Thrust-specific fuel consumption

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Thrust specific fuel consumption)
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Thrust-specific fuel consumption (TSFC) is the fuel efficiency of an engine design with respect to thrust output. TSFC may also be thought of as fuel consumption (grams/second) per unit of thrust (kilonewtons, or kN). It is thus thrust-specific, meaning that the fuel consumption is divided by the thrust.

TSFC or SFC for thrust engines (e.g. turbojets, turbofans, ramjets, rocket engines, etc.) is the mass of fuel needed to provide the net thrust for a given period e.g. lb/(h·lbf) (pounds of fuel per hour-pound of thrust) or g/(s·kN) (grams of fuel per second-kilonewton). Mass of fuel is used, rather than volume (gallons or litres) for the fuel measure, since it is independent of temperature.[1]

Specific fuel consumption of air-breathing jet engines at their maximum efficiency is more or less proportional to exhaust speed. The fuel consumption per mile or per kilometre is a more appropriate comparison for aircraft that travel at very different speeds.[citation needed] There also exists power-specific fuel consumption, which equals the thrust-specific fuel consumption divided by speed. It can have units of pounds per hour per horsepower.

This figure is inversely proportional to specific impulse.

Significance of SFC[edit]

SFC is dependent on engine design, but differences in the SFC between different engines using the same underlying technology tend to be quite small. Increasing overall pressure ratio on jet engines tends to decrease SFC.

In practical applications, other factors are usually highly significant in determining the fuel efficiency of a particular engine design in that particular application. For instance, in aircraft, turbine (jet and turboprop) engines are typically much smaller and lighter than equivalently powerful piston engine designs, both properties reducing the levels of drag on the plane and reducing the amount of power needed to move the aircraft. Therefore, turbines are more efficient for aircraft propulsion than might be indicated by a simplistic look at the table below.

SFC varies with throttle setting, altitude, climate. For jet engines, air flight speed is an important factor too. Air flight speed counteracts the jet's exhaust speed. (In an artificial and extreme case with the aircraft flying exactly at the exhaust speed, one can easily imagine why the jet's net thrust should be near zero.) Moreover, since work is force (i.e., thrust) times distance, mechanical power is force times speed. Thus, although the nominal SFC is a useful measure of fuel efficiency, it should be divided by speed when comparing engines at different speeds.

For example, Concorde cruised at 1354 mph, or 7.15 million feet per hour, with its engines giving an SFC of 1.195 lb/(lbf·h) (see below); this means the engines transferred 5.98 million foot pounds per pound of fuel (17.9 MJ/kg), equivalent to an SFC of 0.50 lb/(lbf·h) for a subsonic aircraft flying at 570 mph, which would be better than even modern engines; the Olympus 593 used in the Concorde was the world's most efficient jet engine.[2][3] However, Concorde ultimately has a heavier airframe and, due to being supersonic, is less aerodynamically efficient, i.e., the lift to drag ratio is far lower. In general, the total fuel burn of a complete aircraft is of far more importance to the customer.

Units[edit]

Specific impulse
(by weight)
Specific impulse
(by mass)
Effective
exhaust velocity
Specific fuel consumption
SI =X seconds =9.8066 X N·s/kg =9.8066 X m/s =101,972 (1/X) g/(kN·s) / {g/(kN·s)=s/m}
Imperial units =X seconds =X lbf·s/lb =32.16 X ft/s =3,600 (1/X) lb/(lbf·h)

Typical values of SFC for thrust engines[edit]

