Thomas C. Hart

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Thomas C. Hart
Senator Thomas Charles Hart, 1945
United States Senator
from Connecticut
In office
February 15, 1945 – November 5, 1946
Preceded by Francis T. Maloney
Succeeded by Raymond E. Baldwin
Personal details
Born Thomas Charles Hart
(1877-06-12)June 12, 1877
Davison, Michigan
Died July 4, 1971(1971-07-04) (aged 94)
Sharon, Connecticut
Resting place Arlington National Cemetery
Political party Republican
Spouse(s) Caroline Brownson
Awards Distinguished Service Medal (2)
Military service
Allegiance  United States
Service/branch Seal of the United States Department of the Navy.svg United States Navy
Years of service 1897–1945
Rank US-O10 insignia.svg Admiral
Commands USS Chicago
Submarine Division 2
Submarine Division 5
USS Mississippi
Submarine Flotilla 3
Cruiser Division 6
United States Asiatic Fleet

Spanish–American War

World War I
World War II

Thomas Charles Hart (June 12, 1877 – July 4, 1971) was an Admiral in the United States Navy, whose service extended from the Spanish–American War through World War II. Following his retirement from the Navy, he served briefly as a United States Senator from Connecticut.

Life and career[edit]

Hart was born in Davison, Michigan.[1] He attended the United States Naval Academy at Annapolis, graduating 13th in a class of 47 in 1897.[1] Naval policy at the time required two-years sea duty following graduation from Annapolis before a naval cadet was commissioned an ensign. Hart spent the next two years aboard the battleship USS Massachusetts (BB-2). During the Spanish American War, Massachusetts became part of the American fleet blockading the Spanish squadron at Santiago de Cuba. Hart received a letter of commendation for his command of a steam cutter dispatched to reconnoiter Cabanas Bay for possible landing sites. Under a withering fusillade of fire from Spanish shore batteries, Hart completed the mission and returned his craft to the ship without any casualties despite the skiff being struck several times. [2] Because of his ship handling skills, Hart was sent to augment the crew of a converted yacht, USS Vixen (PY-4) [1][3] under Lt. Alexander Sharp Jr. and executive officer Ensign Arthur MacArthur III, older brother of Douglas MacArthur. The three quickly became life-long friends.

Following the Spanish American War, Hart spent two years on the sloop-of-war USS Hartford, after which he was posted to the Naval Academy where he taught ordnance and gunnery for two years. While at Annapolis, he courted Ms. Caroline Brownson, daughter of Rear Admiral and Mrs. Willard H. Brownson, then Superintendent of the Naval Academy and later commander of the Asiatic Fleet in 1906-07. Following his time at Annapolis, Hart served as a division officer on USS Missouri (BB-11) and then assumed his first command, the destroyer USS Lawrence (DD-8).[1] Hart married Ms. Brownson on March 30, 1910. At that time, LCDR Hart was assigned to inspect the building of the new Delaware-class battleship North Dakota at the Fore River Shipyard in Quincy, Massachusetts, to which he was assigned prior to its commissioning on Monday, 11 April 1910.[4][5] They spent their honeymoon at the newly rebuilt luxury resort "The Homestead", in Hot Springs, Bath County, Virginia.[6]

Following his assignment on North Dakota, Hart became qualified to command submarines. In 1917 he was Chief of Staff to the Commander, Submarine Force, Atlantic Fleet (COMSUBLANT), commanding COMSUBLANT's flagship Chicago at New London, Connecticut.[3] He also served in World War I as Director of Submarine Operations for the Navy Department.[1] Serving in this office as its head until 1922, Hart fought doggedly to improve the lot of the submarine arm of the Navy. His tenacity was responsible for the U.S. Navy's acquisition of surrendered German U-boats after World War I to learn the details of the technical innovations incorporated in the erstwhile enemy craft. Examination and trials of these U-boats were very influential in subsequent US Navy submarine design.[7]

After World War I, Hart commanded USS Mississippi (BB-41).[1] From 1931–34, Hart was Superintendent of the United States Naval Academy.[1]

An unsuccessful recommendation of Hart's while on the General Board, beginning in 1936, was the building of small submarines. Hart's plan was to replace the aging S-boats, R-boats, and O-boats to provide area defense of submarine bases. This plan resulted in only two experimental submarines, Mackerel and Marlin.[8] During this period, Hart successfully advocated the building of large destroyer leaders, later classified as anti-aircraft light cruisers (CLAAs), which became the Atlanta class and others.[9]

World War II[edit]

