Third Hellenic Republic

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Hellenic Republic

Ελληνική Δημοκρατία
Ellinikí Dimokratía  (Greek)
Motto: «Ελευθερία ή Θάνατος»
Elefthería í Thánatos
"Freedom or Death"
Anthem: «Ύμνος εις την Ελευθερίαν»
Ýmnos eis tin Eleftherían
"Hymn to Liberty"
Location of Third Hellenic Republic (dark green) – in Europe (green & dark grey) – in the European Union (green)  –  [Legend]
Location of Third Hellenic Republic (dark green)

– in Europe (green & dark grey)
– in the European Union (green)  –  [Legend]

Capital
and largest city
Athens
37°58′N 23°43′E / 37.967°N 23.717°E / 37.967; 23.717
Official language
and national language
Greek
Religion
Eastern Orthodoxy
Demonym(s)Greek
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary republic
• President
Prokopis Pavlopoulos
Kyriakos Mitsotakis
Nikos Voutsis
LegislatureHellenic Parliament
Establishment history
25 March 1821 (traditional starting date of the Greek War of Independence), 15 January 1822 (official declaration)
3 February 1830
11 June 1975
Area
• Total
131,957 km2 (50,949 sq mi)[1] (95th)
• Water (%)
0.8669
Population
• 2017 estimate
10,768,477
• 2011 census
10,816,286[2] (80th)
• Density
82[3]/km2 (212.4/sq mi) (125th)
GDP (PPP)2019 estimate
• Total
$326.700 billion[4] (57th)
• Per capita
$30,522[4] (47th)
GDP (nominal)2019 estimate
• Total
$224.033 billion[4] (52nd)
• Per capita
$20,930[4] (38th)
Gini (2017)Positive decrease 33.4[5]
medium · 60th
HDI (2017)Increase 0.870[6]
very high · 31st
CurrencyEuro () (EUR)
Time zoneUTC+2 (Eastern European Time)
• Summer (DST)
UTC+3 (Eastern European Summer Time)
Date formatdd/mm/yyyy (AD)
Driving sideright
Calling code+30
ISO 3166 codeGR
Internet TLD.gra
.ελ
  1. The .eu domain is also used, as in other European Union member states.

The Third Hellenic Republic (Greek: Γ΄ Ελληνική Δημοκρατία, romanizedTriti Elliniki Dimokratia) is the period in modern Greek history that stretches from 1974, with the fall of Greek military junta and the final abolition of the Greek monarchy, to the present day.

It is considered the third period of republican rule in Greece, following the First Republic during the Greek War of Independence (1821–1832) and the Second Republic during the temporary abolition of the monarchy in 1924–1935.

The term "Metapolitefsi" (Μεταπολίτευση, 'polity change') is commonly used for the entire period, but this term is properly restricted to the early part of the period, beginning with the fall of the junta and culminating in the democratic transformation of the country. While the First and Second Hellenic Republics are not in common use except in a historiographic context, the term Third Hellenic Republic is used frequently.[7][8]

The Third Hellenic Republic has been characterised by the development of social freedoms, the European orientation of Greece and the political dominance of the parties ND and PASOK. On the negative side the period has included high corruption, deterioration of certain economic indexes such as the public debt, and nepotism, mostly in the political scene and the state offices.[9][10][11]

Events[edit]

This period has been marked by many significant changes in the country. In 1981 Greece joined the EU. Simultaneously, the centre-left party PASOK won the election and changed the Greek political scenery. The decade of the 1990s saw the standard of living among Greeks steadily increase, a trend which reached its zenith around the time of the Olympic Games of 2004. On 1 January 2001, Greece voted to adopt the Euro, and the currency was introduced in the country one year later on 1 January 2002. In the last months of 2009, the Greek debt crisis broke out, an event that brought about great changes on both a social and political level.

Presidents of the Third Hellenic Republic[edit]

Political parties in Third Hellenic Republic[edit]

1974–1989[edit]

This period began with the centrists and centre-right being dominant, though the former lost support in the late 1970s with the rise of PASOK. Also the Communist Party of Greece was allowed to take part in elections for first time after the end of the Greek Civil War. The table below shows the results of elections during this period.

Political position/
Ideology
Political Party 1974
Legislative
Elections
1977
Legislative
Elections
1981
Legislative
Elections
1981
European
Elections
1984
European
Elections
1985
Legislative
Elections
1989
European
Elections
1989 June
Legislative
Elections
1989 Nov
Legislative
Elections
% % % % % % % % %
Communist KKE 9.36 10.93 12.84 11.64 9.89
KKE interior 1.37 5.30 3.42 1.84
Left-wing United Left 9.47
SPADE 2.72
SYN 14.31 13.13 10.97
Centre-left PASOK 13.58 25.34 48.06 40.12 41.58 45.82 35.96 39.13 40.97
Ecologists Alternative Ecologists 1.11 0.58
Centre Centre Union 20.42
EDIK 11.95 0.40 1.12 0.28 0.28
KODISO 0.72 4.26 0.80
Liberal Party 0.37 1.04 0.35 0.17 0.40 0.10 0.08
Christian Democracy 0.15 1.12 0.45 0.41 0.20
Liberals New Liberals 1.08
Centre-right New Democracy 54.37 41.84 35.88 31.34 38.05 40.85 40.41 44.28 46.19
DIANA 1.36 1.00
Right-wing EDE 1.08
National Alignment 6.82
Progressive Party 1.69 1.96
Far-right EPEN 2.29 0.60 1.16 0.30

1990–2007[edit]

This period began with the fall of communist regimes in eastern Europe. It is characterized by the reinforcement of bipartisanship with the two main parties (New Democracy and PASOK) regularly polling over 80% of the vote between them, even reaching 86%.

