Thirsk

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Thirsk
Thirsk, Market Clock - geograph.org.uk - 1586607.jpg
Thirsk market place (November 2009)
Thirsk is located in North Yorkshire
Thirsk
Thirsk
Location within North Yorkshire
Population4,998 (2011 census)[1]
Built-up area9,953[2]
OS grid referenceSE429820
• London227 miles (365 km)
Civil parish
  • Thirsk
District
Shire county
Region
CountryEngland
Sovereign stateUnited Kingdom
Post townTHIRSK
Postcode districtYO7
Dialling code01845
PoliceNorth Yorkshire
FireNorth Yorkshire
AmbulanceYorkshire
UK Parliament
List of places
UK
England
Yorkshire
54°13′58″N 1°20′31″W / 54.232731°N 1.342050°W / 54.232731; -1.342050Coordinates: 54°13′58″N 1°20′31″W / 54.232731°N 1.342050°W / 54.232731; -1.342050

Thirsk is a market town and civil parish in the Hambleton district of North Yorkshire, England. Historically part of the North Riding of Yorkshire, it is 8 miles (13 km) south-south-east of the county town of Northallerton.

The town is well known for its racecourse; being depicted as Darrowby by local author, James Herriot, and quirky displays by its local yarnbombers.[3][4]

History[edit]

Archeological finds indicate that there was a settlement in Thirsk around 500–600 BC.[5] Its name is derived from the Old Norse word þresk meaning fen or lake.[6][7]

Thirsk is mentioned twice in the 1086 Domesday Book as Tresche, in the Yarlestre wapentake, a village with ten households. At the time of the Norman invasion, the manor was split between Orm and Thor, local Anglo-Saxon landowners. Afterwards, it was split between Hugh, son of Baldric and the Crown.[8]

House of Mowbray[edit]

Most of Thirsk was granted to a Robert from Montbray for whose descendant House of Mowbray the vale of Mowbray is named.[9][10]

By 1145, what is now Old Thirsk, gained a Market charter (giving it town and borough status). The remaining land in the parish was still under manorial rights.

The Mowbrays built a castle on the north side of Castlegate. It is not mentioned in the Domesday Book and an exact date is not recorded with the castle known to be completely destroyed by 1176 after the uprising against Henry II.

William de Mowbray, 6th Baron of Thirsk, 4th Baron Mowbray, was one of the 25 executors of the Magna Carta in 1215.[11] The Mowbrays built a manor house on the old castle site, this was destroyed by the Scots in 1322.[9][10] The manor itself continued to be in the Mowbrays possession, despite several claims, until the death of the 16th Lord Mowbray in 1476.

Berkeley and Derby[edit]

After the War of the Roses, Henry VII raised taxes, and that caused uprisings in the north. This led to the murder of Henry Percy, 4th Earl of Northumberland, allegedly on The Little Green, when he was sent to collect the taxes. However, other evidence points to the murder occurring in nearby South Kilvington.[12]

With no direct succession, the daughter of Thomas de Mowbray, 1st Duke of Norfolk inherited the manor, who had married into the Berkeley family. Her son William de Berkeley, 1st Marquess of Berkeley inherited it on her death. For some years, the manor was held by "Thomas Stanley Earl of Derby, whose successors held it after the death of William Lord de Berkeley until 1723".

Bell, Industrial Revolution and modern[edit]

In that year, it was sold by James Earl of Derby to Ralph Bell (MP) of Sowerby, "whose descendants thereafter held the manor".[13] It remained in the Bell family into the 20th century.[9][10][14]

Thirsk Hall in Kirkgate is a grade II* listed three-storey town house built in 1720 and extended in 1770 by York architect John Carr.[15]

A 1767 Act of Parliament[16] provided for building a navigable waterway to the town from the River Swale along Cod Beck. The project ran out of funds and was never completed, although remains can be seen of the wharf and a lock near Lock Bridge.[9][17] The Thirsk Poor Law Union was formed in 1837 and covered a large part of the North Riding of Yorkshire. A workhouse was erected in Sutton Road in 1838.[10]

A rail crash occurred at Manor House signal box on 2 November 1892, on the North Eastern Railway about 3 miles (4.8 km) north of Thirsk railway station, when an express train collided with the back of a goods train, both heading south in fog. There were 10 people killed and 43 injured.[18] Another took place on 31 July 1967 on the East Coast Main Line. On that occasion an express train travelling north collided with a derailed freight train. Seven people were killed and 45 injured.[19]

Governance[edit]

