|Players||Preferably 2×2 (1×1 - 2 rounds dealt or 3×3 - each player is dealt 4 cards)|
|Card rank (highest to lowest)||J 9 A 10 K Q|
|Playing time||10 min.|
Thunee, after the Tamil word for water, is a popular trick-taking card game that originated in Durban, South Africa. It was thought to be invented by Indian indentured-labourers who arrived in South Africa to work in the sugarcane fields. However the game is probably derived from Euchre, a game very similar in play. It is believed that there are variations of the game found in India and Mauritius. The game is mostly confined to the former Indian townships, where it is very popular as a family game and in fund-raising tournaments, but to some extent it has spread to other South Africans and to Indians in other countries. The first thunee world championship was held in Pietermaritzburg in 2003.
Salesh Jagnath, the sardar at the sugar cane estate of De Charmoy and Angel at La Mercy on the KwaZulu-Natal North Coast, and his friends are credited with inventing the exciting six-card game during 1872. It is said that Naidoo was such a popular man that the barracks in which the indentured labourers lived was so named after him.
The game is part of the Jack Nine Card games family, which includes Euchre, Twenty eight, and a much older card game from the German Middle Ages, called Jass.
Thunee is best for four players in fixed partnerships, sitting crosswise, but can also be played by 2 or 6 (2 teams of 3 players). It is played with 24 cards only. The Sixes, referred to as the "ball cards", are used to keep the scores. The highly original ranking of cards and the card-point values are as shown in the table. The first and foremost rule of the game is to always follow suit, if a player does not have that suit he may play any other card in his deck.
A hand can only be “cut” if a player does not have suit of the first card. His partner may cut higher to assume the lead if he too does not have that suit. Should the player who “cut” the hand be caught by the opposing team having the suit of the first card, then the opposing team is allowed to open 4 points (“4 ball”). If a player cuts a hand and his partner does not want to assume the lead he is allowed to “undercut” (to cut lower than that initial “chop”) provided that he only has trump in his possession, should he undercut while in the possession of a suit other than that of trump, then the opposing team is allowed to open 4 points (“4 ball”). Any player is allowed to undercut any hand provided he has only trump in his hand, should he not have only trump in hand then the above rule applies.
A nominated person from one team called out first, will shuffle the cards, he will then deal the cards face up, one card to each player at a time starting from his right - a process known as "black Jack deals". The first person receiving a black Jack, i.e. either the Jack of clubs or the Jack of spades, will start dealing and the opposite side will trump.
The Dealer must always offer the opposition to his left the opportunity to cut the deck. One cannot center cut or count the number of cards prior to cutting. The opposition may decline to cut with no recourse. Each player receives six cards in total but first each player is dealt 4 cards and then the dealer deals the remaining 2 cards each.
Bidding, or "calling", as it is commonly known, is done when an opposition player wishes to set trump although it is not technically his turn to trump. Players usually choose to call for trump due to them being dealt favorable cards. A player may not call against his partners call for trump. Should both players from the team call out a bid at the same time, the bid is escalated to the next multiple of 10 and the dealer will allocate who from the opposing team will call trump which must be placed on the table by the player in concern. The maximum bid is a 100 and the player with the highest bid will keep trump. The opposing team may call 104. Should the team counting win the game, then they will be allowed to open 2 points on their scorecard (a process known as "call and loss"). The bidding process can be halted if a player calls "thunee". The trumpman has the first right to call thunee. During any form of the game, the team counting must always have trump, if they do not, the game becomes trumpless, a trumpless game requires a re-shuffle or re-deal, it is the duty of the counting team to realise that they are trumpless, failure to do so may result in the loss of a point or ball. Sometimes, the team not trumping are dealt unfavorable cards and call to set trump, in the hope that their opposition will call higher - this is (thunee terms) called 'fishing'.
- Thunee - The player who calls thunee must win all hands with the first card played in that game becoming the trump. The player calling "thunee", must win all hands and must not be caught by the opposition or their partner, in which case they may open 4 points. Should the player who called "thunee" be caught by the opposing team or by his partner (which is known as a "Partner Catch"), then the opposing team is allowed to open 4 points or 8 points respectively. It is important to note that a player may not call thunee when they acquire all 6 of the same suit, this creates a trumpless situation and the player can be "4 balled".
