Thondaimandala Mudaliar

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Thondaimandala Mudaliar
Regions with significant populations
Tondai Nadu, Chola Nadu
Languages
Tamil
Religion
Hinduism
Related ethnic groups
Karkathar, Tirunelveli Saiva Pillai, Tamil people

Thondaimandala Mudaliar is a vegeterian, Forward caste community in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. Sekkizhar, the author of the Periyapuranam, was from this community.

History[edit]

Sangam and Medieval Tamil literature[edit]

Sekkizhar, one of the most prominent members of this community, is referred to as Ganga-Kula Tilaka, and his lineage is extolled in various pieces of medieval Tamil literature, the most notable among them being his biography by Umapati Sivacharya.[1][2][3] He was born in Kunrattur and would soon rise to become the Chief Minister of Kulothunga Chola II.[4][5][6][7]

Migration[edit]

48,000 Vellalars migrated north with the Chola King Karikala Chola (ruled around 270 BCE) after he conquered Thondaimandalam from the Kurumbars, a nomadic tribe also known as the Aruvalars. He parcelled out the land to the Vellalar chiefs, now known as the Thondaimandala Mudaliars,[8][9][10] and divided the territory into 24 Kottams or districts:[10] Pulal, Puliyur, Eekadu, Manavur, Chenkkadu, Payur, Eyil, Thamal, Uttukadu, Kalathur, Chembur, Amur, Eethoor, Venkundram, Palkunram, Ilankadu, Kaliyur, Chriukarai, Paduvur, Kadikai, Chenthirukai, Kunrapattiram, and Venkadam Velur.[10]

Ceremonies[edit]

The members of this community held the right of handing over the crown at the time of coronation ceremony (mudi-sootu vizha) of kings and religious heads.[11] In the Tamil classical literature, Kamba-ramayana, Kavi-chakravarthy Kambar stated that "the great sage Vashista took the crown from ancestors of Sadayappa Vallal and crowned the King Rama".

Notable people[edit]

Historical[edit]

  • Sekkizhar, the author of the Tamil hagiography Periyapuranam or The Great Purana consisting of the life stories of the 63 Tamil Saiva Saints or the Nayanars[12]
  • Sadayappa Vallal, a rich 12th-century Vellala chief who had residences at Puduvai and Thiruvenainallur. He was known for his philanthropic activities. He was a close friend and a patron of Tamil national poet Kambar[13][14]
  • Andaka Kaviviraraghava Mudaliar was a poet of the 16th century[15]

Modern literature[edit]

Politics[edit]

References[edit]

Citations

  1. ^ The Cōḷas By Kallidaikurichi Aiyah Nilakanta Sastri
  2. ^ Kalhār (white water-lily): studies in art, iconography, architecture, and archaeology of India and Bangladesh, p. 367
  3. ^ Kalhār (white water-lily): studies in art, iconography, architecture, and archaeology of India and Bangladesh, p. 366
  4. ^ A Topographical List of Inscriptions in the Tamil Nadu and Kerala States: Tiruchchirappalli District, page 388
  5. ^ Tamil culture, Volume 5, p. 291
  6. ^ Saiva siddhanta, Volume 15, page 26
  7. ^ The grand epic of Saivism
  8. ^ The economic history of India, Volume 1, p. 161: Karikala The Great defeated the Aruvalar and ... distributed the conquered lands to the Vellala chiefs, who were his relatives.
  9. ^ An agrarian history of South Asia, Part 4, Volume 4, p. 100: Vellala gentry on the north Tamil coast trace their origins to a royal Chola ancestor who migrated north with 48,000 Vellala families, conquering Kurumba hunters.
  10. ^ a b c The Tamils Eighteen Hundred Years Ago by V. Kanakasabhai
  11. ^ This fact can be seen from old Tamil classical literature "Thirukkaivazhakkam" which states "mangaiyoru bhagarkum, madhavarkum, mannavarkum thunga mudiyai sootumkai (the hands that hand over the crown to kings/religious heads at the time of coronation ceremony)".
  12. ^ Criminal Gods and Demon Devotees by Alf Hiltebeitel
  13. ^ A primer of Tamil literature By M. S. Purnalingam Pillai
  14. ^ Ancient Jaffna: being a research into the history of Jaffna from very early times to the Portug[u]ese period, C. Rasanayagam
  15. ^ A History of Culture by T. K. Venkataraman, University of Madras

