Thomas Fitzpatrick (trapper)
Thomas Fitzpatrick (1799-7 February 1854), known as "Broken Hand" (reportedly because his left hand had been mangled in a firearms accident), was a trapper and a trailblazer who became the head of the Rocky Mountain Fur Company. With Jedediah Smith, he led a trapper band that discovered South Pass, Wyoming however before that Robert Stuart led the first known white party through the South Pass.
He shepherded the first two emigrant wagon trains to Oregon, including the Bartleson-Bidwell Party in 1841. He was the official guide to John C. Fremont on his second, and longest, expedition in 1843-44. He guided Col. Philip Kearny and his Dragoons along the westward trails in 1845 to impress the Native Americans with their howitzers and swords.
Fitzpatrick helped negotiate the Fort Laramie treaty of 1851, at the largest council ever assembled of Native Americans of the Plains. Among the most colorful and highly regarded of mountain men, Fitzpatrick was also party to many of the most important events in the opening of the West.
In the winter of 1853-54 Fitzpatrick went to Washington D.C. to see after treaties that needed to be approved, but while there contracted pneumonia and died on February 7, 1854. He was buried in the Congressional Cemetery there.
- Hafen, LeRoy R. and Ghent, W.J., Broken Hand. The Life Story of Thomas Fitzpatrick, Chief of the Mountain Men. Denver: Old West Publishing Co., 1931. Reprinted by University of Nebraska Press, 1973.
- Pedersen, Lyman C., "Warren Angus Ferris", in Trappers of the Far West, Leroy R. Hafen, editor. 1972, Arthur H. Clark Company, reprint University of Nebraska Press, October 1983. ISBN 0-8032-7218-9
- The New Encyclopedia of the American West, ed. Howard R. Lamar. Yale University Press (1998)
- Thrapp, Dan L. Encyclopedia of Frontier Biography. University of Nebraska Press (1988).