Thumal the Qahraman
Thumal the Qahraman (Arabic: ثمل القهرمانة) (died 929) was a Muslim woman appointed in 918 as a judge in a maẓālim (secular administrative) court. She was not a Qadi (a judge adjudicating Islamic law), for she only dealt with secular law. She was put in charge of rescripting the petitions which petitioners brought to the court. She was appointed by Umm Jafar Muqtadir, the mother to caliph Jafar al-Muqtadir-billah (r. 908–923), the Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad.
- See Karen Bauer, ‘Debates on Women’s Status as Judges and Witnesses in Post-Formative Islamic Law,’ Journal of the American Oriental Society, 130.1 (2010), 1-21.
- Fatema Mernissi, Mernissi, Fatima, and Mary Jo. Lakeland. The Forgotten Queens of Islam. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, 1993. 42-43. Print.
- Ibn Kathir, Al Bidayah wa al-Nihayah
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