Three Hundred Ramayanas: Five Examples and Three Thoughts on Translation
"Three Hundred Rāmāyaṇas: Five Examples and Three Thoughts on Translation" is an essay written by Indian writer A. K. Ramanujan for a Conference on Comparison of Civilizations at the University of Pittsburgh, February 1987.
The essay was a required reading on Delhi University's syllabus for history undergraduates from 2006–7 onward. On October 9, 2011, the Academic Council of the University decided to remove the essay from the BA curriculum for its next academic cycle. This action of the Academic Council attracted a lot of attention and several people viewed this as an act of unwarranted censorship.
Three Hundred Rāmāyaṇas is a scholarly essay that summarizes the history of the Rāmāyaṇa and its spread across India and Asia over a period of 2,500 years or more. It seeks to demonstrate factually how the story of Rama has undergone numerous variations while being transmitted across different languages, societies, geographical regions, religions, and historical periods. It does not seek to document all the recorded tellings and re-tellings of the Rāmāyaṇa. Instead, it focuses on only five specific tellings of the Rāmāyaṇa from different languages, regions, cultures, and periods, which serve purely as indicators of a much larger range of actual variations.
The count of 300 Ramayanas in the title of the essay is based on a work of Camille Bulcke and it has been pointed out that it is an underestimate of the actual count. However, Ramanujan considers only five tellings of Ramayana, namely, the tellings by Valmiki, Kamban, the Jain telling, the Thai Ramakien and the South Indian folk tellings. Ramanujan specifically prefers the term "tellings" to the usual terms "versions" and "variants" because the latter terms can and do imply the existence of an invariant original text. One of Ramanujan's main observations in the essay is that there is no such original Ramayana and that Valmiki's Ramayana telling is only one among many Ramayana tellings.
- A. K. Ramanujan, ‘Three Hundred Rāmāyaṇas: Five Examples and Three Thoughts on Translation’, in Many Rāmāyaṇas: The Diversity of a Narrative Tradition in South Asia, ed. by Paula Richman (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1991), pp. 22–48. ISBN 9780520075894. Available at http://ark.cdlib.org/ark:/13030/ft3j49n8h7/.
- A. K. Ramanujan, ‘Three Hundred Rāmāyaṇas: Five Examples and Three Thoughts on Translation’, in The Collected Essays of A. K. Ramanujan (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004), pp. 131–60, available here.
- R. Mahalakshmi (November 26, 2011). "Ramanujan's Three Hundred Ramayanas: Transmission, Interpretation And Dialogue In Indian Traditions". Mainstream Weekly. XLIX (49). Retrieved 15 November 2015.
- Ajoy Ashirwad Mahaprashasta (18 November 2011). "The rule of unreason". Frontline. 28 (23). Retrieved 15 November 2015.
- Priscilla Jebaraj (October 28, 2011). "Interview with Romila Thapar: The richness of the Ramayana, the poverty of a University". The Hindu. Retrieved 16 November 2015.
- Anuradha Raman (November 25, 2015). "Among the Ramayanas, Sita's ascent". The Hindu. Retrieved 25 November 2015.
- Manash Pratim Gohain (October 25, 2011). "Ramanujan essay: Debate turns political". The Times of India (Delhi). Retrieved 16 November 2015.
- Ragini Bhuyan (30 October 2011). "Ramanujan & the Ramayana". The Sunday Guardian. Retrieved 16 November 2015.
- Soutik Biswas (19 October 2011). "Ramayana: An 'epic' controversy". BBC News. Retrieved 15 November 2015.
- Camille Bulcke (1950). Ramakatha: utpatti aur Vikas(The rama Story: Origin and Development) (Hindi). Prayag: Hindi Parishad Prakasan.