Tiruvalla

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Tiruvalla
തിരുവല്ല / തിരുവല്ലാ
Municipal City
Thiruvalla town
Thiruvalla town
Tiruvalla is located in Kerala
Tiruvalla
Tiruvalla
Location in Kerala, India
Coordinates: 9°23′06″N 76°34′30″E / 9.385°N 76.575°E / 9.385; 76.575Coordinates: 9°23′06″N 76°34′30″E / 9.385°N 76.575°E / 9.385; 76.575
Country  India
State Kerala
District Pathanamthitta
Population (2011)[1]
 • Total 52,883
Languages
 • Official

Malayalam, English

Literacy = 98.5%
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 689101
Telephone code 91-469
Vehicle registration KL-27
Nearest Airport Cochin International Airport Limited
Website www.thiruvalla.co.in

Tiruvalla (alternately spelled Thiruvalla, Malayalam: തിരുവല്ല or തിരുവല്ലാ, Hindi: तिरुवल्ला, Sanskrit: श्रीवल्लभपुरम्) is a city and also the headquarters of the Taluk of same name located in Pathanamthitta district in the State of Kerala in South India. The city is spread over an area of 27.94 km2; it is the biggest commercial centre in the district of Pathanamthitta. It lies on the banks of the rivers Manimala and Pamba, and is a land-locked region surrounded by irrigating streams and rivers.

Tiruvalla is regarded as the "cultural capital of Central Travancore", and also called "Land of non resident Indians".[2]

Demographics[edit]

The city spans a geographic area of 27.94 km² with a population of 56,828 as of 2001.[3] Males constitute 48% of the population and females 52%. In Tiruvalla, 10% of the population is under 6 years of age. Tiruvalla has a large Non-Resident Indian Community.

Location[edit]

Tiruvalla is on the western border of Pathanamthitta district. The municipal town limits are Thirumoolapuram, Kattod, Kaviyoor, Kuttoor, Kuttapuzha, Mepral and Chathenkary. Formerly, some areas of present Changanacherry were parts of Tiruvalla taluk. Now the boundaries of the taluk are Varattar Bridge in the south, Parumala in the south west, Lappalam in the north, Pullad in the east and Neerattupuram in the west, situated in Alappuzha district. Pullad is the last point of Tiruvalla in the east, and it is in the Koipuram panchayat. Kollam, Thiruvananthapuram and Kochi are the nearest major cities.

Tiruvalla is located at the meeting point of M C Road (Main Central Road/SH-01), the NH-220 and TK Road (Thiruvalla-Kumbazha Road) (Tiruvalla-Pathanamthitta-Kumbazha Road/SH-07/State Highway 7 (Kerala)); it links the eastern parts of the district with the western rice bowl of 'Kuttanad'. The Tiruvalla-Kayamkulam road is the most used link between the National Highway and the M C Road. Tiruvalla also connects to NH-47 through the Thakazhi-Ambalappuzha Link.

Transport[edit]

Road[edit]

Kerala State Road Transport Corporation has a depot at Tiruvalla (station code: TVLA) which is one among the 29 major depots in the state. KSRTC operates long distance and interstate bus services from the Tiruvalla depot. KSRTC operates daily Interstate Airbus service to Bangalore from Tiruvalla. KSRTC is currently constructing a Bus Terminal and multi-functional shopping complex in Tiruvalla as part of its modernisation. Private buses are operated from a Municipal Private Bus stand to various places such as: Mallappally, Kozhencherry, Ranni, Perunad, Manimala, Kottayam, Kayamkulam, Haripad, Mavelikkara, Ochira, Karunagapally, Thrikkunnapuzha, AayiramThengu, Kundara, Seethathodu, Chunkappara, Mundakkayam, Changanassery, and Chengannur. Thiruvalla KSRTC is the biggest depot in the district.

