Thumal the Qahraman

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Thumal the Qahraman (Arabic: ثمل القهرمانة‎) (died 929) was a Muslim woman appointed in 918 as a judge in a maẓālim (secular administrative) court. She was not a Qadi (a judge adjudicating Islamic law), for she only dealt with secular law. She was put in charge of rescripting the petitions which petitioners brought to the court.[1] She was appointed by Umm Jafar Muqtadir, the mother to caliph Jafar al-Muqtadir-billah (r. 908–923), the Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad.

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  1. ^ See Karen Bauer, ‘Debates on Women’s Status as Judges and Witnesses in Post-Formative Islamic Law,’ Journal of the American Oriental Society, 130.1 (2010), 1-21.