Bibliography

  • The origin of Saivism and its history in the Tamil land By K. R. Subramanian, K. R. Subramanian (M.A.)
  • Early Chola temples: Parantaka I to Rajaraja I, A.D. 907-985 By S. R. Balasubrahmanyam
  • South Indian inscriptions, Volume 13 By Eugen Hultzsch, India. Archaeological Survey, India. Dept. of Archaeology
  • Journal of Tamil studies, Issues 29-30 By International Association of Tamil Research, International Institute of Tamil Studies
  • Enamul Haque, Gouriswar Bhattacharya, Kalhār (white water-lily): studies in art, iconography, architecture, and archaeology of India and Bangladesh
  • Hemakuta: Recent Researches in Archaeology and Museology : Shri C.T.M. Kotraiah Felicitation Volume, A. V. Narasimha Murthy, ISBN 81-86050-66-3, ISBN 978-81-86050-66-8
  • Rājarājeśvaram, the pinnacle of Chola art By Balasubrahmanyam Venkataraman
  • Indian archaeological heritage: Shri K.V. Soundara Rajan festschrift, Volume 1 By K. V. Soundara Rajan, Chedarambattu Margabandhu
  • The economic history of India, Volume 1 By Abdul Qadir Husaini
  • Pivot politics: changing cultural identities in early state formation processes By M. van Bakel, Renée Hagesteijn, Piet van de Velde
  • Ancient India: collected essays on the literary and political history of Southern India By Sakkottai Krishnaswami Aiyangar
  • Temples of Kr̥ṣṇa in South India: history, art, and traditions in Tamilnāḍu By T. Padmaja
  • An agrarian history of South Asia, Part 4, Volume 4 By David E. Ludden
  • The Four Hundred Songs of War and Wisdom: An Anthology of Poems from Classical Tamil, the Purananuru Translations from the Asian classics By George L. Hart, Hank Heifetz
  • A Topographical List of Inscriptions in the Tamil Nadu and Kerala States: Thanjavur District By T.V Mahalingam
  • Journal of Indian history, Volume 19, University of Allahabad. Department of Modern Indian History, University of Kerala. Dept. of History, University of Kerala, University of Travancore, Dept. of Modern Indian History, 1941
  • History of Tamil language and literature: beginning to 1000 A. D. By Es Vaiyāpurip Piḷḷai
  • Śaṅgam polity:the administration and social life of the Śaṅgam Tamils By N. Subrahmanian
  • The History and Culture of the Indian People: The classical age By Ramesh Chandra Majumdar, Achut Dattatrya Pusalker, A. K. Majumdar, Dilip Kumar Ghose, Vishvanath Govind Dighe, Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan
  • Early Chōl̤a art:origin and emergence of style By Rama Sivaram
  • The Śrīkara Bhāshya: Introduction By Śrīpati, Śrīpatipaṇḍita, Conjeeveram Hayavadana Rao
  • Madras District Gazetteers: Pudukkottai By Madras (India : State), B. S. Baliga
  • History of the Tamils: from the earliest times to 600 A.D. By P. T. Srinivasa Iyengar
  • A primer of Tamil literature By M. S. Purnalingam Pillai
  • Tamil literature, Volume 2, Part 1 By Kamil Zvelebil
  • Epigraphia Indica, Volume 18, By Devadatta Ramkrishna Bhandarkar, Archaeological Survey of India, India. Dept. of Archaeology, India. Archaeological Survey
  • South Indian inscriptions, Volume 12, By Eugen Hultzsch, Archaeological Survey of India, India. Dept. of Archaeology
  • A topographical list of inscriptions in the Tamil Nadu and Kerala states By T. V. Mahalingam
  • Ancient India: collected essays on the literary and political history of Southern India By Sakkottai Krishnaswami Aiyangar
  • Sri Varadarajaswami Temple, Kanchi: A Study of Its History, Art and Architecture By K.V. Raman
  • The role of feudatories in later Chōḷa history By M. S. Govindasamy
  • A survey of the sources for the history of Tamil literature By Muthusamy Govindasamy, Mu Kōvintacāmi
  • History of South India By Pran Nath Chopra, T. K. Ravindran, N. Subrahmanian
  • Insights into Hinduism By Ramchandra Narayan Dandekar
  • Ramakrishna Gopal Bhandarkar as an indologist: a symposium By Sir Ramkrishna Gopal Bhandarkar
  • A history of Indian literature, 500-1399: from courtly to the popular By Sisir Kumar Das, Sāhitya Akādemī

Further reading[edit]

  • Thondaimandala Mudaliars Vamsavali (1st & 2nd editions),
  • Thondainadum athan tholkudiyum by Sri.C.S.Kannayiram,
  • The great temple of Madurai published by Arulmigu Meenakshi Sundareswarar Thirukkoil, Madurai