Three Treasures (traditional Chinese medicine)
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The Three Treasures or Three Jewels (Chinese: 三寶; pinyin: sānbǎo; Wade–Giles: san-pao) are theoretical cornerstones in traditional Chinese medicine and practices such as Neidan, Qigong, and T'ai chi. They are also known as Jing Qi Shen (Chinese: 精氣神; pinyin: jīng-qì-shén; Wade–Giles: ching ch'i shen; "essence, qi, and spirit").
Jing, qi, and shen are three of the main notions shared by Taoism and Chinese culture alike. They are often referred to as the Three Treasures (sanbao 三寶), an expression that immediately reveals their importance and the close connection among them. The ideas and practices associated with each term, and with the three terms as a whole, are complex and vary considerably in different contexts and historical periods. (2008:562)
Etymology and meaning
This Chinese name sanbao originally referred to the Taoist "Three Treasures" from the Tao Te Ching (67, tr. Waley 1958:225): "pity", "frugality", and "refusal to be 'foremost of all things under heaven'". It has subsequently also been used to refer to the Jing Qi Shen and to the Buddhist Three Jewels (Buddha, Dharma, and Sangha). This latter use is misleading, however, as the Three Jewels in Buddhism is a completely different philosophy. The Buddha is the teacher, the Dharma is the teaching, and the Sangha is the community. The Three Jewels of Buddhism are the external supports for achieving realization, while the Three Treasures of Taoism are interior qualities or attitudes to be cultivated.
In long-established Chinese traditions, the "Three Treasures" are the essential energies sustaining human life:
- Jing 精 "nutritive essence, essence; refined, perfected; extract; spirit, sperm, seed"
- Qi 氣 "vitality, energy, force; air, vapor; breath; spirit, vigor; attitude"
- Shen 神 "spirit; soul, mind; god, deity; supernatural being"
This jing-qi-shen ordering is more commonly used than the variants qi-jing-shen and shen-qi-jing.
In Neidan "internal alchemy" practice (Despeux 2008:563), transmuting the Three Treasures is expressed through the sequence:
- lianjing huaqi (鍊精化氣)
- "refining essence into breath"
- lianqi huashen (鍊氣化神)
- "refining breath into spirit"
- lianshen huanxu (鍊神還虛)
Both Neidan and Neo-Confucianism (Despeux 2008:564-5) distinguish the three between xiantian (先天) "prior to heaven", referring to what is innate or natural, and houtian (後天) "posterior to heaven", referring to what is acquired in the course of life. The former are described as Yuanjing (元精) "original essence", Yuanqi (元氣) "original breath", and yuanshen (元神) "original spirit".
The bodily form [xing] is the residence of life; the qi fills this life while shen controls it. If either of them loses their proper position, they will all come to harm. (1, tr. Englehart 2000:99)
The Taoist text Gaoshang yuhuang xinyin jing (高上玉皇心印經, "Mind-Seal Scripture of the Exalted Jade Sovereign", or Xinyin jing "Mind-Seal Scripture") is a valuable early source about the Three Treasures (tr. Olson 1993).
Probably dating from the Southern Song dynasty (1127-1279), this anonymous text presents a simple and concise discussion of internal alchemy (neidan 內丹). In particular, it emphasizes the so-called Three Treasures (sanbao 三寶), namely, vital essence (jing 精), subtle breath (qi 氣), and spirit (shen 神). (Komjathy 2004:29)
Know well this secret formula wondrous and true: Spare and nurse the vital forces, this and nothing else. All power resides in the semen [jing], the breath [qi], and the spirit [shen]; Guard these with care, securely, lest there be a leak. Lest there be a leak! Keep within the body! (tr. Yu 1977:88)
Recognition in the West
Frederic H. Balfour's (1880:380-381) brief essay about the Xinyin jing ("The Imprint of the Heart") contains the earliest known Western reference to the Three Treasures: "There are three degrees of Supreme Elixir – the Spirit, the Breath, and the Essential Vigour".
- Balfour, Frederic H. 1880. "Three Brief Essays", The China Review 9: 380-382.
- Despeux, Catherine. 2008. "Jing, qi, shen; 精 氣 神; essence, pneuma (breath, energy, vital force), spirit", in The Encyclopedia of Taoism, ed. Fabrizio Pregadio, pp. 562–5. Routledge.
- Engelhardt, Ute. 2000. "Longevity Techniques and Chinese Medicine," in Daoism Handbook, ed. Livia Kohn, pp. 74–108. Brill.
- Komjathy, Louis. 2004. Daoist Texts in Translation.
- Olson, Stuart Alve. 1993. The Jade Emperor’s Mind Seal Classic: A Taoist Guide to Health, Longevity, and Immortality. St. Paul: Dragon Door Publications.
- Waley, Arthur. 1958. The Way and Its Power: A Study of the Tao Te Ching and Its Place in Chinese Thought. Grove Press. ISBN 0802150853
- Wang, Mu. Foundations of Internal Alchemy: The Taoist Practice of Neidan. Golden Elixir Press, 2011. ISBN 9780984308255.
- Yu, Anthony, tr. 1977. The Journey to the West. University of Chicago Press.