|This article needs additional citations for verification. (August 2011)|
Thomas Wilfred (June 18, 1889 in Naestved, Denmark - June 10, 1968 in Nyack, New York) born Richard Edgar Løvstrøm, was a musician and inventor. He is best known for his visual music he named lumia and his designs for color organs called Clavilux. Wilfred was not fond of the term "color organ", and coined the word "Clavilux" from Latin meaning "light played by key".
Wilfred's father ran a photography studio, and young Wilfred was exposed to the arts at a young age. He studied painting and poetry in Paris, and found early success as "Wilfred the Lute Player" traveling Europe and America performing minstrel songs on the archaic lute.
Around 1905 Wilfred began to experiment with bits of colored glass and light sources. After moving to New York he, along with Claude Fayette Bragdon and 'Kirk' Kirkpatrick Brice co-founded a group of Theosophists called the Prometheans. The Prometheans were dedicated to exploring spiritual matters through modern artistic expression. Brice served also as patron to the group.
While many people had experimented with light as an artistic medium (most notably the color organs) Wilfred was the first to speak of light as a formal artform. He coined the term "lumia" to describe "an eighth art" where light would stand on its own as an expressive artform. Wilfred was passionate that Lumia should be a silent art.
Wilfred's mechanisms were often complex designs that have been described as from the "Rube Goldberg school". He was a trained artist, but had little mechanical schooling. That said, his devices were very sturdy, and many still function with most of the original parts.
In 1919, Wilfred constructed the Clavilux Model A in his Long Island studio (located on the Brice estate). The first public recital came in 1922 and featured performances on the Clavilux Model B for audiences at the Neighborhood Playhouse in New York. The press was highly receptive. In the audience that first night was Leopold Stokowski.
The Clavilux was a complex instrument which allowed a person to create and perform Lumia compositions. Later models B-H were touring and lecture models, the last one being built prior to WWII.
Wilfred founded the Art Institute of Light, which had a recital hall in Chelsea, and then later at the Grand Central Palace.
World War II found the Grand Central Palace theatre turned into an Army induction center, and Wilfred did his part for the Allies by serving as a translator.
After the war, Wilfred no longer performed Clavilux recitals, concentrating his work on recorded Lumia and theatrical projection.
Wilfred was also an early pioneer in working with projected scenery for the theatre. His initial success in this was a 1930 Broadway production of Ibsen's The Vikings. Wilfred did seminal work in the 1950s with the University of Washington's John Ashby Conway in this field.
Starting in the late 20's Wilfred began to create smaller, less complex Lumia devices, some were meant for home exhibition, while others were designed for installation in museums and art galleries:
- Tabeltop Clavilux, or "Luminar"
- Home Clavilux, or "Clavilux Jr."
- Home Clavilux (these differed from the Clavilux Jr.)
- Recorded Lumia Compositions
Starting in 1931, he began to shift his emphasis with lumia from concert recitals to museum and gallery exhibitions.
In 1951, he was included in the Museum of Modern Art exhibition 15 Americans alongside Abstract Expressionists such as Jackson Pollock, Willem de Kooning, and Mark Rothko. At this point in his career, Wilfred shifted from a musical to a painting based analogy for Lumia in an attempt to explain it to the broader public.
The Museum of Modern Art owns three Wilfred Lumia compositions, and many artists of the Psychedelic era were inspired to work with light after seeing the MoMA compositions. Because of his influence on this generation of artists, Wilfred's final work "Lucatta, Opus 162" was included in the "Summer of Love" exhibition, which was hosted by the Whitney Museum in the spring of 2007.
There are only about 30 extant Clavilux Jr. and Lumia compositions. Wilfred has explicitly stated his objections to recording Lumia works on film (in his writings collected in Thomas Wilfred's Clavilux), making the survival of his works dependent on the existence of his machines. Most of the still extant works are in the Epstein Collection, and the Epstein family has been very generous, loaning Lumia compositions to museums worldwide. In 2003, two of the original Clavilux (Models E & G) were rescued from an East Village eviction dumpster, and are now stored in Seattle, WA awaiting restoration by the Epsteins.
- Clavier à lumières
- Color organ
- Louis Bertrand Castel
- Mary Hallock-Greenewalt
- Oskar Fischinger
- William Moritz
- Eskilson, Stephen (February 2003). "Thomas Wilfred and Intermedia: Seeking a Framework for Lumia". Leonardo (Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press) 36 (1): 65–68. doi:10.1162/002409403321152347. JSTOR 1577284. OCLC 4636571287. (subscription required (. ))
- Zinman, Gregory (2011-06-27). "Lumia: Thomas Wilfred’s Opus 161 (1965-66)". The New Yorker (New York, NY: Condé Nast). Retrieved 2015-10-11.
- Betancourt, Michael, ed. (2006). Thomas Wilfred's Clavilux. Borgo Press. ISBN 9780809556717. OCLC 474724870.
- Stein, Donna (1971). Thomas Wilfred : Lumia, a retrospective exhibition (Catalog for the April 16-May 30, 1971 exhibition). Washington, DC: Corcoran Gallery of Art. OCLC 679422136.
- Claus, Jürgen (1965). "Ein Vorläufer: Thomas Wilfred" [A precursor: Thomas Wilfred]. Kunst heute : Personen, Analysen, Dokumente [Art today: people, analyzes, documents]. Rowohlts deutsche enzyklopädie : Kunstgeschichte, 238/239 (in German). Reinbek, Germany: Rowohlt. OCLC 557612819.
- Klein, Adrian Bernard (1937). Coloured Light: An Art Medium (3rd ed.). London, UK: The Technical Press. OCLC 888824867.
- Rimington, Alexander Wallace (1912). Colour-Music: The Art Of Mobile Colour. London, UK: Hutchinson & Co. OCLC 685182874. Retrieved 2014-12-06.
- "Lumia: a site about the pioneering work of Thomas Wilfred". wilfred-lumia.org. 2013-09-11. Retrieved 2014-12-07.
with images and information from the Eugene and Carol Epstein Collection
- Scattergood-Moore. "Thomas Wilfred and his Clavilux • The Art of Lumia". ARTISTS ON LINE. Newtonville, MA: PantherProUSA. Archived from the original on 2012-08-10. Retrieved 2014-12-06.
- Wilfred, Thomas (2007). 5 Thomas Wilfred Lumia Compositions (DVD). OCLC 191674575.
- "Opus 161 slide show" (Adobe Flash). Clavilux.org. Retrieved 2014-12-06.
- Finkelstein, Meredith; Vlachos, Paul (2007). Lumia: Thomas Wilfred and The Story of Light Art. New York, NY: 13BIT Productions. ISBN 9780982128800. OCLC 268738013. Archived from the original (DVD) on 2011-07-27. Distributed by Center for Visual Music.
- Graves, Jen (2014-12-03). "Meet Thomas Wilfred, the Forgotten Inventor of Light Art". The Stranger (Seattle, WA: Newspapers LLC) 24 (14): 21–22.