % % %
Communist KKE 8.35 7.54 8.48 4.50 6.11 5.47 5.55
ANTARSYA 0.43 0.36 1.19 0.33 0.72 0.64 0.85
Left Wing SYRIZA 4.70 4.60 16.79 26.89 26.57 36.34 35.46
Popular Unity 2.86
Centre-Left PASOK/Olive Tree/Dem. Coal. 36.64 43.92 13.18 12.28 8.02 4.68 6.28
Democratic Left 6.11 6.25 1.20 0.49
Social Agreement 0.96
The River 6.60 6.05 4.09
KIDISO 2.46
Ecologist Ecologist Greens 3.49 2.53 2.93 0.88 0.90
Centre Union of Centrists 0.38 0.27 0.61 0.28 0.65 1.79 3.43
Teleia 1.77
Liberatist Drassi 0.76 1.80
Recreate Greece 2.15 0.53
Democratic Alliance 2.55
Drassi/Recreate Greece 1.59 0.91
Greek European Citizens 1.40
Centre-Right New Democracy 32.29 33.48 18.85 29.66 22.72 27.81 28.10
Right Wing PAMME 1.27
Independent Greeks 10.62 7.51 3.46 4.75 3.69
UFP 1.04
Far Right LAOS 7.14 5.63 2.89 1.58 2.69 1.03
Golden Dawn 0.46 0.29 6.97 6.92 9.39 6.28 6.99

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Country Comparison: Area". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 7 January 2013. 
  2. ^ "United Nations world population prospects"(PDF) 2015 Revision
  3. ^ Απογραφή Πληθυσμού - Κατοικιών 2011. ΜΟΝΙΜΟΣ Πληθυσμός [Results of Population-Housing Census 2011 concerning the permanent population of the country] (PDF) (in Greek). 20 March 2014. Retrieved 25 October 2016. 
  4. ^ "Announcement of the results of the 2011 Population Census for the Resident Population" (PDF). Hellenic Statistical Authority. 28 December 2012. Retrieved 24 August 2013. 
  5. ^ a b c d "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". World Economic Outlook Database, April 2016. Washington, D.C.: International Monetary Fund. 12 April 2016. Retrieved 14 April 2016. 
  6. ^ "Gini coefficient of equivalised disposable income (source: SILC)". Luxembourg: Eurostat. 15 June 2015. Retrieved 22 June 2015. 
  7. ^ "2015 Human Development Report" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 2015. Retrieved 14 December 2015. 
  8. ^ Ιορδάνογλου, Χρυσάφης Ι. (2002). Γερνώντας μαζί με την τρίτη ελληνική δημοκρατία. Εκδόσεις Παρατηρητής. ISBN 960-374-232-5. 
  9. ^ Μαυρογένης, Γιώργος (2008). Πολιτική Επικοινωνία & ΜΜΕ (Κεφάλαιο 17: Πολιτική Επικοινωνία στην Τρίτη Ελληνική Δημοκρατία). Εκδόσεις Σταμούλη. ISBN 9789603517566. 
  10. ^ "H ποιότητα στην Γ΄ Ελληνική Δημοκρατία". kathimerini.gr. Retrieved 29 January 2015. 
  11. ^ "Η Μεταπολίτευση, μία σύντομη αποτίμηση". kathimerini.gr. Retrieved 29 January 2015. 
  12. ^ "Τρίτη Ελληνική Δημοκρατία. Του Γ. Ρωμαίου". tvxs.gr. Retrieved 29 January 2015.