Hart was appointed Commander in Chief, U.S. Asiatic Fleet on 25 July 1939 and held that position at the commencement of hostilities in World War II between Japan and the United States in December 1941.[10] The majority of forces under Hart's command were located in the Philippines, with a small force of destroyers and a light cruiser based in Borneo.[11][12] His command included the majority of the combat-ready US submarines in the Pacific.[13] Hart initially commanded U.S. naval forces from Manila, but was forced to relocate to Java on 15 January 1942, in light of rapid Japanese advances through the Philippine archipelago.[14] On his relocation to Java, Hart was named Commander, Naval Forces, ABDA Command, a joint British, Dutch, American and Australian military command, formed for purposes of holding the southern portions of the Dutch East Indies against further Japanese advances.[15] While in command of ABDA naval forces, ships under his command fought the Battle of Balikpapan, a tactical victory, but strategic defeat for the allied forces.[16] Hart held the command of the U.S. Navy Asiatic Fleet until 5 February 1942, at which point the command ceased to exist as part of a broader U.S. military command restructuring in the Southwest Pacific.[17] Hart continue to hold the position of commander for ABDA naval forces until relieved of operational responsibilities on 12 February 1942.[18] Hart formally was relieved of this title on 16 February 1942, when he left Java, ostensibly for health reasons, bound for the United States.[18]

Hart returned to the United States on 8 March 1942.[19] President Roosevelt presented Hart with a Gold Star in lieu of a second Distinguished Service Medal in July 1942 (his first Distinguished Service Medal having been awarded for his service in World War I) for "His conduct of the operations of the Allied naval forces in the Southwest Pacific area during January and February, 1942, was characterized by unfailing judgment and sound decision, coupled with marked moral courage, in the face of discouraging surroundings and complex associations.".[20] Hart was retired with the rank of Admiral in July, 1942, but recalled to duty in August, 1942 as a member of the U.S. Navy's General Board.[1] Hart retired from active duty a second time in February, 1945, on his appointment to the U.S. Senate to fill the seat of Francis T. Maloney, on Maloney's death.[1]

Family and Legacy[edit]

Hart's daughter, Harriet Taft Hart, was the wife of Francis B. Sayre, Jr., who was the son of President Woodrow Wilson's daughter Jessie Woodrow Wilson Sayre.[21]

USS Thomas C. Hart (FF-1092), commissioned in 1973, was named for Hart and was sponsored by Hart's granddaughter, Penny Hart Bragonier.[1]


Here is the ribbon bar of Admiral Hart:[1]

Gold star
Bronze star
Bronze star
Bronze star
Officer Submarine Badge
1st Row Navy Distinguished Service Medal with Gold Star Sampson Medal
2nd Row Spanish Campaign Medal Mexican Service Medal World War I Victory Medal with Submarine Clasp
3rd Row China Service Medal American Defense Service Medal with Fleet Clasp American Campaign Medal
4th Row Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal with one service star World War II Victory Medal Knight Grand Cross of the Order of Orange-Nassau with Swords

Further reading[edit]

  • Hart, Thomas (2013). War in the Pacific: The Classified Report of Admiral Thomas C. Hart. Clarion Publishing. ISBN 978-0988714571. 

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Thomas C. Hart biography at Arlington Cemetery website
  2. ^ Annual Report of the Secretary of the Navy for the Year 1898, Appendix to the Report of the Chief of the Bureau of Navigation. pp. 499–500. Retrieved 29 October 2015. 
  3. ^ a b Thomas C. Hart biography at Naval History and Heritage Command
  4. ^ Oakland Tribune (Sunday morning edition, 27 March 1910, page 4, column 1, section - "Washington Society News and Gossip")
  5. ^ The Washington Post (Thursday edition, 31 March 1910, page 7, columns 3–4, section- "Miss Brownson a Bride").
  6. ^ The Washington Post Monday edition, 11 April 1910, page 7, column 3, section - "Personal Paragraphs".
  7. ^ Friedman submarines, pp. 159-161
  8. ^ Friedman submarines, pp. 221-224
  9. ^ Friedman cruisers, pp. 228-236
  10. ^ Morison, S.E., History of United States Naval Operations in World War II, Little, Brown & Company, 1948, vol 3, p.151, p.158.
  11. ^ Morison, pp. 158–160.
  12. ^ Asiatic Fleet deployment 7 December 1941
  13. ^ US submarine deployment 7 December 1941
  14. ^ Morison, p. 278
  15. ^ Morison, pp. 277–279
  16. ^ Morison, p. 291
  17. ^ Morison, p. 279
  18. ^ a b Morison, p. 312
  19. ^ Passenger List of Pan American Airways System - Atlantic Division, Yankee Clipper (NC 18603). From the Passenger and Crew Lists of Vessels Arriving at New York, New York, 1897-1957 (National Archives Microfilm Publication Year: 1942; Microfilm serial: T715; Microfilm roll: T715_6613; Line: 1).
  20. ^ TIME June 01, 1942
  21. ^ Julia Wells. Born in the White House, Pastor to All, Very Rev. Francis B. Sayre Jr. Dies at 93

External links[edit]

Military offices
Preceded by
Samuel S. Robison
Superintendent of United States Naval Academy
Succeeded by
David F. Sellers
Preceded by
Harry E. Yarnell
Commander-in-Chief, United States Asiatic Fleet
25 July 1939–14 February 1942
Succeeded by
United States Senate
Preceded by
Francis Maloney
U.S. Senator (Class 1) from Connecticut
February 15, 1945 – November 5, 1946
Served alongside: Brien McMahon
Succeeded by
Raymond Baldwin