Thirsk has been in the Thirsk and Malton Parliamentary constituency since its creation for the 2010 general election. Kevin Hollinrake was elected MP at the 2015 UK general election.[20]

The town was a parliamentary borough that had representation in 1295 and then from 1547 to 1885. For the majority of the latter period, it was represented by two members until 1882 when it was reduced to one member.[21]

The constituency of Thirsk and Malton was originally created for the 1885 General Elections by the Redistribution of Seats Act of 1885 and existed until 1983. During that period it returned six Conservative party members to parliament, which included one by-election in 1915.[22]

The Civil Parish of Thirsk was created by the Local Government Act 1894. The Local Government Act 1972 afforded Parish Councils the opportunity to change titles. Thirsk renamed itself a Town Council. In so doing, the Chairman was also renamed as Mayor. The council is represented by eleven Councillors.[23][24] The town council meets at Thirsk and Sowerby Town Hall.[25]

Geography[edit]

Cod Beck Weir, Thirsk

The town lies in the Vale of Mowbray, 24 miles (39 km) north of York. Cod Beck runs through the centre of Thirsk and the area to the east of the river is called Old Thirsk.

Thirsk is surrounded by a number of other villages having names of Danish origin (the -by suffix meaning village or farmstead). Examples are Thirlby, Boltby, Borrowby and Sowerby.

The built up area of Sowerby abuts that of Thirsk but they are separate parishes.

Demography[edit]

The 1881 UK Census recorded the population of the parish as 3,337.[10]

The parish had a population of 4,703 according to the 2001 Census.[26]

The 2011 UK Census recorded the population as 4,998, an increase of 33% over the past 120 years, with a density of 3.9 people per hectare. Of the total population, 48.9% were male and 51.1% were female. The ethnic make up of the town was 94.3% White British, 3.0% Other White, 0.9% Asian British and 0.2% Black/Mixed and other Ethnic Groups. The religious composition of the town was 71.7% Christian, 27.4% None or no religion stated, 0.3% Muslim, 0.2% Buddhist, 0.1% Hindu, 0.1% Jewish and 0.0% Sikh.[1]

Economy[edit]

Thirsk has many facilities for tourists

Thirsk's medieval market place in the town centre hosts an open-air market each Monday and Saturday. The market was established in 1145 and remains a focal point for traders and visitors. Tourism and hospitality are major parts of the town's economy.[27]

Severfield plc based on nearby former RAF Dalton, and VetUK are significant employers in the area.[28][29]

The Herriot Museum, June 2018

Thirsk has a livestock auction market to the south-east of the town.[30]

The town had a reputation for its leather tanning and saddlery trade, but by the 19th century was better known for the production of agricultural implements.[10]

Culture[edit]

Ritz Cinema, June 2018

Thirsk Museum is operated by a team of volunteers in the house where Thomas Lord was born.[31]

Ritz Cinema opened in 1912 and may be one of Britain's oldest operating cinemas.[32]

Thirsk Museum

The town's former courthouse has been an arts space since 1992.[33]

The World of James Herriot is a visitor attraction in the former home and veterinary surgery of author James Herriot.[34][35]

Transport[edit]

Thirsk Station

Thirsk railway station is 22.25 miles (36 km) north of York on the East Coast Main Line and situated 1.5 miles (2 km) from the centre of Thirsk, in Carlton Miniott.[citation needed]

National Express Coaches as well as bus services for York, Ripon, Northallerton and local villages stop in Thirsk market place.[citation needed]

The A61, passes through Thirsk market place. Since 1972 the A19 has bypassed Thirsk to the east of the town.[citation needed]

Education[edit]

The town has many primary schools, Thirsk Community Primary, the others being in adjoining Sowerby and All Saints RC Primary School. It is within the catchment area of Thirsk School and Sixth Form College for secondary education. The current primary school was opened in 1979 with an extension added in 1991 to house extra classrooms, nursery section and medical facilities. Due to rises in the school population, some temporary build classrooms have also been erected on site.[36] It is a mixed gender school catering for pupils between the ages of 3 and 11. It has a student capacity of 315 and as of 2013 was at 90.5% of that.[37]

Religion[edit]

Chapel on St James Green in Thirsk

St Mary's Church is a Grade I listed, 15th-century church. There are gouges created by sharpening arrows and knives in the porch, and by the altar in the chancel.[38][39]

The Friends Meeting House on Kirkgate that has been on that site since at least 1799.[10]

In 1861 the Wesleyan Chapel on St James' Green was built.[10]

A Roman Catholic Church dedicated to All Saints was built in 1867 on Castlegate.[10]

Sport[edit]

Horse racing[edit]

