Thorium(IV) chloride

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Thorium(IV) chloride
Thorium(IV) chloride cystal structure
10026-08-1 YesY
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PubChem 66209
Molar mass 373.849 g/mol
Appearance white needles
Density 4.59 g/cm3, solid
Melting point 770 °C (1,420 °F; 1,040 K)
Boiling point 921 °C (1,690 °F; 1,194 K)
EU classification not listed
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Infobox references

Thorium(IV) chloride (ThCl4) is an inorganic chemical compound. It is a white, hygroscopic solid. In addition to the anhydrous ThCl4, two hydrates have been reported: ThCl4(H2O)4[1] and ThCl4(H2O)8.[2] These salts are water soluble and also white.

Preparation and structure of anhydrous thorium(IV) chloride[edit]

The anhydrous tetrachloride is prepared by carbothermic reaction of thorium dioxide:[2]

ThO2 + 2 C + 4 Cl2 → ThCl4 + 2 CO

In terms of its chemical structure, the anhydrous compound features 8-coordinate, giving overall dodecahedron geometry.[3] Thorium(IV) tetrabromide is isostructural.

Preparation and structure of hydrated thorium(IV) chloride[edit]

The octahydrate is prepared by extracting thorium(IV) hydroxide with hydrochloric acid followed by precipitation or evaporation.[2] Drying at 100 °C gives the tetrahydrate.[1] These species are assumed to be eight-coordinate Th(IV) centers.[1]


  1. ^ a b c Cantat, Thibault; Scott, Brian L.; Kiplinger, Jaqueline L. "Convenient Access to the Anhydrous Thorium Tetrachloride Complexes ThCl4(DME)2, ThCl4(1,4-dioxane)2 and ThCl4(THF)3.5 using Commercially Available and Inexpensive Starting Materials" Chemical Communications 2010, 46, 919-921. doi:10.1039/b923558b
  2. ^ a b c P. Ehrlich "Titanium, Zirconium, Hafnium, and Thorium" in Handbook of Preparative Inorganic Chemistry, 2nd Ed. Edited by G. Brauer, Academic Press, 1963, NY. Vol. 1. p. 1203.
  3. ^ R. C. L. Mooney: „The Crystal Structure of ThCl4 and UCl4“, in: Acta Crystallographica, 1949, 2, S. 189–191 (doi:10.1107/S0365110X49000485).