This is a good article. Follow the link for more information.

Thomas Traherne

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Thomas Traherne
Stained glass in the cathedral - geograph.org.uk - 615756.jpg
One of the four Traherne Windows in Audley Chapel, Hereford Cathedral, created by stained-glass artist Tom Denny
Bornc. 1636–38
Hereford, England
Died27 September 1674
Alma materBrasenose College, Oxford
OccupationPoet, author, priest, theologian
Notable work
Centuries of Meditations
Stylemetaphysical poetry, meditations, theology

Thomas Traherne (/trəˈhɑːrn/; 1636 or 1637 – c. 27 September 1674) was an English poet, clergyman, theologian, and religious writer. The intense, scholarly spirituality in his writings has led to his being commemorated by some parts of the Anglican Communion on 10 October (the anniversary of his burial in 1674) or on September 27.

The work for which Traherne is best known today is the Centuries of Meditations, a collection of short paragraphs in which he reflects on Christian life and ministry, philosophy, happiness, desire and childhood. This was first published in 1908 after having been rediscovered in manuscript ten years earlier. His poetry likewise was first published in 1903 and 1910 (The Poetical Works of Thomas Traherne, B.D. and Poems of Felicity).[1] His prose works include Roman Forgeries (1673), Christian Ethics (1675), and A Serious and Patheticall Contemplation of the Mercies of God (1699).

Traherne's writings frequently explore the glory of creation and what he perceived as his intimate relationship with God. His writing conveys an ardent, almost childlike love of God, and is compared to similar themes in the works of later poets William Blake, Walt Whitman, and Gerard Manley Hopkins. His love for the natural world is frequently expressed in his works by a treatment of nature that evokes Romanticism—two centuries before the Romantic movement.

Biography[edit]

Early life and education[edit]

Traherne's birth or baptism are not recorded in parish registers.[2] According to antiquarian Anthony à Wood (1632–1695), he was a "shoemaker's son of Hereford" born in either 1636 or 1637.[3][4] Bertram Dobell identifies this shoemaker as John Traherne (b. 1566).[5] However, other sources indicate that Thomas was the son of Philipp Traherne (or Trehearne) (1568–1645), a local innkeeper and twice Mayor of Hereford,[5] and his third wife, Mary Lane.[2][6]

Traherne writes about his childhood, which included a natural wonder at and appreciation of the world around him, in Centuries of Meditations,[7] and other poetry.[8]

Traherne matriculated at Brasenose College, Oxford in 1652 and received his degree in 1656

Traherne was educated at Hereford Cathedral School and matriculated in Brasenose College, Oxford, on 2 April 1652, receiving his baccalaureate degree on 13 October 1656.[3][9] Five years later he was promoted to the degree of Master of Arts (Oxon.) on 6 November 1661,[3][9] and he received a Bachelor of Divinity (B.D.) on 11 December 1669.[10]

Church ministry career[edit]

After receiving his baccalaureate degree from Oxford in 1656, he took holy orders.[citation needed]

On 30 December 1657, he was appointed as the rector of Credenhill near Hereford,[3][9] by the Commissioners for the Approbation of Public Preachers, although at the time he was not an ordained priest.[11] A curious note appended to the record of his appointment is that Traherne counted upon the patronage of Ambella, Countess Dowager of Kent.[a] Traherne served in this post for ten years.[9]

Following the restoration of the monarchy and the return of Charles II, Traherne was ordained priest on 20 October 1660 by the Bishop of Oxford, Robert Skinner, at Launton near Bicester.[12]

In 1667, Traherne became the private chaplain to Sir Orlando Bridgeman, 1st Baronet, of Great Lever, the Lord Keeper of the Great Seal to King Charles II, at Teddington (near Hampton Court) in Middlesex.[9]

Character and lifestyle[edit]

Traherne was described as "one of the most pious ingenious men that ever I was acquainted with",[13] and "a man of a cheerful and sprightly Temper … ready to do all good Offices to his Friends, and Charitable to the Poor almost beyond his ability".[14] Traherne believed he suffered from the weaknesses of a sociable personality: "Too much openness and proneness to Speak are my Diseas. Too easy and complying a Nature".[15]

According to Anthony à Wood, Traherne "always led a simple and devout life; his will shows that he possessed little beyond his books ...".[16]

Death[edit]

