Thompson River

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Thompson River
River
North Thompson River.jpg
A CN railway crossing of the North Thompson River in Kamloops
Country Canada
Province British Columbia
Source Confluence of the North & South Thompson Rivers
 - location Kamloops
 - elevation 1,113 m (3,652 ft)
 - coordinates 50°40′49″N 120°20′36″W / 50.68028°N 120.34333°W / 50.68028; -120.34333
Mouth Fraser River
 - location Lytton
 - elevation 472 m (1,549 ft)
 - coordinates 50°14′07″N 121°35′00″W / 50.23528°N 121.58333°W / 50.23528; -121.58333Coordinates: 50°14′07″N 121°35′00″W / 50.23528°N 121.58333°W / 50.23528; -121.58333 [1]
Length 489 km (304 mi) [2]
Basin 56,000 km2 (21,622 sq mi) [3]
Discharge for Spences Bridge
 - average 773 m3/s (27,300 cu ft/s)
 - max 4,200 m3/s (148,000 cu ft/s)
 - min 171 m3/s (6,039 cu ft/s)
A map of the Thompson River's watershed
For the river in the United States, see Thompson River (Montana).

The Thompson River is the largest tributary of the Fraser River,[3] flowing through the south-central portion of British Columbia, Canada. The Thompson River has two main branches called the South Thompson River and the North Thompson River. The Thompson was named by Fraser River explorer, Simon Fraser, in honour of his friend, Columbia Basin explorer David Thompson.

Geography[edit]

South Thompson River[edit]

The South Thompson originates at the outlet of Little Shuswap Lake at the town of Chase and flows approximately 55 kilometres (34 mi) southwest through a wide valley to Kamloops where it joins the North Thompson. Highway 1, the Trans-Canada Highway and the mainline of the Canadian Pacific Railway parallel the river. Little Shuswap Lake is fed by the Little River, which drains Shuswap Lake, which is fed by several rivers & creeks.

North Thompson River[edit]

The North Thompson originates at the toe of the Thompson Glacier[4] in the Cariboo Mountains west of the community of Valemount and flows generally south towards Kamloops and the confluence with the South Thompson. For most of its length, the river is paralleled by Highway 5, and the Canadian National Railway (both of which cross the river a couple times). The North Thompson passes by several small communities, the most notable being Blue River, Clearwater & Barriere.

The North Thompson picks up the Clearwater River at the town of Clearwater. The Clearwater, the North Thompson's largest tributary, drains much of Wells Gray Provincial Park.

A notable feature along the North Thompson is Little Hells Gate, a mini-replica of the much larger rapid on the Fraser downstream from the mouth of the Thompson. About 17.4 km upstream from the small town of Avola, the river is forced through a narrow chute only about 30 feet wide creating a rapid that resembles the Fraser's famous rapid.

Mainstream[edit]

The darker waters of the Thompson meet the Fraser at Lytton.

At Kamloops, the combined Thompson River river flows 15 km from the confluence of the North and South Thompson Rivers before reaching Kamloops Lake, which is roughly 30 km in length, ending at the town of Savona. From there it flows in a meandering course westwards through a broad valley area. At Ashcroft, the Thompson Canyon begins and the river turns southwestward to its confluence with the Fraser. The river is paralleled by the Trans-Canada Highway, the Canadian Pacific Railway and the Canadian National Railway.

From Ashcroft to Lytton, the river is completely confined within Thompson Canyon, making for spectacular scenery. The Thompson River joins the Fraser River in Lytton. There is a striking stretch of dark black cliffside just downstream from Ashcroft and visible from the Logan Lake-Ashcroft highway is officially-named the Black Canyon. Just below the town of Spences Bridge was the site of a major rail disaster in the early 20th Century. Communities along this section are Bighorn, Shaw Springs, and Goldpan.

Geology[edit]

The Thompson River valley has existed in some form for at least 50 million years; however, for much of its history, it did not drain to the southwest into the Pacific Ocean as it does today.[5] Geologists believe water from the river flowed northward, through the Cariboo region, eventually entering what is the modern-day Peace River drainage basin and ending up in the Arctic Ocean.[6] This flow direction is estimated to have ended approximately 2 million years ago, as the Pleistocene era of heavy glaciation began.[6]

During the era of massive glaciers in the Thompson River valley, water from the area likely drained eastward, through the Shuswap Lake area into what is now the Columbia River drainage. This flow direction was influenced by large ice buildups in the Thompson valley, which created extensive glacial lakes. As some of these ice dams began to break up, the flow direction changed again, with water flowing westward in the direction it flows today.