Political position/
Ideology
Political Party 1990
Legislative
Elections
1993
Legislative
Elections
1994
European
Elections
1996
Legislative
Elections
1999
European
Elections
2000
Legislative
Elections
2004
Legislative
Elections
2004
European
Elections
2007
Legislative
Elections
% % % % % % % % %
Communist KKE 4.54 6.29 5.61 8.67 5.52 5.90 9.48 8.15
Left-wing SYN/SYRIZA 10.28 2.94 6.25 5.12 5.16 3.20 3.26 4.16 5.04
Centre-left PASOK 38.61 46.88 37.64 41.49 32.91 43.79 40.55 34.03 38.10
DIKKI 4.43 6.85 2.69 1.79
Ecologists Alternative Ecologists 0.77
Ecologist Greens 0.67 1.05
Centre Union of Centrists 0.23 1.19 0.70 0.82 0.34 0.26 0.56 0.29
Liberals The Liberals 1.62
Centre-right New Democracy 46.89 39.30 32.66 38.12 36.00 42.74 45.36 43.02 41.84
DIANA 0.67 2.79
Right-wing Political Spring 4.88 8.65 2.94 2.28
Far-right EPEN 0.14 0.78 0.24
Golden Dawn 0.11 0.07
LAOS 2.19 4.12 3.80

2009–2015[edit]

This period corresponds to Greek government-debt crisis, that changed dramatically the political stage. Early in the period, PASOK were able to capitalise on a loss of support for ND. However, by the early 2010s, PASOK were also attracting blame for their handling of the crisis, and the radical party SYRIZA became the largest party on the left. The position of the far-right was also strengthened in this period.

Political position/
Ideology
Political Party 2009
European
Elections
2009
Legislative
Elections
2012 May
Legislative
Elections
2012 June
Legislative
Elections
2014
European
Elections
2015 Jan.
Legislative
Elections
2015 Sept.
Legislative
Elections
2019
European
Elections
2019
Legislative
Elections
% % % % % % % % %
Communist KKE 8.35 7.54 8.48 4.50 6.11 5.47 5.55 5.33 5.30
ANTARSYA 0.43 0.36 1.19 0.33 0.72 0.64 0.85 0.64 0.41
Left Wing SYRIZA 4.70 4.60 16.79 26.89 26.57 36.34 35.46 23.78 31.53
Popular Unity 2.86 0.56 0.23
MeRA25 2.99 3.44
Course of Freedom 1.61 1.46
Centre-Left PASOK / (MC, OT, DC) 36.64 43.92 13.18 12.28 8.02 4.68 6.28 7.72 8.10
Democratic Left 6.11 6.25 1.20 0.49
Social Agreement 0.96
The River 6.60 6.05 4.09 1.51
KIDISO 2.46
Ecologist Ecologist Greens 3.49 2.53 2.93 0.88 0.90 0.87
Centre Union of Centrists 0.38 0.27 0.61 0.28 0.65 1.79 3.43 1.45 1.24
Teleia 1.77
Liberal Drassi 0.76 1.80
Recreate Greece 2.15 0.53 0.69 0.74
Democratic Alliance 2.55
Drassi/Recreate Greece 1.59 0.91
Greek European Citizens 1.40
Centre-Right New Democracy 32.29 33.48 18.85 29.66 22.72 27.81 28.10 33.13 39.85
Right Wing PAMME 1.27
Independent Greeks 10.62 7.51 3.46 4.75 3.69 0.80
UFP 1.04
Far Right LAOS 7.14 5.63 2.89 1.58 2.69 1.03 1.23
Golden Dawn 0.46 0.29 6.97 6.92 9.39 6.28 6.99 4.88 2.93
Greek Solution 4.18 3.70

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Country Comparison: Area". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 7 January 2013.
  2. ^ Απογραφή Πληθυσμού – Κατοικιών 2011. ΜΟΝΙΜΟΣ Πληθυσμός [Results of Population-Housing Census 2011 concerning the permanent population of the country] (PDF) (in Greek). 20 March 2014. Retrieved 25 October 2016.
  3. ^ "Announcement of the results of the 2011 Population Census for the Resident Population" (PDF). Hellenic Statistical Authority. 28 December 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 November 2013. Retrieved 24 August 2013.
  4. ^ a b c d "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". IMF. 20 October 2018.
  5. ^ "INCOME INEQUALITY: 2017 Survey on Income and Living Conditions (Income reference period 2016)" (PDF). Piraeus: Hellenic Statistical Authority. 22 June 2018. Retrieved 23 June 2018.
  6. ^ "Table 2. Human Development Index Trends, 1990-2017". Human Development Reports. New York: United Nations Development Programme. 14 September 2018. Retrieved 20 September 2018.
  7. ^ Ιορδάνογλου, Χρυσάφης Ι. (2002). Γερνώντας μαζί με την τρίτη ελληνική δημοκρατία. Εκδόσεις Παρατηρητής. ISBN 960-374-232-5.
  8. ^ Μαυρογένης, Γιώργος (2008). Πολιτική Επικοινωνία & ΜΜΕ (Κεφάλαιο 17: Πολιτική Επικοινωνία στην Τρίτη Ελληνική Δημοκρατία). Εκδόσεις Σταμούλη. ISBN 9789603517566.
  9. ^ "H ποιότητα στην Γ΄ Ελληνική Δημοκρατία". kathimerini.gr. Retrieved 29 January 2015.
  10. ^ "Η Μεταπολίτευση, μία σύντομη αποτίμηση". kathimerini.gr. Retrieved 29 January 2015.
  11. ^ "Τρίτη Ελληνική Δημοκρατία. Του Γ. Ρωμαίου". tvxs.gr. Retrieved 29 January 2015.