Traherne died of smallpox[citation needed] at Bridgeman's house in Teddington on 27 September 1674, having that day dictated a brief nuncupative will to his friend and neighbour John Berdoe, in which he made bequests to the servants who had looked after him and left his few belongings to his brother Philip and sister-in-law Susan.[17] On 10 October 1674 he was buried in St Mary's Church at Teddington,[3][2][9] under the church's reading desk.[18]

Writings[edit]

Facsimile of the manuscript of Thomas Traherne's poem "An Hymne upon St. Bartholomew's Day", from Bertram Dobell's 1903 edition of his poetical works

Publication history during lifetime and soon after[edit]

Traherne was an inconsequential literary figure during his lifetime and his works were not known or appreciated until long after his death. As a country priest he led a devout, humble life and did not participate in literary circles. Only one of his works, Roman Forgeries (1673), was published in his lifetime. Christian Ethicks (1675) followed soon after his death, and later A Serious and Patheticall Contemplation of the Mercies of God (1699), which was published as the work of an anonymous author whose character and background were discussed in a brief introduction by the publisher.

At Traherne's death in 1674 most of his manuscripts were bequeathed to his brother Philip.[9][19] After Philip's death they apparently passed into the possession of the Skipp family of Ledbury in Herefordshire, where they languished for almost 200 years.[9] In 1888 the family's assets were dissolved, yet the manuscripts did not re-emerge until 10 years later.[9]

Later publication history[edit]

In the winter of 1896–97, William T. Brooke of London discovered some anonymous manuscripts in a "barrow of books about to be trashed" or a "street bookstall".[19] Brooke thought that they might be lost works by Henry Vaughan and showed them to Alexander Grosart (1827–99), a Scottish clergyman and expert on Elizabethan and Jacobean literature who reprinted rare works.[19] Grosart agreed that the manuscripts were by Vaughan and planned to include them in an edition of Vaughan's works that he was preparing for publication.[19] Grosart died in 1899 and the proposed edition was never completed.[19]

Grosart's collection, including the manuscripts, was purchased by Charles Higham, a London bookseller, who asked his friend Bertram Dobell (1842–1914) to examine them.[19] Dobell was convinced that they were not by Vaughan and soon discovered that they were by Traherne.[9] The manuscripts included poetry as well as a collection of contemplative paragraphs "embodying reflexions on religion and morals".

The Poetical Works of Thomas Traherne was published in 1903 and Centuries of Meditations in 1908.[9] Other publications followed.[20]

Manuscripts[edit]

A Traherne manuscript of "Centuries," the Dobell Folio (also called the "Commonplace Book"), "The Church's Year Book," and the "Early Notebook" (also called Philip Traherne's Notebook) is held at the Bodleian Library, Oxford, the Burney Manuscript (also known as "Poems of Felicity") at the British Library, London, and "Select Meditations" in the Osborn Collection, Beinecke Library, New Haven.

A manuscript discovered in 1996 in the Folger Library in Washington, DC, by Julia Smith and Laetitia Yeandle was later identified as an unfinished 1,800-line epic poem by Traherne entitled "The Ceremonial Law."[21] In 1997 Jeremy Maule, a Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, discovered more works by Traherne among 4,000 manuscripts in the Library of Lambeth Palace, the London residence of the Archbishop of Canterbury.[22] The Lambeth manuscripts, mostly prose, encompass four complete works and a fragment of a fifth: Inducements to Retiredness, A Sober View of Dr Twisse, Seeds of Eternity, The Kingdom of God and the fragmentary Love.[23][24]

Issues in authorship[edit]

Concerns over later alterations by others to some of Traherne's original work have arisen, although rejected by Dobell.[25]

Influences[edit]

Development of personal faith[edit]

Given some of the autobiographical and confessional material in his works (notably in Centuries of Meditations), Traherne must have suffered from a lack of faith in his formative years at Oxford. He describes this as a period of Apostasy and that he later found his way back to faith:

I knew by intuition those things which since my Apostasy, I collected again by the highest reason. My very ignorance was advantageous. I seemed as one brought into the Estate of Innocence. All things were spotless and pure and glorious: yea, and infinitely mine, and joyful and precious, I knew not that there were any sins or complaints or laws.[26]

However, there is an alternative reading possible, which may be closer to the facts of Traherne's experience as he expresses them in the quote above. This is that he did not suffer a loss of faith, but rather identified his maturation away from a natural, innocent child's view of the world and his place in it, from an innate understanding of the wonder of God's creation, to a burdened grappling with the rules and expectation of church and society as an apostasy itself, which he had to overcome then by careful and disciplined study ("the highest reason"). This childlike, accepting, and joyous view of faith and religious ecstasy is at the core of the writing from which the excerpt above is drawn, and is part of the reason for Traherne's appeal.[27]