Specific fuel consumption (SFC), specific impulse, and effective exhaust velocity numbers for various rocket and jet engines.
Engine type First run Scenario Spec. fuel cons. Specific
impulse (s)
Effective exhaust
velocity
(m/s)
Mass Thrust-to-
weight ratio
(sea level)
(lb/lbf·h) (g/kN·s)
Avio P80 solid fuel rocket motor 2006 Vega first stage vacuum 13 360 280 2700 16,160 lb (7,330 kg) (Empty)
Avio Zefiro 23 solid fuel rocket motor 2006 Vega second stage vacuum 12.52 354.7 287.5 2819 4,266 lb (1,935 kg) (Empty)
Avio Zefiro 9A solid fuel rocket motor 2008 Vega third stage vacuum 12.20 345.4 295.2 2895 1,997 lb (906 kg) (Empty)
RD-843 liquid fuel rocket engine Vega upper stage vacuum 11.41 323.2 315.5 3094 35.1 lb (15.93 kg) (Dry)
Kouznetsov NK-33 liquid fuel rocket engine 1970s N-1F, Soyuz-2-1v first stage vacuum 10.9 308 331[4] 3250 2,730 lb (1,240 kg) (Dry) 136.8
NPO Energomash RD-171M liquid fuel rocket engine Zenit-2M, Zenit-3SL, Zenit-3SLB, Zenit-3F first stage vacuum 10.7 303 337 3300 21,500 lb (9,750 kg) (Dry) 79.57
LE-7A liquid fuel rocket engine H-IIA, H-IIB first stage vacuum 8.22 233 438 4300 4,000 lb (1,800 kg) (Dry) 62.2
Snecma HM-7B cryogenic rocket engine Ariane 2, Ariane 3, Ariane 4, Ariane 5 ECA upper stage vacuum 8.097 229.4 444.6 4360 364 lb (165 kg) (Dry) 43.25
LE-5B-2 cryogenic rocket engine H-IIA, H-IIB upper stage vacuum 8.05 228 447 4380 640 lb (290 kg) (Dry) 51.93
Aerojet Rocketdyne RS-25 cryogenic rocket engine 1981 Space Shuttle, SLS first stage vacuum 7.95 225 453[5] 4440 7,004 lb (3,177 kg) (Dry) 53.79
Aerojet Rocketdyne RL-10B-2 cryogenic rocket engine Delta III, Delta IV, SLS upper stage vacuum 7.734 219.1 465.5 4565 664 lb (301 kg) (Dry) 37.27
Ramjet Mach 1 4.5 130 800 7800
Turbo-Union RB.199-34R-04 Mk.103 turbofan Tornado IDS GR.1/GR.1A/GR.1B/GR.4 static sea level (Reheat) 2.5[6] 70.8 1440 14120 2,107 lb (956 kg) (Dry) 7.59
GE F101-GE-102 turbofan 1970s B-1B static sea level (Reheat) 2.46 70 1460 14400 4,400 lb (2,000 kg) (Dry) 7.04
Tumansky R-25-300 turbojet MIG-21bis static sea level (Reheat) 2.206[6] 62.5 1632 16000 2,679 lb (1,215 kg) (Dry) 5.6
GE J85-GE-21 turbojet F-5E/F static sea level (Reheat) 2.13[6] 60.3 1690 16570 640 lb (290 kg) (Dry) 7.81
GE F110-GE-132 turbofan F-16E/F Block 60 or -129 upgrade static sea level (Reheat) 2.09[6] 59.2 1722 16890 4,050 lb (1,840 kg) (Dry) 7.9
Honeywell/ITEC F125-GA-100 turbofan F-CK-1 static sea level (Reheat) 2.06[6] 58.4 1748 17140 1,360 lb (620 kg) (Dry) 6.8
Snecma M53-P2 turbofan Mirage 2000C/D/N/H/TH/-5/-9/retrofit static sea level (Reheat) 2.05[6] 58.1 1756 17220 3,307 lb (1,500 kg) (Dry) 6.46
Snecma Atar 09C turbojet Mirage IIIE/EX/O(A)/O(F)/M, Mirage IV prototype static sea level (Reheat) 2.03[6] 57.5 1770 17400 3,210 lb (1,456 kg) (Dry) 4.13
Snecma Atar 09K-50 turbojet Mirage IV, Mirage 50, Mirage F1 static sea level (Reheat) 1.991[6] 56.4 1808 17730 3,487 lb (1,582 kg) (Dry) 4.55
GE J79-GE-15 turbojet F-4E/EJ/F/G, RF-4E static sea level (Reheat) 1.965 55.7 1832 17970 3,850 lb (1,750 kg) (Dry) 4.6
Saturn AL-31F turbofan Su-27/P/K static sea level (Reheat) 1.96[7] 55.5 1837 18010 3,350 lb (1,520 kg) (Dry) 8.22
J-58 turbojet 1958 SR-71 at Mach 3.2 (Reheat) 1.9[6] 53.8 1895 18580 6,000 lb (2,700 kg) (Dry)
