Three-torus model of the universe
The three-torus model is a cosmological model proposed in 1984 by Alexei Starobinsky and Yakov Borisovich Zel'dovich at the Landau Institute in Moscow. The theory describes the shape of the universe (topology) as a three-dimensional torus.
Shape of the universe
The cosmic microwave background (CMB) was discovered by Bell Labs in 1964. Greater understanding of the universe's CMB provided greater understanding of the universe's topology[further explanation needed]. In order to understand these CMB results, NASA supported development of two exploratory satellites, the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) in 1989[clarification needed] and the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) in 2001[clarification needed].
- Overbeye, Dennis. New York Times 11 March 2003: Web. 16 January 2011. “Universe as Doughnut: New Data, New Debate”