Thiriyai

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Thiriyai

තිරියාය
திரியாய்
Thiriyai is located in Sri Lanka
Thiriyai
Thiriyai
Coordinates: 8°52′13″N 81°0′27″E / 8.87028°N 81.00750°E / 8.87028; 81.00750
CountrySri Lanka
ProvinceEastern
DistrictTrincomalee
DS DivisionKuchchaveli
Government
 • TypeMunicipal Council
 • BodyTrincomalee
Population
(2012)
 • Total640
Time zoneSri Lanka Standard Time Zone

Thiriyai (Tamil: திரியாய், translit. Tiriyāy ,Sinhalese: තිරියාය, translit. Tiriyāya) is a small village in the eastern Trincomalee District of Sri Lanka. It is situated about 25 miles north of Trincomalee town through Nilaveli. The total population of the village is 640 at the 2012 census.[1]

Thiriyai is among the ancient Tamil villages of the district and was an international emporium with an old sea port which existed since at least 6th century BCE.[2][3]

Due to the ethnic conflict, most families fled the village and are now living elsewhere in the country or overseas. Several Tamil refugees returned to the village in the early 21st century during a ceasefire.

Etymology[edit]

The name Thiriyai is derived from the Tamil word thiri, meaning wick.[4]

History[edit]

Thiriyai was populated by ancient Naga tribe.[5] The place is referred to as Thalakori Emporium in the 2nd century AD map of the Greek geographer Ptolemy, which was an old sea port that existed from at least 6th century BCE.[6][3]

The Buddhist temple Girihandu Seya, an almost complete example of vatadage, is located close to this village.[7] The temple is supposed to be the first Buddhist Stupa in Sri Lanka.[8][9] Legends attribute the constructing of the temple by the Trapusa and Bahalika merchants of the 4th century BCE, bringing with them the hair relics of Gautama Buddha.[10][11] Scholars holds the view that Mahayana influenced seafaring merchants from the Pallava Kingdom were responsible for the construction of this temple.[12]

A 7th century AD inscription found in the Girihandu Seya temple, written in Sanskrit language with the South Indian Pallava Grantha script, indicates the presence of the Avalokiteśvara cult in Sri Lanka.[13] This inscription attributes with showing the influence of the Pallava dynasty in Sri Lanka and on the Sinhalese script.[14][15] The Mahayana images and Pallava sculptural styles indicates on the presence of South Indian artists.[16][17]

Sri Lankan Tamils refer to this place as Kandaswamy malai and venerate this place as the hill of Murugan.[18] Thiriyai has traditionally been connected with the Koneswaram temple in Trincomalee and the Kandaswamy malai hill is referred as Kanthathiri in the Tamil text Thiruppugazh.[19][2]

The Vaiya Paadal, a 17th-century Tamil historical text, refers to Cupatittu, a Brahmin, who ruled Thiriyai in the 15th century.[20] Thiriyai was part of Vanni Nadu and was once ruled by the Vanniar Chieftain, Neela Panikkan.[21] The hill known as Neelanpanikkan malai and the pond known as Neelanpanikkan kulam was named after him.[22] Ruins of his fortress is found on the hilltop.[23]