GE F110-GE-129 turbofan F-16C/D/V Block 50/70, F-15K/S/SA/SG/EX static sea level (Reheat) 1.9[6] 53.8 1895 18580 3,980 lb (1,810 kg) (Dry) 7.36
Soloviev D-30F6 turbofan MiG-31, S-37/Su-47 static sea level (Reheat) 1.863[6] 52.8 1932 18950 5,326 lb (2,416 kg) (Dry) 7.856
Lyulka AL-21F-3 turbojet Su-17M/UM/M2/M2D/UM3/M3/M4, Su-22U/M3/M4 static sea level (Reheat) 1.86[6] 52.7 1935 18980 3,790 lb (1,720 kg) (Dry) 5.61
Klimov RD-33 turbofan 1974 MiG-29 static sea level (Reheat) 1.85 52.4 1946 19080 2,326 lb (1,055 kg) (Dry) 7.9
Saturn AL-41F-1S turbofan Su-35S/T-10BM static sea level (Reheat) 1.819 51.5 1979 19410 3,536 lb (1,604 kg) (Dry) 8.75-9.04
Volvo RM12 turbofan 1978 Gripen A/B/C/D static sea level (Reheat) 1.78[6] 50.4 2022 19830 2,315 lb (1,050 kg) (Dry) 7.82
GE F404-GE-402 turbofan F/A-18C/D static sea level (Reheat) 1.74[6] 49 2070 20300 2,282 lb (1,035 kg) (Dry) 7.756
Kuznetsov NK-32 turbofan 1980 Tu-144LL, Tu-160 static sea level (Reheat) 1.7 48 2100 21000 7,500 lb (3,400 kg) (Dry) 7.35
Snecma M88-2 turbofan 1989 Rafale static sea level (Reheat) 1.663 47.11 2165 21230 1,978 lb (897 kg) (Dry) 8.52
Eurojet EJ200 turbofan 1991 Eurofighter, Bloodhound LSR prototype static sea level (Reheat) 1.66–1.73 47–49[8] 2080–2170 20400–21300 2,180.0 lb (988.83 kg) (Dry) 9.17
GE J85-GE-21 turbojet F-5E/F static sea level (Dry) 1.24[6] 35.1 2900 28500 640 lb (290 kg) (Dry) 5.625
RR/Snecma Olympus 593 turbojet 1966 Concorde at Mach 2 cruise (Dry) 1.195[9] 33.8 3010 29500 7,000 lb (3,175 kg) (Dry)
Snecma Atar 09C turbojet Mirage IIIE/EX/O(A)/O(F)/M, Mirage IV prototype static sea level (Dry) 1.01[6] 28.6 3560 35000 3,210 lb (1,456 kg) (Dry) 2.94
Snecma Atar 09K-50 turbojet Mirage IV, Mirage 50, Mirage F1 static sea level (Dry) 0.981[6] 27.8 3670 36000 3,487 lb (1,582 kg) (Dry) 2.35
Snecma Atar 08K-50 turbojet Super Étendard static sea level 0.971[6] 27.5 3710 36400 2,568 lb (1,165 kg) (Dry)
Tumansky R-25-300 turbojet MIG-21bis static sea level (Dry) 0.961[6] 27.2 3750 36700 2,679 lb (1,215 kg) (Dry)
Lyulka AL-21F-3 turbojet Su-17M/UM/M2/M2D/UM3/M3/M4, Su-22U/M3/M4 static sea level (Dry) 0.86 24.4 4190 41100 3,790 lb (1,720 kg) (Dry) 3.89
GE J79-GE-15 turbojet F-4E/EJ/F/G, RF-4E static sea level (Dry) 0.85 24.1 4240 41500 3,850 lb (1,750 kg) (Dry) 2.95
Snecma M53-P2 turbofan Mirage 2000C/D/N/H/TH/-5/-9/retrofit static sea level (Dry) 0.85[6] 24.1 4240 41500 3,307 lb (1,500 kg) (Dry) 4.37
Volvo RM12 turbofan 1978 Gripen A/B/C/D static sea level (Dry) 0.824[6] 23.3 4370 42800 2,315 lb (1,050 kg) (Dry) 5.244
RR Turbomeca Adour Mk 106 turbofan 1999 Jaguar retrofit static sea level (Dry) 0.81 23 4400 44000 1,784 lb (809 kg) (Dry) 4.725
Honeywell/ITEC F124-GA-100 turbofan 1979 L-159, X-45 static sea level 0.81[6] 22.9 4440 43600 1,050 lb (480 kg) (Dry) 5.3
Honeywell/ITEC F125-GA-100 turbofan F-CK-1 static sea level (Dry) 0.8[6] 22.7 4500 44100 1,360 lb (620 kg) (Dry) 4.43
PW JT8D-9 turbofan 737 Original cruise 0.8[10] 22.7 4500 44100 3,205–3,402 lb (1,454–1,543 kg) (Dry)
PW J52-P-408 turbojet A-4M/N, TA-4KU, EA-6B static sea level 0.79 22.4 4560 44700 2,318 lb (1,051 kg) (Dry) 4.83
Saturn AL-41F-1S turbofan Su-35S/T-10BM static sea level (Dry) 0.79 22.4 4560 44700 3,536 lb (1,604 kg) (Dry) 5.49