Neoplatonism[edit]

Traherne is heavily influenced by the works of Neoplatonist philosophers and several of his contemporaries who were called the Cambridge Platonists.[28] The Cambridge Platonists were latitudinarians in that they argued for moderation and dialogue between the factions of Puritans and High Churchmen in the Anglican church. They believed that religion and reason could be in harmony with one another based on a mystical understanding of reason—believing that reason rose beyond mere sense perception but was "the candle of the Lord" and an echo of the divine residing within the human soul. Reason was both God-given and of God.[29][30] Indeed, critic K. W. Salter notes that Traherne "writes of the senses as if they were spiritual and of the spirit as if it were sensuous."[31] However, according to Gladys Wade's 1946 biography of Traherne, she distinguished that the Cambridge Platonists "wasted their energies on Hermetic and Cabalistic and Rosicrucian lore, and on incredible experiments in magic and necromancy," and remarked that Traherne's mysticism was "perfectly free from any taint of this."[32]

Theology and ethical themes[edit]

St Mary's, Credenhill, in Herefordshire where Traherne was rector

Defence of Anglican and criticism of Catholic churches[edit]

Traherne was also concerned with the stability of the Christian church in England during the period of the Restoration. In some of his theological writings, Traherne exhibits a passion for the Anglican faith and the national church that is evident in his confrontations with Roman Catholicism and Nonconformism during this time of political and religious upheaval.[33] The recent discoveries of previously unknown manuscripts further establish Traherne's reputation as an Anglican divine and his works offer fresh and comprehensive arguments on ongoing theological arguments regarding the nature of divinity, ethics and morality, and the nature of sin.

For instance, Traherne passionately critiques Roman Catholicism in Roman Forgeries (1673)—the only work published during his lifetime. It is a polemical treatise in the form of a dialogue between two men—a Protestant and a Roman Catholic. Relying on the Scriptures and the pronouncements of the First Council of Nicaea to formulate the idea of a legitimate church authority, Traherne criticises the state of the contemporary Catholic Church and claims through a conspiracy theory that because the Vatican has had control over the manuscripts that the Catholic Church was in a position to corrupt, misuse or suppress documents to support its claim to authority.[18] The abusive nature of the narrator's critique of the Church of Rome is in sharp contrast to the tenor of Traherne's poetry or his other writings on theological topics.[18]

However, Traherne takes a less polemic tone in the posthumously published Christian Ethicks (1675) in which he explores theological implications of Calvinist thought on freedom and necessity.[18] In this work, Traherne refuses to define ethics as a secular phenomenon—instead pointing to a firm reliance on the will of God. Because of human limitations and failings, one cannot build a suitable and coherent moral system of beliefs—those virtues must derive from a divine source and their reward from perceiving the infinite love of God at the root of all things.[18]

Sin[edit]

Traherne dedicated considerable examination to the subject of sin and its place vis-a-vis the church doctrines. In the recently discovered work, A Sober View of Dr Twisse, Traherne discusses sin and salvation within the frame of a larger discussion of questions of election and reprobation. Traherne writes:

He was excluded the Kingdom of Heaven, where nothing can enter that hates God, and whence nothing can be excluded that loves him. The loss of that Love is Hell: the Sight and Possession of that Love is Heaven. Thus did sin exclude him Heaven.[34]

Mysticism and divine union[edit]

Traherne's works are inherently mystical in that they seek to understand and embrace the nature of God within his creation and within man's soul. Traherne seems to describe his own journey of faith in Centuries of Meditation, which was likely written when Traherne was at Credenhill—a work that is noted for its "spiritual intensity," and "the wide scope of the writer's survey" which includes "all heaven and earth he takes for the province of the pious soul".[35] Traherne's work is said to look "upon the hidden things of the soul, and, in them, he sees the image of the glory and love of God" and "the eternal theme of the goodness and the splendour of God."[35]

Traherne's poems frequently explore the glory of creation and what he perceived as his intimate relationship with God. He drew deeply on the writings of Aristotle and on the early Church Fathers for his concept of Man and human nature.

