Thymidine kinase 1

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TK1
Protein TK1 PDB 1w4r.png
Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: PDBe RCSB
Identifiers
Aliases TK1, TK2, Thymidine kinase 1
External IDs MGI: 98763 HomoloGene: 37749 GeneCards: TK1
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE TK1 202338 at tn.png
More reference expression data
Orthologs
Species Human Mouse
Entrez
Ensembl
UniProt
RefSeq (mRNA)

NM_003258

NM_001271729
NM_009387

RefSeq (protein)

NP_003249.3

NP_001258658.1
NP_033413.2

Location (UCSC) Chr 17: 78.17 – 78.19 Mb Chr 11: 117.82 – 117.83 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]
Wikidata
View/Edit Human View/Edit Mouse

Thymidine kinase 1, soluble (gene name TK1), is a human thymidine kinase.[3]

Two forms of this protein have been identified in animal cells, one in cytosol and one in mitochondria. Activity of the cytosolic enzyme is high in proliferating cells and peaks during the S-phase of the cell cycle; it is very low in resting cells.

Interactions[edit]

Thymidine kinase 1 has been shown to interact with P21.[4]

Interactive pathway map[edit]

Click on genes, proteins and metabolites below to link to respective articles. [§ 1]

[[File:
FluoropyrimidineActivity_WP1601 go to article go to article go to article go to pathway article go to pathway article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to PubChem Compound go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to pathway article go to pathway article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to WikiPathways go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article
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FluoropyrimidineActivity_WP1601 go to article go to article go to article go to pathway article go to pathway article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to PubChem Compound go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to pathway article go to pathway article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to WikiPathways go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article
|{{{bSize}}}px|alt=Fluorouracil (5-FU) Activity edit]]
Fluorouracil (5-FU) Activity edit
  1. ^ The interactive pathway map can be edited at WikiPathways: "FluoropyrimidineActivity_WP1601". 

Cancer detection[edit]

Thymidine kinase has been making a growing impact in the cancer research community. It has been found that elevated blood serum levels of TK-1 correlates with metastatic capabilities of the cancer and thereby can be used to detect malignant types of cancer, furthermore TK-1 has been found to show up in blood serum even before clinical symptoms even start to show.[5] This would allow quicker treatment before the cancer becomes too developed. TK-1 has also been found to correlate with the return of breast cancer along with many more types of cancer.[6] TK-1 can be used to detect cancer earlier, determine what stage it is in, and if in remission it can be used to predict another cancer growth event. Attempts to make commercial ELISA tests to test blood serum levels have not been promising.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Human PubMed Reference:". 
  2. ^ "Mouse PubMed Reference:". 
  3. ^ "Entrez Gene: Thymidine kinase 1, soluble". 
  4. ^ Huang DY, Chang ZF (June 2001). "Interaction of human thymidine kinase 1 with p21(Waf1)". Biochem. J. 356 (Pt 3): 829–34. doi:10.1042/0264-6021:3560829. PMC 1221910Freely accessible. PMID 11389691. 
  5. ^ Alegre MM, Robison RA, O'Neill KL (May 2013). "Thymidine Kinase 1: A Universal Marker for Cancer". Cancer and Clinical Oncology. 2 (1). doi:10.5539/cco.v2n1p159. 
  6. ^ Alegre MM, Robison RA, O'Neill KL (2012). "Thymidine kinase 1 upregulation is an early event in breast tumor formation". Journal of Oncology. 2012: 575647. doi:10.1155/2012/575647. PMC 3388419Freely accessible. PMID 22778736. 

Further reading[edit]