- Blind Thunee - The player who calls "Blind Thunee" must call before the remaining 2-cards have been dealt. When the remaining 2-cards are dealt, all players may see it, except for the player whom called. This player must win all of the first 4-hands with the first card played in that game becoming the trump. Thereafter, the player may see the remaining 2-cards and must win the 2-hands that follow. Should the player not be caught by the opposition or their partner, in which case they may open 8 points. Calling "Blind Thunee" is another variation call in thunee, which is used as a last resort to make up for a big deficit in points.
- Royals - In this case the lower points cards become the highest cards (with Q becoming the highest and J becoming the lowest). The player who calls 'royals' must win all hands with the points system being inverted, with the first card played in that game becoming the trump, as with calling "thunee" must win all hands and must not be caught by the opposition or their partner. Calling "Royals" is a variation call in thunee to make an unfavourable hand, favourable. If lost the opponents get 4 points or if won which is also 4 points.
- Blind Royals - The player who calls "Blind Royals" must call before the remaining 2-cards have been dealt. When the remaining 2-cards are dealt, all players may see it, except for the player who called. This player must win all of the first 4-hands with the first card played in that game becoming the trump. Thereafter, the player may see the remaining 2-cards and must win the 2-hands that follow. Should the player not be caught by the opposition or their partner, in which case they may open 8 points. Calling "Blind Royals" is another variation call in thunee, which is used as a last resort to make up for a big deficit in points.
- Jodhi - A "Jodhi" can also be called by a player after his team has won their first or third hand prior to the third card of the next hand being played. The opposition team, if counting, will thus have to meet 105 points plus the value of Jodhi that was called. If the team which is counting calls a "Jodhi", then the points which they have to achieve are 105 less the value of Jodhi that was called. The team which claims last hand is given an additional 10 points.
Jodhi calls are effective with the possession/combination of the following cards: K and Q (non-trump suit)-20 Jodhi, K and Q (trump suit)-40 Jodhi, J, K and Q (non-trump suit)-30 Jodhi, J, K and Q (trump suit)-50 Jodhi.
- Double - A "double" can be called by a player on the last hand if his team has taken all hands and he is sure he will take the last one. The call is made by the player playing the first card on the last hand, or by his partner should he have the winning card. If it is a correct call then the team's ball score increases by 2. If it is an incorrect call then the opposition team's ball score increases by 4 (see "Penalties" below). If a team call to set trump but lose all hands, the opposition can call 'backside double' - winning 4 points (double multiplied by 2). A variant call, this is to ware off teams 'fishing'. (See "Bidding" above)
- Khanuck - A "khanuck" is also called on the last hand if a team is going to win the last hand and the Jodhis called by that team are higher than the final point tally less 10 of the opposition team. A correct khanuck call adds 3 ball points onto the winning team and an incorrect one gives four points (Four-ball) to the opposition team. The Khanuck count is reduced by any Jodhi that may be called by the opposition, but it does not include calls to set trump. If a team call to set trump but lose, with opposing team, having called Jodhis, higher than the value than the hands won, the team not trumping can call 'backside khanuck' - winning 6 points (khanuck multiplied by 2). A variant call, this is to ware off teams 'fishing'. (See "Bidding" above)
Example: 50 Jodhi Khanuck - The counting team fails to reach a count of 60. (10 is added for the taking of the last hand)
Balling, or scoring, in a thunee game is won by the player or team who has won 12 rounds, or ball points. 13 rounds or ball points must be reached to win if a khanuck was called during the game. A common variant requires 13 rounds to win a game regardless if khanuck was called or not. A thunee or khanuck game may be played during any stage of the game, however a double game may not be played when a teams ball score is on cornerhouse (last remaining point to win). If a team calls a cornerhouse double, the opposition is awarded a penalty, gaining 4 balls. Certain variants of the game require a team to win by a minimum of 2 points, a process known as "2 to clear", however other variants maintain that this play is only applicable when a kanuck is called during the game.
Jodhi is the player who either calls Jack, King and Queen of one suit. This call adds 30 points, or 50 points if it is of the trump suit. If a King and Queen of one suit, this call adds 20 points, or 40 points if it is of the trump suit.
If a team during the game is caught committing an offence, e.g. using sign language, not following suit, changing trump card etc., then the team is automatically disqualified, losing the round, incurring a 4-point penalty called "Four-ball".
- Khan, Farook (2003-02-05). "Anyone for Thunee?". Daily News.
- Devchand, Tharuna (2010-10-11). "Work hard, play hard". The Witness.
- Authentic Indian Entertainment at Thunee.com