Little mention is made of sin and suffering in the works that have dominated 20th-century criticism, and some critics have seen his verse as bordering upon pantheism (or perhaps panentheism).[36]

Felicity[edit]

At the core of Traherne's work is the concept of "felicity", that highest state of bliss in which he describes the essence of God as a source of "Delights of inestimable value."[37][38]

Traherne says that 'understanding set in him' secured his felicity.[39] He argues that man can only experience this felicity by understanding the will of God and divine love and he describes the beauty of this in childlike terms.[40][41] Traherne seeks to explain the "Principle of Nature" in which through his inclination to love truth ("Light") and beauty seek him to identify felicity as its source and a natural experience.[40]

Other themes[edit]

Nature[edit]

Another great passion that is depicted in Traherne's work is his love of nature and the natural world, frequently displayed in a very Romantic treatment of nature that has been described as characteristically pantheist or panentheist. While Traherne credits a divine source for its creation, his praise of nature seems nothing less than what one would expect to find in Thoreau. Many scholars consider Traherne a writer of the sublime, and in his writing he seems to have tried to reclaim the lost appreciation for the natural world, as well as paying tribute to what he knew of in nature that was more powerful than he was. In this sense Traherne seems to have anticipated the Romantic movement more than 130 years before it actually occurred.[42] There is frequent discussion of man's almost symbiotic relationship with nature, as well as frequent use of "literal setting", that is, an attempt to faithfully reproduce a sense experience from a given moment, a technique later used frequently by William Wordsworth.[42]

Childlike joy and attitude[edit]

In the spirit of the gospels,[43] [44][45] Traherne's "great theme is the visionary innocence of childhood," and his writings suggest "that adults have lost the joy of childhood, and with it an understanding of the divine nature of creation."[46] Traherne seems to convey the idea that paradise can only be rediscovered and regained through reacquiring this childlike innocence—a state which "precedes the knowledge of good and evil" and seems to be composed of a boundless love and wonder.[40][47]

In this respect, Traherne's work is often compared to the abounding joy and mysticism found in the works of William Blake, Walt Whitman, and Gerard Manley Hopkins.[18][46][48][49] According to Traherne scholar Denise Inge, Traherne's introduction of a child's viewpoint to narrate his theological and moral premises was unknown or certainly unappreciated in the literature of this time.[36]

Happiness[edit]

Achieving happiness is another focus of Traherne's work. He wrote "I will first spend a great deal of time in seeking Happiness, and then a great deal more in enjoying it."[50] He wrote that many people despise happiness,[51] but that "Heaven is a place where our happiness shall be seen of all. We shall there enjoy the happiness of being seen in happiness, without the danger of ostentation."[52]

Practical philosophy[edit]

Traherne was intent that insights gained through philosophy be used in daily life.[53][54]

Metaphysical poets group[edit]

Traherne was not mentioned by Samuel Johnson as one of the "the Metaphysical Poets"[55] and was some decades younger than most in the group, but has subsequently been seen as part of it. While Johnson did not favour their work, and implied that their poetry was pretentious and obscure,[56] the label has endured and has become respected as that of a school of poets.[57] Their poetry "combined passionate feeling with intellectual rigor," and "sought to express deeply felt religious and secular experiences in the form of highly intellectual poems."[40] The metaphysical poets, Traherne included, exhibited an "avid interest in science" drawing upon "imagery from all the new and exciting areas of scientific learning: astronomy, mathematics, geography, medicine" in their works.[40]

Traherne mixes mystical elements and seeks to explain issues of truth, knowledge, and the faculties of the mind and heart by methods of theological and rational examination.[40] His poetry and prose works have been described in oxymoronic terms as "bafflingly simple."[58] Traherne delves into issues such as the origins of faith, the nature of divinity and the faith, divinity, and the innocence of childhood and his style seems to enforce with verse that takes on the form of an incantation.

Legacy[edit]

Because Traherne's works were lost for 200 years after his death they did not influence other writers until the 20th century. Indeed, while Samuel Johnson included him in his criticism of what he termed "metaphysical" poetry, many of Johnson's contemporaries did not know of Traherne.

Since the rediscovery and publication of Traherne's works, however, they have influenced the thought and writings of Trappist monk, social activist, and author Thomas Merton, crime writer and Christian humanist Dorothy L. Sayers, poet Elizabeth Jennings and Christian apologist C. S. Lewis, who called Centuries of Meditations "almost the most beautiful book in English."

Veneration by the Anglican Church[edit]

Traherne was interred at St Mary's Church, Teddington, Middlesex.

The Anglican Communion does not have a formal process of sainthood and canonisation as is found in the Roman Catholic tradition, but has frequently "recognised or 'canonised’ people of great holiness, sometimes by a formal process and sometimes by popular acclamation or local custom.[59] In commemoration of his poems and spiritual writings, Thomas Traherne is included in the Calendar of Saints in many national churches within the Anglican Communion.

