Three-torus model of the universe
The three-torus model is a cosmological model proposed in 1984 by Alexei Starobinsky and Yakov Borisovich Zel'dovich at the Landau Institute in Moscow. The theory describes the shape of the universe (topology) as a three-dimensional torus. It is also informally known as the doughnut theory.[according to whom?]
Shape of the universe
The cosmic microwave background (CMB) was discovered by Bell Labs in 1964. Greater understanding of the universe's CMB provided greater understanding of the universe's topology[further explanation needed]. In order to understand these CMB results, NASA supported development of two exploratory satellites, the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) in 1989[clarification needed] and the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) in 2001[clarification needed].
- Overbeye, Dennis. New York Times 11 March 2003: Web. 16 January 2011. “Universe as Doughnut: New Data, New Debate”