Snecma M88-2 turbofan 1989 Rafale static sea level (Dry) 0.782 22.14 4600 45100 1,978 lb (897 kg) (Dry) 5.68
Klimov RD-33 turbofan 1974 MiG-29 static sea level (Dry) 0.77 21.8 4680 45800 2,326 lb (1,055 kg) (Dry) 4.82
RR Pegasus 11-61 turbofan AV-8B+ static sea level 0.76 21.5 4740 46500 3,960 lb (1,800 kg) (Dry) 6
Eurojet EJ200 turbofan 1991 Eurofighter, Bloodhound LSR prototype static sea level (Dry) 0.74–0.81 21–23[8] 4400–4900 44000–48000 2,180.0 lb (988.83 kg) (Dry) 6.11
GE F414-GE-400 turbofan 1993 F/A-18E/F static sea level (Dry) 0.724[11] 20.5 4970 48800 2,445 lb (1,109 kg) (Dry) 5.11
Kuznetsov NK-32 turbofan 1980 Tu-144LL, Tu-160 static sea level (Dry) 0.72-0.73 20–21 4900–5000 48000–49000 7,500 lb (3,400 kg) (Dry) 4.06[6]
Honeywell ALF502R-5 geared turbofan BAe 146-100/200/200ER/300 cruise 0.72[12] 20.4 5000 49000 1,336 lb (606 kg) (Dry) 5.22
Soloviev D-30F6 turbofan MiG-31, S-37/Su-47 static sea level (Dry) 0.716[6] 20.3 5030 49300 5,326 lb (2,416 kg) (Dry) 3.93
Snecma Turbomeca Larzac 04-C6 turbofan 1972 Alpha Jet static sea level 0.716 20.3 5030 49300 650 lb (295 kg) (Dry) 4.567
Soloviev D-30KP-2 turbofan Il-76MD/MDK/SK/VPK, Il-78/M cruise 0.715 20.3 5030 49400 5,820 lb (2,640 kg) (Dry) 5.21
Soloviev D-30KU-154 turbofan Tu-154M cruise 0.705 20.0 5110 50100 5,082 lb (2,305 kg) (Dry) 4.56
Ishikawajima-Harima F3-IHI-30 turbofan 1981 Kawasaki T-4 static sea level 0.7 19.8 5140 50400 750 lb (340 kg) (Dry) 4.9
RR Tay RB.183-3 Mk.620-15 turbofan 1984 Fokker 70, Fokker 100 cruise 0.69 19.5 5220 51200 3,185 lb (1,445 kg) (Dry) 4.2
GE CF34-3 turbofan 1982 CRJ100/200, CL600 series, CL850 cruise 0.69 19.5 5220 51200 1,670 lb (760 kg) (Dry) 5.52
GE CF34-8E turbofan E170/175 cruise 0.68 19.3 5290 51900 2,600 lb (1,200 kg) (Dry) 5.6
Honeywell TFE731-60 geared turbofan Falcon 900EX/DX/LX, VC-900 cruise 0.679[13] 19.2 5300 52000 988 lb (448 kg) (Dry) 5.06
CFM CFM56-2C1 turbofan DC-8 Super 70 cruise 0.671[12] 19.0 5370 52600 4,635 lb (2,102 kg) (Dry) 4.746
GE CF34-8C turbofan CRJ700/900/1000 cruise 0.67-0.68 19 5300–5400 52000–53000 2,400–2,450 lb (1,090–1,110 kg) (Dry) 5.7-6.1
CFM CFM56-3C1 turbofan 737 Classic cruise 0.667 18.9 5400 52900 4,308–4,334 lb (1,954–1,966 kg) (Dry) 5.46
Saturn AL-31F turbofan Su-27/P/K static sea level (Dry) 0.666-0.78[7][11] 18.9–22.1 4620–5410 45300–53000 3,350 lb (1,520 kg) (Dry) 4.93
RR Spey RB.168 Mk.807 turbofan AMX static sea level 0.66[6] 18.7 5450 53500 2,417 lb (1,096 kg) (Dry) 4.56
CFM CFM56-2A2 turbofan 1974 E-3D, KE-3A, E-6A/B cruise 0.66[14] 18.7 5450 53500 4,819 lb (2,186 kg) (Dry) 4.979
RR BR725 turbofan 2008 G650/ER cruise 0.657 18.6 5480 53700 3,605 lb (1,635.2 kg) (Dry) 4.69
CFM CFM56-2B1 turbofan KC-135R/T, C-135FR, RC-135RE cruise 0.65[14] 18.4 5540 54300 4,672 lb (2,119 kg) (Dry) 4.7
GE CF34-10A turbofan ARJ21 cruise 0.65 18.4 5540 54300 3,700 lb (1,700 kg) (Dry) 5.1
CFE CFE738-1-1B turbofan 1990 Falcon 2000 cruise 0.645[12] 18.3 5580 54700 1,325 lb (601 kg) (Dry) 4.32
RR BR710 turbofan 1995 C-37, Gulfstream V, G550, E-11, Project Dolphin, Saab Swordfish, Global Express/XRS, Global 5000/6000, Raytheon Sentinel, GlobalEye (original) cruise 0.64 18 5600 55000 4,009 lb (1,818.4 kg) (Dry) 3.84
