Thomas Dugdale, 1st Baron Crathorne
|The Right Honourable
The Lord Crathorne
|Minister of Agriculture and Fisheries|
5 November 1951 – 28 July 1954
|Prime Minister||Winston Churchill|
|Preceded by||Tom Williams|
|Succeeded by||Derick Heathcoat Amory|
|Member of Parliament for Richmond|
30 May 1929 – 8 October 1959
|Preceded by||Sir Murrough John Wilson|
|Succeeded by||Timothy Kitson|
|Born||20 July 1897|
|Died||26 March 1977(aged 79)|
Thomas Lionel Dugdale, 1st Baron Crathorne PC (20 July 1897 – 26 March 1977), known as Sir Thomas Dugdale, 1st Baronet, from 1945 to 1959, was a British Conservative Party politician. A government minister, he resigned over the Crichel Down Affair, often quoted as a classic example of the convention of individual ministerial responsibility.
Background and early life
Thomas Dugdale was the son of Captain James Lionel Dugdale of Crathorne Hall near Yarm in Yorkshire. His grandfather John Dugdale (died 1881) was from a family of Lancashire cotton manufacturers, and had bought the Crathorne estate in 1844.
Dugdale was educated at Eton College and the Royal Military College, Sandhurst. He joined the Army in 1916, serving with the Scots Greys in World War I and the Yorkshire Hussars in the Second World War.
In 1929, Dugdale was elected as Member of Parliament (MP) for Richmond, North Yorkshire, where he remained until 1959. He served as Parliamentary Private Secretary to several ministers, including Stanley Baldwin, and Deputy Chief Whip. He was later Chairman of the Conservative Party and Chairman of the Party's Agricultural Committee. He was made a baronet in the 1945 New Year Honours "for political and public services".
The Crichel Down affair
Crichel Down was a piece of farmland in Dorset compulsorily bought by the government for defence use. Commander George Marten, whose wife Mary was the only child and heiress of the original owner of the land Lord Alington, wanted to buy the land back in the 1950s now that it was no longer used by the Ministry of Defence. However, the Ministry of Agriculture resisted, wanting to use the land for experimental farming in a time of rationing and agricultural development. Marten, a former equerry in the Royal Family, had very influential friends and stirred up much trouble in the local Conservative Party and government backbenches. There followed a public inquiry which criticised the department's decision and civil servants, especially their methods, seen as an example of an over-powerful state.
Finally Dugdale announced that Martin could buy the land back and told the House of Commons he was resigning.
Dugdale's resignation went down in history as an honourable, even heroic, one: a minister taking responsibility for civil servants' actions, which would lead to the perceived code of individual ministerial responsibility. However, in papers released thirty years after the affair, it was found that Dugdale had known and approved of his civil servants' actions and had to an extent passed the buck to them himself. It was also found that the inquiry was inaccurate and biased, led by a former Conservative candidate who was very against civil servants and state interference.
Dugdale's junior minister, Lord Carrington, also tendered his resignation, but it was refused. He went on to be Foreign Secretary, and finally succeeded in resigning in 1982 over the Falklands War. Commander Marten got his land, but not a Conservative seat which he had hoped for.
In 1959, Dugdale himself was raised to the peerage as Baron Crathorne, of Crathorne in the North Riding of the County of York. Subsequently, he had a second political career in Europe, building links with parliamentarians in NATO and the Council of Europe.
He died in March 1977, aged 79. By then a peer, his son James succeeded him as Baron Crathorne.
Styles of address
- 1897–1929: Mr Thomas Dugdale
- 1929–1945: Mr Thomas Dugdale MP
- 1945–1959: Sir Thomas Dugdale Bt MP
- 1959–1977: The Right Honourable The Lord Crathorne[a]
- Although The Lord Crathorne was a baronet, by custom the post-nominal of "Bt" is omitted, as Peers of the Realm do not list subsidiary hereditary titles.
- Tom E. Faulkner; Helen Berry; Jeremy Gregory (2010). Northern Landscapes: Representations and Realities of North-East England. Boydell & Brewer. p. 155. ISBN 978-1-84383-541-7.
- The London Gazette: . 29 December 1944.
- The London Gazette: . 17 July 1959.
- "Wedding Capt. Tommy Dugdale & Mrs Nancy Gates 1936". British Pathe.
- Kidd, Charles, Williamson, David (editors). Debrett's Peerage and Baronetage (1990 edition). New York: St Martin's Press, 1990,[page needed]
- Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Thomas Dugdale
|Parliament of the United Kingdom|
Sir Murrough John Wilson
|Member of Parliament for Richmond
|Minister of Agriculture and Fisheries
Derick Heathcoat Amory
|Peerage of the United Kingdom|
|New creation||Baron Crathorne