He was born at Trondheim, Norway. He was a son of Member of Parliament and cabinet minister Jacob Aall Bonnevie (1838–1904) and Anne Johanne Daae (1839–1876). He was also the brother of professor Kristine Bonnevie (1872–1948) and jurist Carl Bonnevie (1881-1972). His sister Sofie Honoria Bonnevie (1864–1928), married Norwegian physicist and meteorologist Vilhelm Bjerknes. He was married to Margarete Bonnevie, who was President of the Norwegian Association for Women's Rights. 
Thomas Bonnevie earned the cand.jur. degree in 1902 at the Royal Frederick University, and became a barrister (with the right to appear before the Supreme Court) in 1910. He was a partner with Harald Nørregaard (1864-1938) in the law firm Nørregaard & Bonnevie until his appointment as Supreme Court justice to the Supreme Court of Norway in 1922. Thomas Bonnevie also promoted Gustav Vigeland's art and the construction of the sculpture arrangement in Frogner Park.
In 1947, he published the book Høyesterett og riksråds-forhandlingene (Oslo: Dahl, Mathisen, 1947).
- Jon Gunnar Arntzen. Bonnevie Store Norske Leksikon
- "Bonnevie". lokalhistoriewiki.no. Retrieved March 1, 2018.
- Arne Semb-Johansson. Kristine Bonnevie. Oslo: Norsk biografisk leksikon. Retrieved March 1, 2017.
- Knut Dørum. "Carl Emil Christian Bonnevie". Store norske leksikon. Retrieved March 1, 2018.
- "Vilhelm Bjerknes". Store norske leksikon. Retrieved March 1, 2018.
- Elisabeth Lønnå. "Margarete Bonnevie". Store norske leksikon. Retrieved March 1, 2018.
- "Harald Nørregaard (1864–1938)". emunch.no. Retrieved March 1, 2018.
- "Thomas Bonnevie". Kulturetaten. Retrieved March 1, 2018.
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