GE F110-GE-129 turbofan F-16C/D/V Block 50/70, F-15K/S/SA/SG/EX static sea level (Dry) 0.64[11] 18 5600 55000 3,980 lb (1,810 kg) (Dry) 4.27
GE F110-GE-132 turbofan F-16E/F Block 60 or -129 upgrade static sea level (Dry) 0.64[11] 18 5600 55000 4,050 lb (1,840 kg) (Dry)
GE CF34-10E turbofan E190/195, Lineage 1000 cruise 0.64 18 5600 55000 3,700 lb (1,700 kg) (Dry) 5.2
Turbo-Union RB.199-34R-04 Mk.105 turbofan Tornado ECR static sea level (Dry) 0.637[6] 18.0 5650 55400 2,160 lb (980 kg) (Dry) 4.47
CFM CF6-50C2 turbofan A300B2-203/B4-2C/B4-103/103F/203/203F/C4-203/F4-203, DC-10-30/F/CF, KC-10A cruise 0.63[12] 17.8 5710 56000 8,731 lb (3,960 kg) (Dry) 6.01
PowerJet SaM146-1S18 turbofan Superjet LR cruise 0.629 17.8 5720 56100 4,980 lb (2,260 kg) (Dry) 3.5
CFM CFM56-7B24 turbofan 737-700/800/900 cruise 0.627[12] 17.8 5740 56300 5,216 lb (2,366 kg) (Dry) 4.6
RR BR715 turbofan 1997 717 cruise 0.62 17.6 5810 56900 4,597 lb (2,085 kg) (Dry) 4.55-4.68
PW F119-PW-100 turbofan 1992 F-22 static sea level (Dry) 0.61[11] 17.3 5900 57900 3,900 lb (1,800 kg) (Dry) 6.7
GE CF6-80C2-B1F turbofan 747-400 cruise 0.605[9] 17.1 5950 58400 9,499 lb (4,309 kg) 6.017
Turbo-Union RB.199-34R-04 Mk.103 turbofan Tornado IDS GR.1/GR.1A/GR.1B/GR.4 static sea level (Dry) 0.598[6] 16.9 6020 59000 2,107 lb (956 kg) (Dry) 4.32
CFM CFM56-5A1 turbofan A320-111/211 cruise 0.596 16.9 6040 59200 5,139 lb (2,331 kg) (Dry) 5
Aviadvigatel PS-90A1 turbofan Il-96-400/T cruise 0.595 16.9 6050 59300 6,500 lb (2,950 kg) (Dry) 5.9
PW PW2040 turbofan 757-200/200ET/200F, C-32 cruise 0.582[12] 16.5 6190 60700 7,185 lb (3,259 kg) 5.58
PW PW4098 turbofan 777-300 cruise 0.581[12] 16.5 6200 60800 36,400 lb (16,500 kg) (Dry) 5.939
GE CF6-80C2-B2 turbofan 767-200ER/300/300ER cruise 0.576[12] 16.3 6250 61300 9,388 lb (4,258 kg) 5.495
IAE V2525-D5 turbofan MD-90 cruise 0.574[15] 16.3 6270 61500 5,252 lb (2,382 kg) 4.76
IAE V2533-A5 turbofan A321-231 cruise 0.574[15] 16.3 6270 61500 5,139 lb (2,331 kg) 6.42
GE F101-GE-102 turbofan 1970s B-1B static sea level (Dry) 0.562 15.9 6410 62800 4,400 lb (2,000 kg) (Dry) 3.9
RR Trent 700 turbofan 1992 A330, A330 MRTT, Beluga XL cruise 0.562 15.9 6410 62800 13,580 lb (6,160 kg) (Dry) 4.97-5.24
RR Trent 800 turbofan 1993 777-200/200ER/300 cruise 0.560 15.9 6430 63000 13,400 lb (6,078 kg) (Dry) 5.7-6.9
Motor Sich Progress D-18T turbofan 1980 An-124, An-225 cruise 0.546 15.5 6590 64700 9,000 lb (4,100 kg) (Dry) 5.72
CFM CFM56-5B4 turbofan A320-214 cruise 0.545 15.4 6610 64800 5,412–5,513 lb (2,454.8–2,500.6 kg) (Dry) 5.14
CFM CFM56-5C2 turbofan A340-211 cruise 0.545 15.4 6610 64800 5,830 lb (2,644.4 kg) (Dry) 5.47
RR Trent 500 turbofan 1999 A340-500/600 cruise 0.542 15.4 6640 65100 11,000 lb (4,990 kg) (Dry) 5.07-5.63
CFM LEAP-1B turbofan 2014 737 MAX cruise 0.53-0.56 15–16 6400–6800 63000–67000 6,130 lb (2,780 kg) (Dry)
Aviadvigatel PD-14 turbofan 2014 MC-21-310 cruise 0.526 14.9 6840 67100 6,330 lb (2,870 kg) (Dry) 4.88
RR Trent 900 turbofan 2003 A380 cruise 0.522 14.8 6900 67600 13,770 lb (6,246 kg) (Dry) 5.46-6.11
PW TF33-P-3 turbofan B-52H, NB-52H static sea level 0.52[6] 14.7 6920 67900 3,900 lb (1,800 kg) (Dry) 4.36
GE GE90-85B turbofan 777-200/200ER cruise 0.52[12][16] 14.7 6920 67900 17,400 lb (7,900 kg) 5.59