Rail[edit]

Main article : Tiruvalla Railway station

Tiruvalla railway station (station code: TRVL) is the sole railway station in Pathanamthitta district. The station is in the "Class A" category under the Trivandrum railway division. Tiruvalla railway station lies in Tiruvalla city, between the Chengannur railway station and Kottayam railway station in the Ernakulam - Kottayam - Kayankulam railway line. Tiruvalla is one of the old computerised stations of Kerala. It is a major railway station, and rail connects Tiruvalla with most of the major cities of India, like Bikaner, Bhopal, Bangalore, New Delhi, Chennai, Kolkata (Howrah), Guwahati, Rajkot, Ahmedabad, Hyderabad, and Mumbai.

Airport[edit]

The nearest airports are Cochin International Airport (105 km) and Trivandrum airport (126 km). The proposed rural Aranmula International Airport would be the closest airport upon completion, at 18 km away. Air India has a reservation office at Tiruvalla, the only one in the whole district.

Etymology[edit]

Traditionally, the name is taken to derive from the words Thiru Valla Vaay, the city being named after the river Manimala which was known as Vallayar. Tiruvalla was the mouth of the river Manimala and hence was known as Valla Vai(vai in old Malayalam means mouth [of a river]).[4] Another theory is that Thiruvallabha Puram (Land of Vallabhan, from Sree Vallabha, name of the presiding deity of the Tiruvalla Temple, the husband of Lakshmi Devi) became Tiruvalla.[4]

The Sanskrit name for Tiruvalla in texts such as "श्रीवल्लभ क्षेत्र माहात्म्यम्" (ശ്രീവല്ലഭ ക്ഷേത്ര മാഹാത്മ്യം, śrīvallabha kṣētra māhātmyaṁ,a 10th-century work) is "श्रीवल्लभपुरम्" (ശ്രീവല്ലഭപുരം)(śrīvallabhapuraṁ).[4]

Geography and climate[edit]

Tiruvalla city area lies at an altitude of 21 m above sea level, on the basin of the rivers Pamba and Manimala. Tiruvalla is dotted with several natural canal streams (called "thodu" in Malayalam) like Chanthathodu, Manippuzha, Mullelithodu, and several others. The city area has riverine alluvial soil, and eastern parts have a laterite loam kind of soil classified under "Southern Midlands" agro-ecological zone, while the western suburbs like Niranam have a more sandy type of soil that resembles beaches. (Kuttanad agro-ecological zone)[5] The reason for this is believed to be the older status of Niranam as a port, before reclamation of Kuttanad from the sea occurred. The Upper Kuttanad region in Tiruvalla has the "Karappadam" type of soil, which is clay loam in texture, has high organic matter, and is situated in areas about 1–2 m above sea level.[5]

The climate of Tiruvalla is tropical. There is significant rainfall in most months of the year. The short dry season has little effect on the overall climate. The Köppen-Geiger climate classification is Am. The temperature here averages 27.3 °C. In a year, the average rainfall is 2975 mm.[6]

Climate data for Tiruvalla
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 31.3
(88.3)
31.7
(89.1)
32.7
(90.9)
32.7
(90.9)
32
(90)
29.8
(85.6)
29.8
(85.6)
29.8
(85.6)
30
(86)
30
(86)
30
(86)
30.7
(87.3)
30.88
(87.61)
Average low °C (°F) 22.5
(72.5)
23.4
(74.1)
24.7
(76.5)
25.4
(77.7)
25
(77)
23.9
(75)
23.9
(75)
23.8
(74.8)
24
(75)
23.8
(74.8)
23.5
(74.3)
22.6
(72.7)
23.88
(74.95)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 22
(0.87)
35
(1.38)
60
(2.36)
155
(6.1)
320
(12.6)
596
(23.46)
542
(21.34)
372
(14.65)
284
(11.18)
326
(12.83)
210
(8.27)
54
(2.13)
2,976
(117.17)
Source: http://en.climate-data.org/location/59916

At an average temperature of 29.0 °C, April is the hottest month of the year. July has the lowest average temperature of the year. It is 26.4 °C. Between the driest and wettest months, the difference in precipitation is 574 mm. Precipitation is the lowest in January, with an average of 22 mm. With an average of 596 mm, the most precipitation falls in June.[6]

Due to proximity to the equator, Tiruvalla has very little variation in average temperature. During the year, the average temperatures vary by 2.6 °C.[6]

Tiruvalla has two monsoon seasons, the "Advancing monsoon season" during June through September, which is fed by the Southwest monsoon and the "retreating monsoon season", during October to December by the Northwest monsoon. Tiruvalla lies on the windward side of the western ghats, and thus receives maximum rainfall during the "advancing monsoon" season.

