Third party officeholders in the United States

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

Third-party officeholders in the United States have been rare at any point of the country's existence thus-far. Although the current two-party system in the U.S., with the Republican Party and Democratic Party, started in 1856, many of the older parties still existed and had an influence. Therefore, this article includes any politician since the end of Reconstruction or since the 45th United States Congress.

These galleries and lists include anyone who at one time, while in office, was an independent or affiliated with a third party. They are listed from the first year they were in office as something other than a Republican or Democrat.

Since the end of Reconstruction, there have been a total of 30 U.S. Senators, 111 U.S. Representatives, and 28 Governors that weren't affiliated with a major party. There are now two U.S. Senators (King and Sanders), and four major city Mayors. Hundreds of third-party officeholders exist at the local level (including those in nonpartisan positions who are affiliated with a third-party), including 144 Libertarian Party members[1], 26 Constitution Party members,[2] and 139 Green Party members.[3]

U.S. Senators[edit]

Senator State Electoral history Years in office
as an Independent
Waitman T. Willey - Brady-Handy.jpg
Waitman T. Willey
Virginia Elected as an Unconditional Unionist in 1861 1861–1863
JCarlile.jpg
John S. Carlile
Virginia Elected as a Unionist in 1861 1861–1865
Hon. Garrett Davis, Ky - NARA - 528757.jpg
Garrett Davis
Kentucky Elected as a Unionist in 1861, switched to Democratic by 1867 1861–1872
RobWilson-Miss.jpg
Robert Wilson
Missouri Appointed as an Unconditional Unionist in 1862 1862–1863
John B. Henderson - Brady-Handy.jpg
John B. Henderson
Missouri Elected as an Unconditional Unionist in 1862, became a Republican by 1865 1862–1869
Thomas Holliday Hicks - photo portrait standing.jpg
Thomas Holliday Hicks
Maryland Elected as an Unconditional Unionist in 1862 1862–1865
Lemuel Jackson Bowden.jpg
Lemuel J. Bowden
Virginia Elected as a Unionist in 1863 1863–1864
Reverdy Johnson.jpg
Reverdy Johnson
Maryland Elected as a Unionist in 1863, switched to Democratic by 1865 1863–1868
Peter G. Van Winkle - Brady-Handy.jpg
Peter G. Van Winkle
West Virginia Elected as a Unionist in 1863, became a Republican by 1867 1863–1869
BGratzBrown.png
Benjamin Gratz Brown
Missouri Elected as an Unconditional Unionist in 1863, became a Republican by 1865 1863–1867
John A J Creswell Brady-Handy Photograph Collection.tif
John Creswell
Maryland Elected as an Unconditional Unionist in 1864 1865–1867
JSFowler.jpg
Joseph S. Fowler
Tennessee Elected as an Unconditional Unionist in 1866, became a Republican by 1867 1866–1871
Senator David T. Patterson.jpg
David T. Patterson
Tennessee Elected as a Unionist in 1866, became a Republican by 1867 1866–1869
Charles Sumner 1855 BPL-crop.jpg
Charles Sumner
Massachusetts Elected as Free Soil Democratic in 1851, became a Republican in 1855, then became a Liberal Republican in 1872 1851–1874
Morgan C. Hamilton - Brady-Handy.jpg
Morgan C. Hamilton
Texas Switched from Republican to Liberal Republican in 1872, switched back to Republican in 1875 1870–1877
Orris S. Ferry - Brady-Handy.jpg
Orris S. Ferry
Connecticut Elected as a Liberal Republican in 1872 1867–1875
Newton Booth - Brady-Handy.jpg
Newton Booth
California Elected as an Anti-Monopolist, served as an Ind. Republican 1875–1881
DDavis.jpg
David Davis
Illinois Elected as an Independent 1877–1883
William Mahone.jpg
William Mahone
Virginia Elected as a Readjuster 1881–1887
Harrison H. Riddleberger - Brady-Handy.jpg
Harrison H. Riddleberger
Virginia Elected as a Readjuster 1883–1889
William Alfred Peffer.jpg
William A. Peffer
Kansas Elected as a Populist 1891–1897
Marion Butler.jpg
Marion Butler
North Carolina Elected as a Populist 1895–1901