GE GEnx-1B76 turbofan 2006 787-10 cruise 0.512[10] 14.5 7030 69000 2,658 lb (1,206 kg) (Dry) 5.62
PW PW1400G geared turbofan MC-21 cruise 0.51[17] 14 7100 69000 6,300 lb (2,857.6 kg) (Dry) 5.01
CFM LEAP-1C turbofan 2013 C919 cruise 0.51 14 7100 69000 8,662–8,675 lb (3,929–3,935 kg) (Wet)
CFM LEAP-1A turbofan 2013 A320neo family cruise 0.51[17] 14 7100 69000 6,592–6,951 lb (2,990–3,153 kg) (Wet)
RR Trent 7000 turbofan 2015 A330neo cruise 0.506 14.3 7110 69800 14,209 lb (6,445 kg) (Dry) 5.13
RR Trent 1000 turbofan 2006 787 cruise 0.506 14.3 7110 69800 13,087–13,492 lb (5,936–6,120 kg) (Dry)
RR Trent XWB-97 turbofan 2014 A350-1000 cruise 0.478 13.5 7530 73900 16,640 lb (7,550 kg) (Dry) 5.82
PW 1127G geared turbofan 2012 A320neo cruise 0.463[10] 13.1 7780 76300 6,300 lb (2,857.6 kg) (Dry)
RR AE 3007H turbofan RQ-4, MQ-4C static sea level 0.39[6] 11.0 9200 91000 1,581 lb (717 kg) (Dry) 5.24
GE F118-GE-100 turbofan 1980s B-2A Block 30 static sea level 0.375[6] 10.6 9600 94000 3,200 lb (1,500 kg) (Dry) 5.9
GE F118-GE-101 turbofan 1980s U-2S static sea level 0.375[6] 10.6 9600 94000 3,150 lb (1,430 kg) (Dry) 6.03
CFM CF6-50C2 turbofan A300B2-203/B4-2C/B4-103/103F/203/203F/C4-203/F4-203, DC-10-30/30F/30F(CF), KC-10A static sea level 0.371[6] 10.5 9700 95000 8,731 lb (3,960 kg) (Dry) 6.01
GE TF34-GE-100 turbofan A-10A, OA-10A, YA-10B static sea level 0.37[6] 10.5 9700 95000 1,440 lb (650 kg) (Dry) 6.295
CFM CFM56-2B1 turbofan KC-135R/T, C-135FR, RC-135RE static sea level 0.36[14] 10 10000 98000 4,672 lb (2,119 kg) (Dry) 4.7
Motor Sich Progress D-18T turbofan 1980 An-124, An-225 static sea level 0.345 9.8 10400 102000 9,000 lb (4,100 kg) (Dry) 5.72
PW F117-PW-100 turbofan C-17 static sea level 0.34[12] 9.6 10600 104000 7,100 lb (3,200 kg) 5.41-6.16
PW PW2040 turbofan 757-200/200ET/200F, C-32 static sea level 0.33[12] 9.3 10900 107000 7,185 lb (3,259 kg) 5.58
CFM CFM56-3C1 turbofan 737 Classic static sea level 0.33 9.3 11000 110000 4,308–4,334 lb (1,954–1,966 kg) (Dry) 5.46
GE CF6-80C2 turbofan 747-400, 767, KC-767, MD-11, A300-600R/600F, A310-300, A310 MRTT, Beluga, C-5M, Kawasaki C-2 static sea level 0.307-0.344 8.7–9.7 10500–11700 103000–115000 9,480–9,860 lb (4,300–4,470 kg)
EA GP7270 turbofan A380-861 static sea level 0.299[11] 8.5 12000 118000 14,797 lb (6,712 kg) (Dry) 5.197
GE GE90-85B turbofan 777-200/200ER/300 static sea level 0.298[11] 8.44 12080 118500 17,400 lb (7,900 kg) 5.59
GE GE90-94B turbofan 777-200/200ER/300 static sea level 0.2974[11] 8.42 12100 118700 16,644 lb (7,550 kg) 5.59
RR Trent 970-84 turbofan 2003 A380-841 static sea level 0.295[11] 8.36 12200 119700 13,825 lb (6,271 kg) (Dry) 5.436
GE GEnx-1B70 turbofan 787-8 static sea level 0.2845[11] 8.06 12650 124100 13,552 lb (6,147 kg) (Dry) 5.15
RR Trent 1000C turbofan 2006 787-9 static sea level 0.273[11] 7.7 13200 129000 13,087–13,492 lb (5,936–6,120 kg) (Dry)
Civil engines[18]
Model SL thrust BPR OPR SL SFC cruise SFC Weight Layout cost ($M) Introduction
GE GE90 90,000 lbf
400 kN
8.4 39.3 0.545 lb/(lbf⋅h)
15.4 g/(kN⋅s)
16,644 lb
7,550 kg
1+3LP 10HP
2HP 6LP
11 1995
RR Trent 71,100–91,300 lbf
316–406 kN
4.89-5.74 36.84-42.7 0.557–0.565 lb/(lbf⋅h)
15.8–16.0 g/(kN⋅s)