History[edit]

This article is primarily about the history of the settlements in areas of present city around the temple, known historically as Tiruvalla. For the history of the places in Tiruvalla, also refer : History of Niranam, History of Koipuram, History of Kumbanad, History of Kavumbhagom.

Ancient period[edit]

There is evidence to suggest that the area had been inhabited since 500 BCE, although an organized settlement only began around 800 CE. The present day areas of Niranam and Kadapra on the western part of Tiruvalla were submerged under the sea before then.[4] It is one of the 64 ancient Brahmin settlements (brahmana graamams, ബ്രാഹ്മണഗ്രാമം).

Stone axes from the Neolithic Age have been reported from Tiruvalla.[7] Ptolemy mentions the Baris river, the present "Pamba" river near the city.[8]

Tiruvalla was also an important commercial centre with the Niranam port, which is described by Pliny as "Nelcynda".[9] In this light, the "Bacare" could have been modern "Purakkad". The fact that modern western Tiruvalla contains the coastal kind of sand, and several sea shells in the soil despite being land-locked, is evidence that prior to the reclamation of Kuttanad from sea, Niranam and the whole western Tiruvalla could have been a coastal area.[4]

Growth to the feudal period[edit]

Up to the beginning of the 10th century CE, Ays were the dominant powers in Kerala. The Ay kings ruled from Tiruvalla in North to Nagercoil in South. Ptolemy mentions this as from Baris (Pamba river) to Cape Comorin "Aioi" (Kanyakumari).[8] From the 12th century there are copper plates, voluminous records of the social life around the temple of Tiruvalla.[8] The Tiruvalla temple had a large Vedic learning school (comparable to a university), "Tiruvalla salai", which was one of the foremost learning centres in Kerala.[10] The Tiruvalla salai was one of the richest among the Vedic schools of Kerala, and according to the copper plates the pupils of the school were fed with 350 nazhis of paddy every day,[10] which shows the large size of the student population. Tiruvalla held an eminent position among the spiritual and educational centres in ancient times. The Sri Vallabha Temple was one of the wealthiest temples of ancient Kerala, as is evident from the inscriptions in the plates. The part of the temple land required to 'feed the Brahmins' required 2.1 million litres of rice seeds, and the "maintenance of the eternal lamps" required more than 340,000 litres of paddy seed capacity.[11] Due to the length, the antiquity and the nature of the language of the Tiruvalla copper plates, they form the "First book in Malayalam", according to Elamkulam.[12]

Significant contributions to the language and social system came out in this age. The first people to translate Ramayana into (a precursor or relative of) Malayalam were the Niranam poets (Kannassas) who lived in Tiruvalla Niranam in 14th century CE. The Namboothiris enjoyed a very exalted status in this period, and Tiruvalla was one of the great settlements, wealthy and educated in the age.

Medieval period[edit]

Tiruvalla copper plates

The rulers of Tiruvalla now belonged to the Thekkumkoor Dynasty, which had one of its headquarters at Idathil near Kaavil Temple. Idathil (Vempolinadu Edathil Karthavu)[13] was the family name of the Thekkumkoor kings. Today's Paliakara Palace is a branch of Lakshmipuram Palace of Changanacherry, which is a branch of Alikottu Kovilakam of Pazhancherry in Malabar. Similarly, Nedumpuram Palace is a branch of Mavelikkara Palace is an heir to the Kolathiri tradition of Udayamangalam. The Thekkumkoor kings lost their control in the course of time, and Vilakkili (വിലക്കിലി) Nampoothiris were rulers in 1752-53 when Anizham Thirunal Marthanda Varma, the king of Travancore, seized the city in a bloody battle in which its ruler was killed according to some accounts; others say the surrender was peaceful as the Namboothiris were not naive enough to challenge the mighty army of Ramayyan, the shrewd and sadistic head of Travancore's administration.[4] The ruins of Vilakkili illam can be seen on the side of Kavmbhagom-Muthoor road.

