Tyrrill was the son of Sir Edward Tyrrill of Thornton Hall, Buckinghamshire and his second wife Margaret Aston, daughter of Thomas Aston of Aston Cheshire. He was admitted to the Inner Temple in 1612 and was called to the Bar on 13 November 1621. In 1642, he was Deputy Lieutenant of Buckinghamshire. In the Civil War he was a captain, and later colonel of horse in the Parliamentarian army under Bedford and Essex. He fought at the battle of Lostwithiel in 1644.
In 1659 Tyrrell was elected Member of Parliament for Aylesbury in the Third Protectorate Parliament. In the same year he was admitted as a Bencher and became joint Commissioner of the Great Seal, and Sergeant at Law. In 1660 he was elected MP for Buckinghamshire in the Convention Parliament. He was knighted on 16 July 1660, and appointed Justice of the Court of Common Pleas on 27 July 1660. He was on the commission for the trial of the regicides, but took no active part. In 1667, following the Great Fire of London he was one of the twenty two judges appointed to resolve property disputes arising from the rebuilding the city. Portraits of the judges were put up in the Guildhall by the city in gratitude for their services.
Tyrrell died aged 78 and was buried at Castlethorpe Church.
Tyrrell married a daughter of —Saunders of Buckinghamshire. Their son Peter became a baronet. Tyrrill married thirdly Bridget Harrington, daughter of Sir Edward Harrington, Bt of Kiddlington, Rutland.
- John Burke, John Bernard Burke A genealogical and heraldic history of the extinct and dormant baronetcies
- Dictionary of National Biography, Thomas Tyrrell
- History of Parliament Online - Tyrrell, Thomas
- Knights of England
- 'Book 2, Ch. 15: Cheap Ward', A New History of London: Including Westminster and Southwark (1773), pp. 587-593. Date accessed: 4 April 2011
- The Gentleman's magazine, Volume 86 By John Nichols