10,550–13,133 lb
4,785–5,957 kg
1LP 8IP 6HP
1HP 1IP 4/5LP
11-11.7 1995
PW4000 52,000–84,000 lbf
230–370 kN
4.85-6.41 27.5-34.2 0.348–0.359 lb/(lbf⋅h)
9.9–10.2 g/(kN⋅s)
9,400–14,350 lb
4,260–6,510 kg
1+4-6LP 11HP
2HP 4-7LP
6.15-9.44 1986-1994
RB211 43,100–60,600 lbf
192–270 kN
4.30 25.8-33 0.570–0.598 lb/(lbf⋅h)
16.1–16.9 g/(kN⋅s)
7,264–9,670 lb
3,295–4,386 kg
1LP 6/7IP 6HP
1HP 1IP 3LP
5.3-6.8 1984-1989
GE CF6 52,500–67,500 lbf
234–300 kN
4.66-5.31 27.1-32.4 0.32–0.35 lb/(lbf⋅h)
9.1–9.9 g/(kN⋅s)
0.562–0.623 lb/(lbf⋅h)
15.9–17.6 g/(kN⋅s)
8,496–10,726 lb
3,854–4,865 kg
1+3/4LP 14HP
2HP 4/5LP
5.9-7 1981-1987
D-18 51,660 lbf
229.8 kN
5.60 25.0 0.570 lb/(lbf⋅h)
16.1 g/(kN⋅s)
9,039 lb
4,100 kg
1LP 7IP 7HP
1HP 1IP 4LP
1982
PW2000 38,250 lbf
170.1 kN
6 31.8 0.33 lb/(lbf⋅h)
9.3 g/(kN⋅s)
0.582 lb/(lbf⋅h)
16.5 g/(kN⋅s)
7,160 lb
3,250 kg
1+4LP 11HP
2HP 5LP
4 1983
PS-90 35,275 lbf
156.91 kN
4.60 35.5 0.595 lb/(lbf⋅h)
16.9 g/(kN⋅s)
6,503 lb
2,950 kg
1+2LP 13HP
2 HP 4LP
1992
IAE V2500 22,000–33,000 lbf
98–147 kN
4.60-5.40 24.9-33.40 0.34–0.37 lb/(lbf⋅h)
9.6–10.5 g/(kN⋅s)
0.574–0.581 lb/(lbf⋅h)
16.3–16.5 g/(kN⋅s)
5,210–5,252 lb
2,363–2,382 kg
1+4LP 10HP
2HP 5LP
1989-1994
CFM56 20,600–31,200 lbf
92–139 kN
4.80-6.40 25.70-31.50 0.32–0.36 lb/(lbf⋅h)
9.1–10.2 g/(kN⋅s)
0.545–0.667 lb/(lbf⋅h)
15.4–18.9 g/(kN⋅s)
4,301–5,700 lb
1,951–2,585 kg
1+3/4LP 9HP
1HP 4/5LP
3.20-4.55 1986-1997
D-30 23,850 lbf
106.1 kN
2.42 0.700 lb/(lbf⋅h)
19.8 g/(kN⋅s)
5,110 lb
2,320 kg
1+3LP 11HP
2HP 4LP
1982
JT8D 21,700 lbf
97 kN
1.77 19.2 0.519 lb/(lbf⋅h)
14.7 g/(kN⋅s)
0.737 lb/(lbf⋅h)
20.9 g/(kN⋅s)
4,515 lb
2,048 kg
1+6LP 7HP
1HP 3LP
2.99 1986
BR700 14,845–19,883 lbf
66.03–88.44 kN
4.00-4.70 25.7-32.1 0.370–0.390 lb/(lbf⋅h)
10.5–11.0 g/(kN⋅s)
0.620–0.640 lb/(lbf⋅h)
17.6–18.1 g/(kN⋅s)
3,520–4,545 lb
1,597–2,062 kg
1+1/2LP 10HP
2HP 2/3LP
1996
D-436 16,865 lbf
75.02 kN
4.95 25.2 0.610 lb/(lbf⋅h)
17.3 g/(kN⋅s)
3,197 lb
1,450 kg
1+1L 6I 7HP
1HP 1IP 3LP
1996
RR Tay 13,850–15,400 lbf
61.6–68.5 kN
3.04-3.07 15.8-16.6 0.43–0.45 lb/(lbf⋅h)
12–13 g/(kN⋅s)
0.690 lb/(lbf⋅h)
19.5 g/(kN⋅s)
2,951–3,380 lb
1,339–1,533 kg
1+3LP 12HP
2HP 3LP
2.6 1988-1992
RR Spey 9,900–11,400 lbf
44–51 kN
0.64-0.71 15.5-18.4 0.56 lb/(lbf⋅h)
16 g/(kN⋅s)
0.800 lb/(lbf⋅h)
22.7 g/(kN⋅s)
2,287–2,483 lb
1,037–1,126 kg
4/5LP 12HP
2HP 2LP
1968-1969
GE CF34 9,220 lbf
41.0 kN
21 0.35 lb/(lbf⋅h)
9.9 g/(kN⋅s)
1,670 lb
760 kg
1F 14HP
2HP 4LP
1996
AE3007 7,150 lbf
31.8 kN
24.0 0.390 lb/(lbf⋅h)
11.0 g/(kN⋅s)
1,581 lb
717 kg
ALF502/LF507 6,970–7,000 lbf
31.0–31.1 kN
5.60-5.70 12.2-13.8 0.406–0.408 lb/(lbf⋅h)
11.5–11.6 g/(kN⋅s)
0.414–0.720 lb/(lbf⋅h)
11.7–20.4 g/(kN⋅s)
1,336–1,385 lb
606–628 kg
1+2L 7+1HP
2HP 2LP
1.66 1982-1991
CFE738 5,918 lbf
26.32 kN
5.30 23.0 0.369 lb/(lbf⋅h)
10.5 g/(kN⋅s)
0.645 lb/(lbf⋅h)
18.3 g/(kN⋅s)
1,325 lb
601 kg
1+5LP+1CF
2HP 3LP
1992
PW300 5,266 lbf
23.42 kN
4.50 23.0 0.391 lb/(lbf⋅h)
11.1 g/(kN⋅s)
0.675 lb/(lbf⋅h)
19.1 g/(kN⋅s)
993 lb
450 kg
1+4LP+1HP
2HP 3LP
1990
JT15D 3,045 lbf
13.54 kN
3.30 13.1 0.560 lb/(lbf⋅h)
15.9 g/(kN⋅s)
0.541 lb/(lbf⋅h)
15.3 g/(kN⋅s)
632 lb
287 kg
1+1LP+1CF
1HP 2LP
1983
FJ44 1,900 lbf
8.5 kN
3.28 12.8 0.456 lb/(lbf⋅h)
12.9 g/(kN⋅s)
0.750 lb/(lbf⋅h)
21.2 g/(kN⋅s)
445 lb
202 kg
1+1L 1C 1H
1HP 2LP
1992