The commemoration of Traherne is held on either 27 September (the date of his death) or 10 October (the date of his burial). In 2009 the General Convention of the Episcopal Church in the United States approved the following Collect for the observation of Traherne's feast day:

Creator of wonder and majesty, who didst inspire thy poet Thomas Traherne with mystical insight to see thy glory in the natural world and in the faces of men and women around us: Help us to know thee in thy creation and in our neighbors, and to understand our obligations to both, that we may ever grow into the people thou hast created us to be; through our Savior Jesus Christ, who with thee and the Holy Spirit liveth and reigneth, one God, in everlasting light. Amen.[60]

Observed on 27 September

Observed on 10 October

In popular culture[edit]

  • In 1939 the English composer Gerald Finzi (1901–1956) completed a cantata for solo voice (typically a soprano or tenor soloist) and string orchestra entitled Dies natalis (his Opus number 8) of which four movements are settings of writings by Traherne: "The Rapture", "Wonder", "The Salutation" and (the only prose piece among the four) an extract from Centuries of Meditations.[61][62] The texts chosen reflect the joy and wonder of a newborn child's innocent perspective on the world and the wonderment in being born into a world of such beauty. The premiere of the cantata was cancelled due to the outbreak of the Second World War, with the first performance held at Wigmore Hall on 26 January 1940 under the baton of Maurice Miles.
  • A stanza from Traherne is quoted in the movie Amazing Grace, by abolitionist Thomas Clarkson. Clarkson quotes, "Strange treasures in this fair world appear..." and goes on to say it is from a poem by Thomas Traherne.
  • The first stanza of Traherne's "The Rapture" is employed in the form of a riddle, by an assassin of sorts called a "warrior-poet", in The Broken God, a 1992 science fiction novel with philosophical leanings written by David Zindell.
  • The Incredible String Band quote from Traherne extensively in the song "Douglas Traherne Harding" on their album Wee Tam and the Big Huge, relating the philosophy of Traherne to that of Douglas Harding.
  • The title and some of the thought of Richard Wilbur's poem "A World Without Objects Is a Sensible Emptiness" comes from Traherne's Centuries of Meditations, specifically Second Century, Meditation 65.
  • Phil Rickman frequently refers to Traherne's poetry in his Merrily Watkins series of novels.
  • In his award-winning book The Snow Leopard (Bantam: 1978, pp. 216–7), Peter Matthiessen cites the mystical, even Buddhist-like sense of nature found in Centuries of Meditations.
  • James Joyce uses the phrase "orient and immortal" in Ulysses, probably from having discovered it in Life and Work of Richard Jefferies; Jefferies quoted from Traherne's Centuries of Meditations

Works and publications[edit]

Published during Traherne's life and times[edit]

  • 1673: Roman Forgeries, Or, A True Account of False Records Discovering the Impostures and Counterfeit Antiquities of the Church of Rome (London: Printed by S. & B. Griffin for Jonathan Edwin, 1673).
  • 1675: Christian Ethicks: Or, Divine Morality. Opening the Way to Blessedness, By the Rules of Vertue and Reason (London: Printed for Jonathan Edwin, 1675).
  • 1699: A Serious and Pathetical Contemplation of the Mercies of God, In Several Most Devout and Sublime Thanksgivings for the same (London: Printed for Samuel Keble, 1699).
  • 1717: Meditations on the Creation, in A Collection of Meditations and Devotions, in Three Parts. (London: Published by Nathaniel Spinkes. Printed for D. Midwinter, 1717).

Later compilations and editions[edit]