The Kaavil market, which is no longer in existence, was once one of the most famous markets of Kerala, involved in foreign trade. Even now, the houses in this street are known as "Kaavil" among residents, and the houses in the area which is now Pushpagiri-Thukalassery are known as "Malayil" because they are in an elevated area compared to Kaavil. The Kaavil market was actually situated in the street starting from Erankavu Temple to the Kaavil temple in the present Kavumbhagom. It was also the first settlement area of the early Christians in Tiruvalla. The renowned Poem "Unnuneeli Sandesham" discusses this then famous street and its people. This was the heartland of Tiruvalla up to the 19th century. (East to MC road was forest area. Dens were found in the KSRTC garage area, which are now buried.)[citation needed] The first school in Tiruvalla started sometime in mid 19th century in Kaavil market, along the road to Pallippalam. Still, major religious processions are required to pass through this way, even though new roads have been constructed in parallel.

Tiruvalla Christians were part of the autonomous Indian Syrian Church, which was not affected by the schism which occurred in the 17th century due to the intervention of Portuguese colonists. By 19th century, inspired by the work of the British missionaries, a reformation movement happened which eventually resulted in a schism, leading to the formation of Marthoma Church.

Modern period[edit]

Tiruvalla was never under direct British rule, and before India's independence from Britain, it was governed by the Travancore dynasty. The Tiruvalla municipality started functioning in 1919, with Shri M.K. Kesavan Nair as the first Chairman of the Municipal Council. The constitution was officially approved on 8 October 1920. The municipal office has established several public health facilities, libraries and sports facilities.

Education[edit]

The Tiruvalla has been an active centre of education since the age of "Tiruvalla sala" from 11th century onwards. The first higher secondary school in Tiruvalla is the Mar Gregorious Memorial school, opened in 1902. Also, the oldest residential school for girls in Kerala, the Balikamadom is also more than a century old in Tiruvalla. The first English education school in Travancore was at Tiruvalla C.M.S school.

Mar Thoma college, Kuttappuzha, Tiruvalla - 3.

One of the most famous colleges in Tiruvalla is the Mar Thoma College. It was established on 1952.

Some of the schools and colleges in Tiruvalla are :

