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The son of a vine-grower, he at first laboured in the fields, and did not begin his studies till the age of seventeen. Ordained priest in 1817, he was a curate for several months, and was then charged with teaching moraI theology at the Grand Séminaire of Besançon. He retained this chair until 1830, acquiring the reputation of an expert professor and consummate casuist.
It was then he re-edited with accompanying notes and dissertations the Conférences d'Angers (26 vols., 1823), and the Dictionnaire théologique of Bergier (1826), of which he published another edition in 1843. From these years of his professorship date his clear exposition of the "Doctrine de l' Eglise sur le prêt à intérêt" (1825), "Le Code civil commenté dans ses rapports avec la théologie morale" (1827), and "Justification de la théologie du P. Liguori" (1829).
Summoned to the post of vicar-general of Besançon by Cardinal de Rohan, he fulfilled the duties of post from 1830 to 1835. At this date he was named Bishop of Périgueux, and in the following year he presented to Villemain his "Observations sur la liberté d'enseignement", a protest against the monopoly of the university. In 1840 he was called to the Archdiocese of Reims, but his episcopal duties did not prevent him from completing important theological works.
In 1844 appeared in French his "Théologie morale a l'usage des curés et des confesseurs", which ran quickly through several editions. His treatise on dogmatic theology (2 Vols. 1848) had no less success. The dignity of cardinal was conferred on him in 1850, and given the titular church of San Callisto on the 10 April 1851. In virtue of the Constitution of 1852 he became senator of the empire, and in 1858 commander of the Legion of Honour. His last works were "Exposition des principes de droit canonique" (1859); "Du droit de l' Eglise touchant le possession des biens destinés au culte et la souverainté temporelle du Pape." (1862)
- Cardinal Title S. Callisto GCatholic.org
- Gousset, J. (1903). Le cardinal Gousset: sa vie, ses ouvrages, son influence (in French). Besancon: Henri Bossanne.
- Inauguration du monument élevé à la mémoire de S.E. Monseigneur le cardinal Gousset: le 14 mai 1872 dans l'église Saint-Thomas de Reims (in French). Reims: Matot-Braine. 1872.
- Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Thomas-Marie-Joseph Gousset". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
- Catholic-hierarchy.org [self-published]