  • 1903: The Poetical Works of Thomas Traherne 1636?–1674 (edited by Bertram Dobell) (London: Dobell, 1903).
  • 1908: Centuries of Meditations (edited by Dobell) (London: Dobell, 1908; Cosimo Inc., 2007) ISBN 1602067252
  • 1910: Traherne's Poems of Felicity (edited by H. I. Bell) (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1910).
  • 1932: The Poetical Works of Thomas Traherne, faithfully reprinted from the Author's Original Manuscript, together with Poems of Felicity, reprinted from the Burney manuscript, and Poems from Various Sources (edited by Gladys I. Wade) (London: P. J. & A. E. Dobell, 1932).
  • 1941: A Serious and Pathetical Contemplation of the Mercies of God, In Several most Devout and Sublime Thanksgivings for the same (edited by Roy Daniells) (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1941).
  • 1958: Centuries, Poems, and Thanksgivings 2 volumes (edited by H. M. Margoliouth) (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1958).
  • 1966: Meditations on the Six Days of the Creation (edited by George Robert Guffey) (Los Angeles: William Andrews Clark Memorial Library, University of California, 1966).
  • 1966: Poems, Centuries, and Three Thanksgivings (edited by Anne Ridler) (London: Oxford University Press, 1966).
  • 1968: Christian Ethicks (edited by Carol L. Marks and Guffey) (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1968).
  • 1989: Commentaries of Heaven: The Poems (edited by D. D. C. Chambers) (Salzburg: Institut für Anglistik und Amerikanistik Universitat Salzburg, 1989). ISBN 9780773405844
  • 2005–2017: The Works of Thomas Traherne (series edited by Jan Ross) (Melton, Suffolk, UK: D.S.Brewer) in 9 volumes. ISBN 9781843840473 (complete set)[63]
    • Volume I: Inducements to Retirednes, A Sober View of Dr Twisses his Considerations, Seeds of Eternity or the Nature of the Soul, The Kingdom of God (2005). ISBN 9781843840374
    • Volume II: Commentaries of Heaven, part 1: Abhorrence to Alone (2007) ISBN 9781843841357
    • Volume III: Commentaries of Heaven, part 2: Al-Sufficient to Bastard (2007) ISBN 9781843841364
    • Volume IV: Church's Year-Book, A Serious and Pathetical Contemplation of the Mercies of GOD, [Meditations on the Six Days of the Creation] (2009) ISBN 9781843841968
    • Volume V: Centuries of Meditations and Select Meditations (2013) ISBN 9781843843276
    • Volume VI: Verse: from the Dobell Folio, Poems of Felicity, The Ceremonial Law (not yet published)
    • Volume VII: Roman Forgeries, Christian Ethicks: or, Divine Morality (not yet published)
    • Volume. VIII: Commentary and Index (not yet published)
    • Volume IX: Notebooks (not yet published)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ Exciting holiness.
  2. ^ a b c Purslow, Vera E. Centuries of Traherne Families (privately published, 1981–1990).
  3. ^ a b c d e Foster, Joseph (compiler). "Traherne, Thomas" in Alumni Oxonienses 1500–1714: The Members of the University of Oxford, their parentage, birthplace, and year of birth, with a record of their degrees. (Oxford and London: Parker & Co., 1892), 1501–1528. Retrieved 29 November 2012.
  4. ^ Wood, Anthony à; and Bliss, Philip. Athenae Oxonienses : an exact history of all the writers and bishops who have had their education in the University of Oxford: to which are added the Fasti, or Annals of the said University. (London: F.C. and J. Rivington, 1813) III:1016
  5. ^ a b Dobell, Bertram (editor) in his "Introduction" to The Poetical Works of Thomas Traherne 1636?–1674. (London: Dobell, 1903), xvi.
  6. ^ According to Purslow (supra), Philipp was married three times and had 10 children from these marriages. Thomas, the poet and writer, was the oldest of two sons born to Philipp's third wife, Mary (or Marie) Lane. Thomas was the second of Philipp's sons to be named Thomas—the first, the youngest son by his second wife, died in infancy.
  7. ^ Century III, Centuries of Meditations.
  8. ^ https://rpo.library.utoronto.ca/poems/wonder
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Wikisource Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Traherne, Thomas". Encyclopædia Britannica. 27 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
  10. ^ Dobell, Bertram (editor) in his "Introduction" to The Poetical Works of Thomas Traherne 1636?–1674. (London: Dobell, 1903), xxxiii.