  • Amalloor E.A.L.P School, Manjadi, Thiruvalla
  • AMM Bible College, Meenthalakara, Tiruvalla
  • AMM HS, othera
  • Amrita Vidalayam, Thukalassery, Tiruvalla
  • Aptech Aviation Academy, Tiruvalla
  • B.A.M. College, Thuruthicaud, Tiruvalla
  • Balabhavan LP School, Manipuzha, Tiruvalla
  • Balikamadom Girls Higher Secondary School, Tirumoolapuram, Tiruvalla
  • Believers Church Residential School, Kuttapuzha, Tiruvalla
  • The Choice School, Tiruvalla
  • Christ Central School, Muthoor Jn, Tiruvalla
  • CMS High School, Mundiappally
  • CMS High School, Tiruvalla
  • College of Optometry, Eye Microsurgery and Laser Center, Tiruvalla
  • DB Higher Secondary School, Kavumbhagom, Tiruvalla
  • E.A.L.P School, Othera
  • Government Girls High School, Tiruvalla
  • Government LP School, Kavumbhagom, Tiruvalla
  • KSG Higher Secondary School Kadapra, Tiruvalla
  • Mar Athanasios College for Advanced Studies (MACFAST), Tiruvalla
  • Mar Thoma Academy (near TMM Hospital), Tiruvalla
  • Mar Thoma College, Kuttapuzha, Tiruvalla
  • Marthoma Residential School, Kuttapuzha, Tiruvalla
  • MGM Higher Secondary School, Tiruvalla (established in 1903 by Hg Mar Gregorious (Parumala Thirumeni))
  • Mulamoottil International Business School (MIBS), Tiruvalla
  • Nazareth College of Pharmacy, Othera, Tiruvalla
  • Nicholson Syrian Girls Higher Secondary School, Meenthalakara, Tiruvalla
  • NSS High School, Muthoor Jn, Tiruvalla
  • Pamba DB College, Parumala, Tiruvalla
  • Parumala mar Gregorious College Valanjavalttom, Tiruvalla
  • Prince Marthanda Varma Higher Secondary School, Peringara, Tiruvalla
  • Prince Marthandavarma College, Peringara, Tiruvalla
  • Pushpagiri Pharmacy College, Tiruvalla
  • Salvation Army School, Tiruvalla
  • Seventh day Adventist higher secondary school, Kuttapuzha, Tiruvalla.
  • SNVS High School, Tirumoolapuram, Tiruvalla
  • Sree Sankara Vidyapeedom, Peringol, Tiruvalla
  • SS Academy of Management and Science (SSMS), Thiruvalla
  • SSKG & UP School, Meenthalakara, Tiruvalla
  • St. Mary's Central School, Othera
  • St. Mary's Residential Central School, Paliakara, Tiruvalla
  • St. Mary's College for Women, Tiruvalla
  • St. Thomas Higher Secondary School, Thirumoolapuram, Tiruvalla
  • Stella Maris Residential Central School, Valanjavattom, Tiruvalla
  • Sudarshanam School of Ayurveda Nursing & Panchakarma(SSA), Thymala, Manjadi
  • Syrian Christian Seminary (SCS) Higher Secondary School, Tiruvalla
  • Syrian Jacobite Public School, Tiruvalla
  • T.M.M. College of Nursing, Tiruvalla
  • Titus-2 Teachers Training College, SCS Campus, Tiruvalla
  • Sankaramangalam Public School, Kaviyoor, Thiruvalla
  • Sankaramangalam Training College, Thiruvalla
  • Law College, Thiruvalla central university
  • SN College, Othera
  • MG university off campus, Kaviyoor, Thiruvalla

An engineering college, which is government-controlled and self-financing, managed by Cochin University, is at Kallooppara: the College of Engineering Kallooppara.

There are two private-sector medical colleges in Tiruvalla: the Pushpagiri medical college and the Believers Church medical college. These are the only medical colleges in the district. There is also a dental college, the Pushpagiri Dental College, in Tiruvalla.

Politics[edit]

The current Chairperson of the Municipality is K V Varghese and the Vice Chairman is Aleyamma Varghese for 2015-2020

Tiruvalla's assembly constituency is the part of the newly formed Pathanamthitta (Lok Sabha constituency).[14] Current MLA is Adv. Mathew T Thomas. Current MP Pathanamthitta (Lok Sabha constituency) is Anto Antony

Religion[edit]

Tiruvalla as one of the old centres of Brahmanism in Kerala, as well as of Syrian Christians, and has a heritage of secularity and plurality.

Christians hold a slim plurality inside the modern municipal limits, with Christians being 48.03%, Hindus 46.92%, and Muslims 4.80% of the population.[15]

The pilgrimage center of Sabarimala is only about 100 km from Tiruvalla and Parumala Church, Paliakara Church a major Christian pilgrimage centre is located in the heart of the city.   The spiritual conventions at Kalloopara, Maramon, Kumbanad and Ayroor-Cherukolpuzha are all located east of Tiruvalla.

The city's Sree Vallabha Temple (ശ്രീവല്ലഭമഹാക്ഷേത്രം) is one of the famous Vishnu temples of India. It is one of the 108 "Vaishnava Divya Desams".

Another old and significant temple in Tiruvalla is the Mahadeva-Hanuman temple at Kaviyoor, which also has the "Thrikkakkudi" cave temple nearby.