Thirsk Racecourse is a thoroughbred horse racing venue consisting of a left handed oval of about one mile and two furlongs. The present course opened in 1923, but racing had taken place on the old course at nearby Black Hambleton over 200 years earlier. The racecourse serves flat racing in the spring and summer months.[40][41]

Athletic Club[edit]

Thirsk Cricket Club was founded in 1851 and play in the middle of Thirsk Racecourse. The club was a founder member of the York & District League in which they still compete.[42]

Thirsk Hockey Club have been affiliated to the Yorkshire Hockey Association since 1923. Until Thirsk School laid a floodlit, artificial pitch they played on grass pitches on the out field of the Cricket Club. They still share the Cricket Clubhouse for social facilities.[43]

Football[edit]

Thirsk Falcons FC compete in the Teesside Football League, which is at the 13th level of the English football league system.[citation needed]

Rugby[edit]

Thirsk RUFC is a Rugby Union Club which competes in the Yorkshire Division 4 North West league.[citation needed]

Cycling[edit]

Thirsk was on the route of the Tour de Yorkshire in 2016 and 2018.[44][45]

People[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b UK Census (2011). "Local Area Report – Thirsk Parish (1170216940)". Nomis. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 9 April 2018.
  2. ^ UK Census (2011). "Local Area Report – Thirsk Built-up area (1119881421)". Nomis. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 10 January 2019.
  3. ^ "Thirsk & Sowerby North Yorkshire". www.thirsk.org.uk. Archived from the original on 2 February 2022. Retrieved 17 July 2022.
  4. ^ Fox, Alexa (20 December 2020). "Thirsk Yarbombers are knitting the community together with creativity". The Northern Echo. Archived from the original on 10 November 2021. Retrieved 18 July 2022.
  5. ^ "Local History". Visit Thirsk. Archived from the original on 25 February 2013. Retrieved 14 February 2013.
  6. ^ Watts (2011). Cambridge Dictionary of English Place-names. Cambridge University Press. p. 608. ISBN 978-0521168557.
  7. ^ Mills, A. D. (1998). Dictionary of English Place-Names. Oxford Paperbacks. p. 457. ISBN 978-0192800749.
  8. ^ Thirsk in the Domesday Book. Retrieved 14 February 2013.
  9. ^ a b c d Page, William, ed. (1923). "Parishes: Thirsk". Victoria County History: A History of the County of York North Riding: Volume 2. Institute of Historical Research. Archived from the original on 7 February 2013. Retrieved 14 February 2013 – via British History Online.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i Bulmer's Topography, History and Directory (Private and Commercial) of North Yorkshire 1890. S&N Publishing. 1890. pp. 816–831. ISBN 1-86150-299-0.
  11. ^ "A look at the rich history of Thirsk". Great British Life. 9 August 2015. Archived from the original on 17 July 2022. Retrieved 9 March 2021.
  12. ^ "Yorkshire Rebellion". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. 2004. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/21935. Archived from the original on 17 July 2022. Retrieved 14 February 2013. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  13. ^ "Thirsk – Encyclopedia". theodora.com. Archived from the original on 12 August 2020. Retrieved 9 March 2021.
  14. ^ "Parishes: Thirsk". British History Online. Archived from the original on 27 January 2022. Retrieved 17 July 2022.
  15. ^ Historic England. "Thirsk Hall (1151319)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 11 December 2013.
  16. ^ "House of Lords Journal Volume 31 April 1767, 21–30". Archived from the original on 22 September 2013. Retrieved 23 September 2013.
  17. ^ "Thirsk History Walks". Thirsk Past and Present. Archived from the original on 27 September 2013. Retrieved 14 February 2013.
  18. ^ Rolt, L. T. C. (1978). Red for danger. Pan. ISBN 0-330-25555-X.
  19. ^ Ministry of Transport; McMullen, Col. D. (1968). Railway accident: Report on the Derailment and subsequent Collision that occurred on 31st July, 1967, at Thirsk in the Eastern Region British Railways (PDF). London: H.M.S.O. ISBN 0-11-550036-7. Archived (PDF) from the original on 28 September 2013. Retrieved 14 February 2013 – via Railways Archive.
  20. ^ "Thirsk & Malton Parliamentary constituency". Election 2015 – BBC News. 2015. Archived from the original on 13 May 2015. Retrieved 13 May 2015.