  11. ^ Dobell, Bertram (editor) in his "Introduction" to The Poetical Works of Thomas Traherne 1636?–1674. (London: Dobell, 1903), xxxix; citing MS 998 in the Lambeth Palace Library.
  12. ^ Who was Traherne? Archived 15 April 2013 at Archive.today at the Thomas Traherne Association website. Retrieved 29 November 2012.
  13. ^ Thomas Good, Worcester Cathedral Library, MS D. 64, quoted in http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/10.1093/ref:odnb/9780198614128.001.0001/odnb-9780198614128-e-38074;jsessionid=94AF548D222524095D34250F2F3E4C8A
  14. ^ Serious and Pathetical Contemplation, sig. A4v, quoted in http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/10.1093/ref:odnb/9780198614128.001.0001/odnb-9780198614128-e-38074;jsessionid=94AF548D222524095D34250F2F3E4C8A
  15. ^ Select Meditations, 3.65, quoted in http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/10.1093/ref:odnb/9780198614128.001.0001/odnb-9780198614128-e-38074;jsessionid=94AF548D222524095D34250F2F3E4C8A
  16. ^ Ward, A. W. et al. (editors) The Cambridge History of English and American Literature: An Encyclopedia in Eighteen Volumes (New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons; Cambridge: University Press, 1907–1921), Volume VII, "Cavalier and Puritan", Chapter II The Sacred Poets, § 14.28. (found online here – retrieved 1 December 2012.)
  17. ^ The National Archives, Kew, England; Prerogative Court of Canterbury and Related Probate Jurisdictions: Will Registers; Class PROB 11; Piece 346 ; Traherne, Thomas, Teddington, Middx., clk., 22 Oct 1674, No 119
  18. ^ a b c d e f "Thomas Traherne" (Biography) at the Poetry Foundation's website. Retrieved 29 November 2012.
  19. ^ a b c d e f Slayton, Mary E. "A Poet-Cleric's 'Little Booke'" in Modern Age. 47:3 (Summer 2005), 266–69. This is a book review of Buresh, David (editor). Waking Up in Heaven: A Contemporary Edition of Centuries of Meditations, by Thomas Traherne (Spencerville, Maryland: Hesed Press, 2002).
  20. ^ https://boydellandbrewer.com/catalogsearch/result/?q=traherne
  21. ^ Smith, Julia and Yeandle, Laetitia, "Felicity disguisd in feiry Words: Genesis and Exodus in a Newly Discovered Poem by Thomas Traherne," Times Literary Supplement. (7 November 1997), 17.
  22. ^ Ezard, John (15 October 2002). "Mystic's 350-year-old treatise to be published". The Guardian. Retrieved 3 April 2018.
  23. ^ Inge, Denise; MacFarlane, Calum Donald (2 June 2000). "Seeds of Eternity: A New Traherne Manuscript". TLS: Times Literary Supplement: 14.
  24. ^ Dodd, Elizabeth S. (2015). Boundless Innocence in Thomas Traherne's Poetic Theology. Routledge. p. vii. Retrieved 3 April 2018.
  25. ^ p175, The Poetical Works of Thomas Traherne
  26. ^ Traherne, Thomas. The Poetical Works of Thomas Traherne, 1636?–1674. Ed. Betram Dobell. London: Oxford University Press, 1906.
  27. ^ Traherne, Thomas. "Centuries of Meditations", 3rd century, paragraphs 1-3.
  28. ^ See Beachcroft, T. O. "Traherne and the Cambridge Platonists" in The Dublin Review. 186:278–290; and see: Marks, C. L. (1966). "Thomas Traherne and Cambridge Platonism" in Proceedings of the Modern Language Association Volume 81 (December 1930), 521–534.
  29. ^ For more on the Cambridge Platonists, see: Patrides, Constantinos Apostolos. The Cambridge Platonists. (London: 1969; Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1980).
  30. ^ Hutton, Sarah, "The Cambridge Platonists", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2008 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.). Retrieved 27 December 2012.
  31. ^ Salter, K. W. Thomas Traherne: Mystic and Poet. (New York: Barnes & Noble, 1965).
  32. ^ Wade, Gladys I. Thomas Traherne: A Critical Biography. (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1946), 232–233.
  33. ^ Inge, Denise. "Thomas Traherne and the Socinian Heresy in Commentaries of Heaven". Notes and Queries 252:4 (2007), 412–416.
  34. ^ A Sober View of Dr Twisse, sect. XVI, in Ross, Jan (editor). The Works of Thomas Traherne: Volume I: Inducements to Retirednes, A Sober View of Dr Twisses his Considerations, Seeds of Eternity or the Nature of the Soul, The Kingdom of God., (Melton, Suffolk, UK: D.S.Brewer, 2005) p. 133.
  35. ^ a b Volume VII. Cavalier and Puritan. VI. Caroline Divines. § 2. Thomas Traherne: Centuries of Meditations. from Ward & Trent, et al. The Cambridge History of English and American Literature. 18 volumes. (New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1907–21; New York: Bartleby.com, 2000) (www.bartleby.com/cambridge/). Retrieved 27 December 2012.
