Three Fs

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The Three Fs were a series of demands first issued by the Tenant Right League in their campaign for land reform in Ireland from the 1850s. They were,

  • Fair rent — meaning rent control: for the first time in the United Kingdom, fair rent would be decided by land courts, and not by the landlords;
  • Free sale — meaning a tenant could sell the interest in his holding to an incoming tenant without landlord interference;
  • Fixity of tenure — meaning that a tenant could not be evicted if he had paid the rent.[1]

Many historians[who?] argue that their absence contributed severely to the Great Irish Famine (1846–49), as it allowed the mass eviction of starving tenants. The Three Fs were campaigned for by a number of political movements, notably the Independent Irish Party (1852–1858) and later the Irish Parliamentary Party during the Land War (from 1878). They were conceded by the British Government in a series of Irish Land Acts enacted from the 1870s on, with essentially full implementation in the Land Law (Ireland) Act 1881.[2]


  1. ^ A Short History of Ireland. BBC. Retrieved: 2010-11-09.
  2. ^ Michael McDonnell. Ireland and the Home Rule Movement. Maunsel and Co., Dublin, 1908; page 61.