Two large glacial lakes, Glacial Lake Thompson and Glacial Lake Deadman, occupied much of the modern river's course from 13,000 BCE to 10,000 BCE. These deep, narrow, ribbon-shaped lakes held large volumes of water; Glacial Lake Thompson held nearly 84 cubic kilometres (20 cu mi) at its highest point. The lake stretched from Spences Bridge in the west all the way to the eastern reaches of Shuswap Lake, as well as far up the northern reaches of the North Thompson river valley.[7]

History[edit]

First nations[edit]

The Interior region of British Columbia was first populated after the retreat of the continental ice sheets of the last ice age. The ice moved out of the Thompson river valleys approximately 11,000 BCE, and migration is thought to have occurred soon after.[8] Some of the older archaeological sites on the lower Thompson include the Drynoch Slide site, near Spences Bridge, with artifacts dating to about 7350 BCE, and the Landels site, near Ashcroft, which dates to older than 8000 BCE.[9] Achaeologists theorize that early settlers lived in small groups, beginning with nomadic bands hunting ungulates on the plateaus around the river, then establishing more permanent dwellings along the river benches as their fishing techniques developed.[10]

The South Thompson has the oldest dated evidence of human habitation in the watershed, at the Gore site near Pritchard. The human remains date to 8250 BCE, and bone analysis suggests that the person was a hunter with small amounts of his protein coming from salmon.[11]

European exploration and settlement[edit]

Explorer of the Fraser River and North West Company employee Simon Fraser named the river, after passing its mouth on the Fraser in 1808.[12][13] He named the river after his colleague, David Thompson, who had mapped much of western Canada and was at the time exploring the Columbia River basin to the east. Thompson never visited the river that bears his name.[13] The first documented traverse of the Thompson from Kamloops to Lytton was by Hudson's Bay Company governor George Simpson in 1828.[14] More Europeans entered the Thompson River valley in the early to mid 1800s, drawn by the fur trade and small gold rushes. Others started farming on the fertile benches of the river, and a North West Company trading fort at the confluence of the North and South rivers became the city of Kamloops, now the largest human population center in the watershed.[13]

Ecology[edit]

The Thompson River supports 24 fish species, including two that are considered endangered. It also hosts carp, which are not native to the watershed. The river is home to large populations of Pacific salmon, including coho, sockeye, pink and chinook. Through its tributary, the Adams River, the Thompson has one of the largest sockeye salmon runs in the world.[13] Pink salmon spawn mostly below Kamloops Lake, while coho spawning beds are found in 40 of the Thompson watershed's streams and rivers. Rainbow trout are common, and a subspecies, Kamloops trout, is found in Kamloops Lake and nearby water bodies. Other fish species include round whitefish, largescale sucker, bridgelip sucker, northern pikeminnow, longnose dace, and slimy sculpin.[13]

Several bird species are found in Thompson River environments, including osprey, merganser, wood ducks, and dippers. Golden eagles are found near the confluence with the Fraser,[15] and Bald eagles congregate on the river during the salmon run. Trumpeter swans use the South Thompson on their migratory route. Rattlesnakes are found in the dry sagebrush regions of the lower river. Aquatic insects found in the river system are dominated by three groups: mayflies, midges, and caddisflies. Many of these species emerge with the spring snowmelt, which greatly increases the volume of flow on the river.[13]

Major Tributaries[edit]

North Thompson River[edit]

South Thompson River[edit]

Mainstream[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "Thompson River". BC Geographical Names. 
  2. ^ Thompson River, The Columbia Gazetteer of North America
  3. ^ a b Thompson River, BritishColumbia.com
  4. ^ "Thompson Glacier". BC Geographical Names. 
  5. ^ Fandritch 2013, p. 270.
  6. ^ a b Fandritch 2013, p. 271.
  7. ^ Johnsen, Timothy F.; Brennand, Tracy A. (2004). "Late-glacial lakes in the Thompson Basin, British Columbia: paleogeography and evolution" (PDF). Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences (National Research Council (Canada)). doi:10.1139/E04-074. 
  8. ^ Rousseau 1993, p. 140.
  9. ^ Rousseau 1993, p. 153.
  10. ^ Rousseau 1993, p. 168.
  11. ^ Rousseau 1993, p. 156.
  12. ^ Benke 2005, p. 708.
  13. ^ a b c d e f Benke, Arthur C.; Cushing, Colbert E. (2005). Rivers of North America. Boston: Elsevier. pp. 707–712. ISBN 9780120882533. 
  14. ^ Fandritch 2013, p. 7.
  15. ^ Fandritch 2013, p. 284.

References[edit]

External links[edit]