The throstle frame was a spinning machine for cotton, wool, and other fibers, differing from a mule in having a continuous action, the processes of drawing, twisting, and winding being carried on simultaneously. It "derived its name from the singing or humming which it occasioned," throstle being a dialect name for the song thrush.
- The Textile Machinery Collection at The American Textile History Museum A Historic Mechanical Engineering Heritage Collection (Report). The American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 2012. p. 7. Retrieved 16 July 2014.
- OED s.v. Throstle.
- Edward Henry Knight, Knight's American Mechanical Dictionary (Houghton, Osgood and company, 1881), p. 2564.
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