The following table gives the efficiency for several engines when running at 80% throttle, which is approximately what is used in cruising, giving a minimum SFC. The efficiency is the amount of power propelling the plane divided by the rate of energy consumption. Since the power equals thrust times speed, the efficiency is given by

where V is speed and h is the energy content per unit mass of fuel (the higher heating value is used here, and at higher speeds the kinetic energy of the fuel or propellant becomes substantial and must be included).

typical subsonic cruise, 80% throttle, min SFC[19]
Turbofan efficiency
GE90 36.1%
PW4000 34.8%
PW2037 35.1% (M.87 40K)
PW2037 33.5% (M.80 35K)
CFM56-2 30.5%
TFE731-2 23.4%

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Specific Fuel Consumption.
  2. ^ Supersonic Dream
  3. ^ "The turbofan engine", page 5. SRM Institute of Science and Technology, Department of aerospace engineering
  4. ^ "NK33". Encyclopedia Astronautica.
  5. ^ "SSME". Encyclopedia Astronautica.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah Nathan Meier (21 Mar 2005). "Military Turbojet/Turbofan Specifications".
  7. ^ a b https://www.airinternational.com/article/flanker
  8. ^ a b "EJ200 turbofan engine" (PDF). MTU Aero Engines. April 2016.
  9. ^ a b Ilan Kroo. "Data on Large Turbofan Engines". Aircraft Design: Synthesis and Analysis. Stanford University.
  10. ^ a b c https://mediatum.ub.tum.de/doc/1283437/1283437.pdf
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k https://ruomo.lib.uom.gr/bitstream/7000/534/1/Manuscript_DEA_Turbofan_Aero_Engines%20-%20OMEGA_2019_617_Accepted.pdf
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k http://www.jet-engine.net/civtfspec.html
  13. ^ https://engineering.purdue.edu/~propulsi/propulsion/jets/tfans/tfe731.html
  14. ^ a b c http://elodieroux.com/ExempleEngines.pdf
  15. ^ a b Lloyd R. Jenkinson & al. (30 Jul 1999). "Civil Jet Aircraft Design: Engine Data File". Elsevier/Butterworth-Heinemann.
  16. ^ http://elodieroux.com/EditionsElodieRouxEngines.html
  17. ^ a b Vladimir Karnozov (August 19, 2019). "Aviadvigatel Mulls Higher-thrust PD-14s To Replace PS-90A". AIN Online.
  18. ^ Lloyd R. Jenkinson; et al. (30 Jul 1999). "Civil Jet Aircraft Design: Engine Data File". Elsevier/Butterworth-Heinemann.
  19. ^ Ilan Kroo. "Specific Fuel Consumption and Overall Efficiency". Aircraft Design: Synthesis and Analysis. Stanford University. Archived from the original on November 24, 2016.

External links[edit]