Three-torus model of the universe

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A toroidal model of the universe that has superficial similarity to the theory described in this article.

The three-Torus model is a cosmological model proposed in 1984 by Alexei Starobinsky and Yakov Borisovich Zel'dovich at the Landau Institute in Moscow.[1] The theory describes the shape of the universe (topology) as a three-dimensional torus.

Shape of the universe[edit]

The cosmic microwave background (CMB) was discovered by Bell Labs in 1964. Greater understanding of the universe's CMB provided greater understanding of the universe's topology.[further explanation needed] In order to understand these CMB results, NASA supported development of two exploratory satellites, the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) in 1989[clarification needed] and the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) in 2001.[clarification needed]


  1. ^ Overbeye, Dennis. New York Times 11 March 2003: Web. 16 January 2011. “Universe as Doughnut: New Data, New Debate”

External links[edit]