  21. ^ Cobbett's Parliamentary history of England, from the Norman Conquest in 1066 to the year 1803. London: Thomas Hansard. 1808. Archived from the original on 4 September 2015. Retrieved 13 February 2013 – via Oxford Digital Library.
  22. ^ a b Leigh Rayment's Historical List of MPs – Constituencies beginning with "T" (part 1)
  23. ^ "County & District Coucillors". Thirsk Town Council. Archived from the original on 19 November 2012. Retrieved 13 February 2013.
  24. ^ "Town Council". Thirsk Town Council. Archived from the original on 10 January 2013. Retrieved 13 February 2013.
  25. ^ "Meeting Dates". Thirsk Town Council. Archived from the original on 6 March 2022. Retrieved 6 March 2022.
  26. ^ UK Census (2001). "Local Area Report – Thirsk Parish (36UC152)". Nomis. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 17 July 2022.
  27. ^ "A look at the rich history of Thirsk". Great British Life. 9 August 2015. Archived from the original on 17 July 2022. Retrieved 17 July 2022.
  28. ^ "GMB – Ripon – Thirsk – About Us". GMB. Archived from the original on 16 April 2021. Retrieved 26 April 2022.
  29. ^ "Putting vets on the internet". The York Press. 21 October 2011. Archived from the original on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 9 May 2014.
  30. ^ "Thirsk makes debut with Christmas show". The Yorkshire Post. 23 November 2019. Archived from the original on 17 July 2022. Retrieved 17 July 2022.
  31. ^ "Thirsk Museum". Thirsk Museum. Archived from the original on 19 July 2013. Retrieved 14 February 2013.
  32. ^ "Ritz Cinema". Ritz Cinema. Archived from the original on 27 April 2015. Retrieved 14 February 2013.
  33. ^ "Rural Arts – arts for everyone!". www.ruralarts.org. Archived from the original on 18 July 2022. Retrieved 3 July 2018.
  34. ^ "Herriot centre has reached landmark". Gazette Live. 2 August 2006. Archived from the original on 18 July 2022. Retrieved 18 July 2022.
  35. ^ "World of James Herriot, an Attraction in Thirsk, North Yorkshire". www.information-britain.co.uk. Archived from the original on 17 July 2022. Retrieved 17 July 2022.
  36. ^ "School Propectus" (PDF). Thirsk Community Primary School. 2012. Retrieved 22 February 2013.[permanent dead link]
  37. ^ "Inspection Report". Ofsted. 2012. Archived from the original on 17 July 2022. Retrieved 22 February 2013.
  38. ^ Historic England. "Church of St Mary (1314935)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 17 July 2022.
  39. ^ Marsden, Alan (3 November 2021). "Arrow Marks". Salem Chapel, Martin Top. Archived from the original on 22 August 2022. Retrieved 22 August 2022.
  40. ^ Halpenny, Marion Rose (1971). British Racing and Racecourses. Holmes & Son. p. 227. ISBN 978-0950139722.
  41. ^ "Hambleton Racecourse". Greyhound Derby. Retrieved 21 October 2022.
  42. ^ "Cricket Club History". Thirsk Cricket Club. Archived from the original on 10 June 2013. Retrieved 14 February 2013.
  43. ^ "Hockey Club". Thirsk Hockey Club. Archived from the original on 30 December 2012. Retrieved 14 February 2013.
  44. ^ "Tour de Yorkshire 2016 route announced". BBC Sport. BBC. 9 December 2015. Archived from the original on 4 October 2018. Retrieved 18 July 2018.
  45. ^ "Tour de Yorkshire". North Yorkshire County Council. 5 February 2018. Archived from the original on 3 July 2018. Retrieved 3 July 2018.
  46. ^ Davies, Owen (2004). "Bateman, Mary (1768–1809)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/56653. Retrieved 9 May 2010. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  47. ^ "All the top nobs hob-nob round here". York Press. 12 December 2003. Archived from the original on 17 July 2022. Retrieved 17 July 2022.
  48. ^ "Thomas Lord". ESPNcricinfo. Archived from the original on 26 February 2021. Retrieved 4 January 2021.
  49. ^ "Keith Robinson". ESPNcricinfo. Archived from the original on 12 July 2020. Retrieved 4 January 2021.
  50. ^ Shaw, Megan (2 May 2021). "Love Island star Georgia Steel shares peek at 'dream home' in York". YorkshireLive. Archived from the original on 17 July 2022. Retrieved 17 July 2022.
  51. ^ "World of James Herriot – World of James Herriot". www.worldofjamesherriot.org. Archived from the original on 19 July 2011. Retrieved 3 July 2018.
  52. ^ "All about Thirsk – Thirsk Tourist Information". www.visit-thirsk.com. Archived from the original on 2 March 2021. Retrieved 3 July 2018.

External links[edit]