The area remained a Tamil village, although experienced settling of 72 Sinhalese families north of Thiriyai in the 1960s.[24] Killing of civilians in the 90s in Thiriyai attributed by the Sri Lanka Army and other ethnic tension lead to most family fleeing the area to India with boat, thereupon the area being nearly deserted.[25]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Census of Population and Housing 2012: Population by GN division and sex 2012" (PDF). Department of Census and Statistics, Sri Lanka. 2012. p. 185.
  2. ^ a b University Teachers for Human Rights(Jaffna) Sri Lanka: Human Rights Report
  3. ^ a b Fernando, A. Denis N. (1986). "ANCIENT MAPS OF SRI LANKA — as a Primary Source of Information for the Study of HUMAN SETTLEMENTS AND POLITICAL BOUNDARIES". Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society Sri Lanka Branch. 31: 104. JSTOR 23731039.
  4. ^ Lanka), University of Teachers for Human Rights (Jaffna, Sri (1993). A Sovereign will to self-destruct: the continuing sage of dislocation & disintegration. University Teachers for Human Rights, University of Jaffna. p. 45.
  5. ^ Society, Sri Lanka Branch of the Royal Asiatic (1986). Journal of the Sri Lanka Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. Royal Asiatic Society, Sri Lanka Branch. p. 104.
  6. ^ Pichard, Pierre; Lagirarde, François (2003-01-01). The Buddhist Monastery: A Cross-cultural Survey. PSL Research University: École française d'Extrême-Orient. p. 42. ISBN 9782855396262.
  7. ^ Department of Archaeology - Sri Lanka
  8. ^ "Girihandu Seya lit up after 27 years". The Daily Mirror (Sri Lanka). Wijeya Newspapers. 5 June 2012. Retrieved 15 January 2018.
  9. ^ "Girihadu Seya to be renovated". Independent Television Network. ITN news. 25 November 2017. Retrieved 15 January 2018.
  10. ^ "Girihanduseya Stupa -Dailynews".
  11. ^ "Uniqueness of Girihanduseya Temple". Daily News (Sri Lanka). Associated Newspapers of Ceylon Limited. 27 June 2002. Retrieved 15 January 2018.
  12. ^ Karthigesu Indrapala, . (2005). The evolution of an ethnic identity: the Tamils in Sri Lanka c. 300 BCE to c. 1200 CE. M.V. Publications for the South Asian Studies Centre, Sydney. ISBN 9780646425467.
  13. ^ Holt, John Clifford (1991-01-31). Buddha in the Crown: Avalokitesvara in the Buddhist Traditions of Sri Lanka. Oxford University Press. p. 69. ISBN 9780195362466.
  14. ^ Guṇasēkara, Bandusēna (1999-01-01). The Evolution of the Sinhalese Script from the 6th to the 10th Century. Godage Poth Mendura. p. 96. ISBN 9789552037139.
  15. ^ Tamil Culture, Volume 2-3. University of California: Tamil Literature Society, Academy of Tamil Culture. 1953.
  16. ^ Karthigesu Indrapala, . (2005). The evolution of an ethnic identity: the Tamils in Sri Lanka c. 300 BCE to c. 1200 CE. M.V. Publications for the South Asian Studies Centre, Sydney. p. 266. ISBN 9780646425467.
  17. ^ Prematilleka, Leelananda; Seneviatne, Sudharshan (1990). Perspectives in archaeology: Leelananda Prematilleke Festschrift, 1990. Dept. of Archaeology, University of Peradeniya.
  18. ^ Tamil Culture, Volume 2-3. University of California: Tamil Literature Society, Academy of Tamil Culture. 1953. p. 188.
  19. ^ Navaratnam, C. S. (1964). A Short History of Hinduism in Ceylon: And Three Essays on the Tamils. Sri Sammuganatha Press. p. 7.
  20. ^ "To Set Out In The Direction Of Redemption". Colombo Telegraph. 2015-10-09. Retrieved 2018-01-16.
  21. ^ The Ceylon Journal of the Humanities, Volume 1-2. University of Sri Lanka. 1970. p. 139.
  22. ^ Arumugam, Sanmugam (1969). Water Resources of Ceylon: Its Utilisation and Development. Water Resources Board.
  23. ^ Navaratnam, V. (1991). The fall and rise of the Tamil nation: events leading to the Tamil war of independence and resumption of Eelam sover[e]ignty. Kaanthalakam. p. 119.
  24. ^ Sabaratnam, T. (1996). The Murder of a Moderate: Political Biography of Appapillai Amirthalingam. Nivetha Publishers. p. 395.
  25. ^ Lanka), University of Teachers for Human Rights (Jaffna, Sri (1993). A Sovereign will to self-destruct: the continuing sage of dislocation & disintegration. University Teachers for Human Rights, University of Jaffna. p. 49.

2. Article and Pictures of Thiriyaya archaeological site [1],[2]

Coordinates: 8°52′13.28″N 81°00′26.74″E / 8.8703556°N 81.0074278°E / 8.8703556; 81.0074278