Thomas Sutcliffe Mort
Thomas Sutcliffe Mort (23 December 1816 – 9 May 1878) was an Australian industrialist responsible for improving refrigeration of meat. He was renowned for speculation in the local pastoral industry as well as industrial activities such as his Ice-Works in Sydney's Darling Harbour and dry dock and engineering works at Balmain.
Mort was born in Bolton, Lancashire, England in 1816. In 1878, he was associated with the Australian Mutual Provident Society. In 1849, he was one of a committee, which funded a company to promote sugar growing at Moreton Bay. In 1850 Mort was a member of the Sydney Exchange Co, and in 1851 he was a director of the Sydney Railway Co. and was also involved in mining (gold, later also copper and coal) and other enterprises. In the 1850s, he opened Mort's Dock in Sydney, a business that was not as successful as he wished.
Mort returned to England for a visit in 1857–59. During that visit he bought many furnishings, pictures and other goods, in particular at a sale of the possessions of the Earl of Shrewsbury. He commissioned the architect Edmund Blacket to build a house to add to his house to display the new possessions. His gallery was open to the public.
From 1856, Mort began acquiring land near Moruya on the south coast of New South Wales. In 1860, Mort acquired the Bodalla estate near the mouth of the Tuross River. Mort eventually owned 38,000 acres (150 km²) in the district, a very substantial holding in that fertile area. Bodalla is alleged to have been originally known as 'Boat Alley'. Mort's vision for Bodalla was as a country estate to retire on and to demonstrate model land utilisation and rural settlement. Mort wished to have a tenanted dairy estate run as an integrated whole.
Mort replaced the beef cattle that had been farmed there and carried out extensive improvements including clearing land, draining river swamps, erecting fences, laying out farms, sowing imported grasses, and providing milking sheds, cheese and butter-making equipment. Butter and cheese were produced for the Sydney market. By the 1870s, the tenants were disgruntled sharefarmers and the estate was in Mort's control again run as three farms with hired labour.
In 1866, Mort expanded his dry dock into an engineering works. Mort offered shares to his employees and in 1875, the company was incorporated with limited liability having been managed beforehand by a committee that included four leading hands. This was one of the earliest attempts at co-operation between capital and labour in Australia, and although the effort at sharing ownership was only partially successful, Mort always had good relations with his employees.
Also in the mid-1860s, Mort had been looking at refrigeration as a way of developing manufacturing orders, to ensure better access to the Sydney market for the butter and cheese he was producing at Bodalla and to offset the vulnerability of being exposed to falling wool prices. Mort financed experiments by Eugene Dominic Nicolle, a French born engineer who had arrived in Sydney in 1853 and registered his first ice-making patent in 1861.
In 1861 Mort established at Darling Harbour the first freezing works in the world, which afterwards became the New South Wales Fresh Food and Ice Company. The first trial shipment of frozen meat to London was in 1868. Although their machinery was never used in the frozen meat trade, Mort and Nicolle developed commercially viable systems for domestic trade, although the financial return on that investment was not a great success for Mort.
As a part of his refrigeration works, Mort developed a large abattoir at Lithgow where sheep and cattle from western New South Wales were slaughtered and refrigerated for later transport. In 1875, to mark his achievements in the refrigeration techniques, Mort arranged a picnic for 300 guests. He organised a special train from Sydney and fed his guests food that had been refrigerated at his plant for over 18 months.
Mort was a prominent Anglican layman. He donated the land for St Mark's Church, Darling Point, and commissioned Edmund Blacket to design the church. Mort contributed to the upkeep of the church and also to the building of St. Andrew's Cathedral, Sydney and St Paul's College, University of Sydney. He was also the founder of Christ Church School in Pitt Street Sydney.
Death and legacy
He died at Bodalla, on 9 May 1878.
At the time of his death he was spoken of as "the greatest benefactor the working classes in this country ever had". Within a week of Mort's death from pneumonia at Bodalla, a meeting of working men in Sydney had resolved to show the esteem and respect in which they held his memory. A sculpture in Macquarie Place by Pierce Connolly resulted from their resolution and was unveiled in 1883. 
Mort is also commemorated by All Saints Church, Bodalla, built in his honour by his family, to a design by Edmund Blacket, using granite quarried on Mort's property. The foundation stone was laid by Marianne Mort, Thomas' second wife, on 18 March 1880. It was completed in 1901. The church has one of seven small Henry Willis & Sons organs, built in 1881 and installed the following year. The church cost 13,000 Pounds Stirling to construct.
Mort's business Mort & Co. became Mort & Co Ltd in 1883. Mort & Co Ltd merged with R Goldsbrough & Co Ltd in 1888 to form Goldsbrough Mort & Co Ltd. This firm traded from 1888–1963 when a merger formed Elder Smith Goldsbrough Mort Ltd which traded from 1963 – 1982. The present day business is Elders Limited.
- Harris 1894.
- "Thomas Sutcliffe Mort and Refrigeration Works". History of Lithgow. lithgow-tourism.com. Retrieved 19 February 2006.
- Issy Wyner (2003). "Unveiling Mort's Statue, Macquarie Place, Sydney, 1883 (includes photograph)". My Union Right or Wrong. A history of the Ship Painters and Dockers Union 1900–1932. www.takver.com. Retrieved 19 February 2006.
- "History of all Saints Church, Bodalla"; church pamphlet
- Bruce A. Smith (2005). "Mort & Co (1849–1888)". Guide to Australian Business Records. www.gabr.net.au. Retrieved 19 February 2006.
- Mortdale Early Days
- Barnard, Alan (1974). "Mort, Thomas Sutcliffe (1816–1878)". Australian Dictionary of Biography. Canberra: Australian National University. Retrieved 28 April 2009.
- Serle, Percival (1949). "Mort, Thomas Sutcliffe". Dictionary of Australian Biography. Sydney: Angus and Robertson. Retrieved 28 April 2009.
- Harris, Charles Alexander (1894). "Mort, Thomas Sutcliffe". In Lee, Sidney. Dictionary of National Biography. 39. London: Smith, Elder & Co.