  36. ^ a b Inge, Denise (2004). "A Poet Comes Home: Thomas Traherne, Theologian in a New Century." Anglican Theological Review 86(2). pp. 335–348.
  37. ^ Traherne, Thomas. Centuries of Meditation (1908), Century V, Meditation 10.
  38. ^ "All things were well in their proper places, I alone was out of frame and had need to be mended. For all things were God’s treasures in their proper places, and I was to be restored to God’s Image. Whereupon you will not believe, how I was withdrawn from all endeavours of altering and mending outward things. They lay so well, methought, they could not be mended: but I must be mended to enjoy them." Centuries of Meditations, 3.60
  39. ^ Poem The Apprehension https://www.cambridge.org/core/books/works-of-thomas-traherne-vi/right-apprehension-ii-the-apprehension/CE08325D4EA1CE68616C65CE42ED554B
  40. ^ a b c d e f Balakier, James J. "Thomas Traherne's Concept of Felicity the "Highest Bliss," and the Higher States of Consciousness of Maharishi Mahesh Yogi's Vedic Science and Technology" Archived 2 December 1998 at the Wayback Machine.. Modern Science and Vedic Science. 4:2 , 136–175.
  41. ^ https://portals.mum.edu/Customized/Uploads/ByDate/2013/February_2013/February_14th_2013/bala1991MSVS4-2OCR24146.pdf
  42. ^ a b Blevins, Jacob, ed. (2007). Re-Reading Thomas Traherne: A Collection of New Critical Essays. Phoenix: Arizona Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies, passim.
  43. ^ St Matthew 19:14 (King James Version): "But Jesus said, Suffer little children, and forbid them not, to come unto me: for of such is the kingdom of heaven."
  44. ^ Matt 18.3 (NIV); “Truly I tell you, unless you change and become like little children, you will never enter the kingdom of heaven."
  45. ^ But note also 1 Cor 14.20 (NIV); "Brothers and sisters, stop thinking like children. In regard to evil be infants, but in your thinking be adults."
  46. ^ a b "Biography of Thomas Traherne" in Christian Classics Ethereal Library. (Calvin College)
  47. ^ Also Clements, A. L. The Mystical Poetry of Thomas Traherne. (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1969).
  48. ^ American Academy of Poets. Thomas Traherne. Retrieved 8 October 2013.
  49. ^ Sherrington, Alison Janet. Christian Nature Mysticism in the Poetry of Vaughan, Traherne, Hopkins, and Francis Thompson. (Adelaide: University of Adelaide, 1977).
  50. ^ Centuries of Meditation, 4.11. See also 4.7.
  51. ^ "A man that studies happiness must sit alone like a sparrow upon the house-top, and like a pelican in the wilderness. And the reason is because all men praise happiness and despise it." Centuries of Meditation, 4.13
  52. ^ Centuries of Meditation, 4.12
  53. ^ "He thought it a vain thing to see glorious principles lie buried in books, unless he did remove them into his understanding; and a vain thing to remove them unless he did revive them, and raise them up by continual exercise." Centuries, 4.2
  54. ^ For example "I came into this world only that I might be happy. And whatsoever it cost me, I will be happy. A happiness there is, and it is my desire to enjoy it." Centures, 4.7
  55. ^ or in Johnsons' book 'Lives of the Most Eminent English Poets.'
  56. ^ Johnson, Samuel. Lives of the Most Eminent English Poets (London: 1779–81), volume I-chapter on Abraham Cowley.
  57. ^ See analysis in Eliot, T(homas) S(tearns). The Metaphysical Poets (1921); Gardner, Helen. Metaphysical Poets. (London: Oxford University Press, 1957).
  58. ^ Drake, B. (1970). "Thomas Traherne's Songs of Innocence" in Modern Language Quarterly 32:492–503, at 493.
  59. ^ Diocese of Oxford (Anglican). History of the Diocese: Calendar of Commemoration. Retrieved 14 January 2014.
  60. ^ Holy Women, Holy Men: Celebrating the Saints (New York: Church Publishing, 2010), 621.
  61. ^ Russell, John (Autumn 1954). "Gerald Finzi: An English Composer". Tempo 33 (33): 9–15.
  62. ^ Boyd, C.M. (Autumn 1954). "Gerald Finzi and the Solo Song". Tempo 33 (33): 15–19.
  63. ^ For information on the complete nine-volume series (especially for volumes not yet published), see: Camden House (publishers). The Works of Thomas Traherne (complete set) Edited by Jan Ross. Retrieved 16 March 2013.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Annabel or Amabel (nee Benn), widow of Henry Grey, 10th Earl of Kent

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]