The Sree Chakkulathukavu Devi temple is located west of Thiruvalla Taluk. The Mar Thoma Church, the Believers Church, the St. Thomas Evangelical Church, the Indian Pentecostal Church of God (IPC) and the Sharon Fellowship Church have their headquarters in and around Tiruvalla. The headquarters of the Niranam diocese of Malankara Orthodox Church, Marthoma Church and Malankara Catholic Tiruvalla Diocese, the Church of South India (CSI) are also in Tiruvalla. The Niranam, Parumala, Paliakkara, and Kallooppara churches are also common pilgrimage destinations.

Sports[edit]

The popular sports in Tiruvalla are the football and cricket. The football history of Tiruvalla can be traced back to the legendary footballer from Tiruvalla, Thomas Varghese, called "Tiruvalla Pappan". He represented India in the London Olympics of 1948, and is described as one of the best defenders of 40's - 50's from India.[16] Today, Tiruvalla hosts many district and state level football and cricket tournaments. There is a stadium in Tiruvalla maintained by the Tiruvalla Municipal Council. This is the venue for most of the tournaments. It is also called "Prithi stadium".[17]

Indoor Cricket[edit]

The Kerala Cricket Association has set up a world-class indoor cricket stadium complex in Tiruvalla. The 8000 square foot facility is adjacent to the Tiruvalla municipal stadium. The facility also houses a library, multi-gym, board room, KCA district office, and a conference hall. Specially made natural grass wicket is the distinctive feature of the practising nets in the courtyard.[18]

Health care[edit]

Tiruvalla has appreciable health care facilities. There are several small and large hospitals situated in and around the city. The hospitals belong to the Allopathy or Ayurvedic schools of medicine. The following are some of the major hospitals in Tiruvalla :

Famous personalities from the taluk[edit]

Places in Tiruvalla[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.censusindia.gov.in/pca/SearchDetails.aspx?Id=676380
  2. ^ "Efforts on to give facelift to Thiruvalla". The Hindu. 2015-12-17. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 2016-03-20. 
  3. ^ "Census of India 2001: Data from the 2001 Census, including cities, villages and towns (Provisional)". Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 2004-06-16. Retrieved 2008-11-01. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f Shree Vallabha Mahakshethra Charitham, P. Unnikrishnan Nair
  5. ^ a b "KISSAN - Kerala". www.kissankerala.net. Retrieved 2016-03-20. 
  6. ^ a b c "Climate: Thiruvalla - Climate graph, Temperature graph, Climate table - Climate-Data.org". en.climate-data.org. Retrieved 2016-03-20. 
  7. ^ "Indus Civilisation and Tamil Language - Part 03", page 34
  8. ^ a b c Menon, A. Sreedhara (2007-01-01). A Survey Of Kerala History. DC Books. ISBN 9788126415786. 
  9. ^ Library, John Rylands (1967-01-01). Bulletin of the John Rylands Library. Kraus Reprint. 
  10. ^ a b Cultural Heritage of Kerala. D.C. Books. 2008-01-01. ISBN 9788126419036. 
  11. ^ Joseph, George Gheverghese (2009-12-10). A Passage to Infinity: Medieval Indian Mathematics from Kerala and Its Impact. SAGE Publications India. ISBN 9788132104810. 
  12. ^ Congress, Indian History (1970-01-01). Proceedings of the Indian History Congress. 
  13. ^ P. Shungoonny Menon, A history of Travancore (first edition: 1878, new edition: 1983), page 130 and 131, ISBN 978-81-7020-040-6
  14. ^ "ORDER NO. 9 - TABLE A & B – ASSEMBLY AND PARLIAMENTARY CONSTITUENCIES AND THEIR EXTENT" (PDF). Kerala. DELIMITATION COMMISSION OF INDIA. Retrieved 2005-05-31. 
  15. ^ Census of India - Thiruvalla City population Religion data
  16. ^ "This Tiruvalla Defender Stood Like a Wall in London Olympics". The New Indian Express. Retrieved 2016-03-20. 
  17. ^ "Untitled Document". cricketarchive.com. Retrieved 2016-03-20. 
  18. ^ "World-class indoor cricket facility for Thiruvalla". The Hindu. 2015-09-09. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 2016-03-20. 

External links[edit]