James Henderson Kyle.jpg
James H. Kyle
South Dakota Elected as a Populist 1891–1901
ALLEN, William Vincent.jpg
William V. Allen
Nebraska Elected as a Populist 1893–1901
William M. Stewart - Brady-Handy.jpg
William M. Stewart
Nevada Switched from Republican to Silver in 1893, then back to Republican in 1901 1887–1905
JohnPJones.jpg
John P. Jones
Nevada Switched from Republican to Silver in 1895, then back to Republican in 1901 1873–1903
Lee Mantle U.S. Senator from Montana (1895) by James Presley Ball (Detail).jpg
Lee Mantle
Montana Switched from Republican to Silver Republican in 1896 1895–1899
RichardFPettigrew.jpg
Richard F. Pettigrew
South Dakota Switched from Republican to Silver Republican in 1896 1889–1901
Frank J Cannon.jpg
Frank J. Cannon
Utah Switched from Republican to Silver Republican in 1896 1896–1899
Freddubois.jpg
Fred Dubois
Idaho Switched from Republican to Silver Republican in 1896 1891–1897
Henry Moore Teller.png
Henry Moore Teller
Colorado Switched from Republican to Silver Republican in 1896, then to Democratic in 1903 1876–1909
William Alexander Harris.jpg
William A. Harris
Kansas Elected as a Populist 1897–1903
Henry Heitfeld.jpg
Henry Heitfeld
Idaho Elected as a Populist 1897–1903
JosephMDixon.jpg
Joseph M. Dixon
Montana Switched from Republican to Progressive in 1912 1907–1913
MilesPoindexter.jpg
Miles Poindexter
Washington Switched from Republican to Progressive in 1912, switched back to Republican in 1915 1911–1923
Hshipstead.jpg
Henrik Shipstead
Minnesota Elected as Farmer-Labor, switched to Republican in 1940 1923–1947
Magnus Johnson.jpg
Magnus Johnson
Minnesota Elected as Farmer-Labor 1923–1925
RMLaFolletteJr.jpg
Robert M. La Follette
Wisconsin Switched from Republican to Progressive in 1934, then back to Republican in 1946 1925–1947
Elmer Austin Benson.jpg
Elmer Austin Benson
Minnesota Elected as Farmer-Labor 1935–1936
GeorgeWNorris.jpg
George W. Norris
Nebraska Switched from Republican to Independent in 1936 1913–1943
ErnestLundeen.jpg
Ernest Lundeen
Minnesota Elected as Farmer-Labor 1937–1940
John E. Miller.jpg
John E. Miller
Arkansas Elected as an Independent, served as Democratic 1937–1941
Wayne Morse.jpg
Wayne Morse
Oregon Switched from Republican to Independent in 1953, then to Democratic in 1955. 1945–1969
Hbyrdjr.jpg
Harry F. Byrd Jr.
Virginia Switched from Democratic to Independent in 1970 1965–1983
JamesLBuckley.jpg
James L. Buckley
New York Elected as a Conservative, lost re-election as a Republican in 1976 1971–1977
Robert C Smith.jpg
Bob Smith
New Hampshire Switched from Republican to Independent in 1999 but switched back to Republican in 2000 1990–2003
JeffordsJim(I-VT).jpg
Jim Jeffords
Vermont Switched from Republican to Independent in 2001 1989–2007
Dean Barkley.jpg
Dean Barkley
Minnesota Appointed for Independence Party of Minnesota 2002–2003
Bernie Sanders.jpg
Bernie Sanders
Vermont Elected as an Independent, switched to Democratic in 2015 but switched again back to Independent in 2016[4] 2007–Present
Joe Lieberman 2008.jpg
Joe Lieberman
Connecticut Re-elected on the Connecticut for Lieberman ticket after losing the 2006 Democratic nomination. 1989–2013
Angus King, official portrait, 113th Congress.jpg
Angus King
Maine Elected as an Independent 2013–Present

U.S. Representatives[edit]


Senator State Electoral history Years in office
as an Independent
Gregorio Kilili Camacho Sablan.jpg Gregorio Sablan Delegate from Northern Mariana Islands Elected as an Independent. 2009-Present

Governors[edit]

State legislatures[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Elected Officials – Libertarian Party". Retrieved 22 December 2016. 
  2. ^ "Current Office Holders". Constitution Party. 2014-10-29. Retrieved 2017-07-29. 
  3. ^ "Officeholder Members of the Green Party of the United States". Retrieved 22 December 2016. 
  4. ^ "Bernie Sanders Won't Become a Democrat, Will Run as an Independent in 2018". Retrieved 26 October 2017.