Tiến Quân Ca

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Tiến Quân Ca
English: Marching Song
Song of Advancing Soldiers

National anthem of  Vietnam
LyricsVăn Cao, 1944
MusicVăn Cao, 1944
Adopted1954 (by North Vietnam)
1976 (by Vietnam)
Audio sample
U.S. Navy Band instrumental version

"Tiến Quân Ca" (lit. "The Marching Song"), known in English as the "Marching Song", "Song of a Marching Army" or "Song of Advancing Soldiers", is the national anthem of Vietnam, written and composed by Văn Cao in 1944. The "Army Marching Song" was adopted as the national anthem of North Vietnam in 1954 and was adopted as the national anthem of the new unified Socialist Republic of Vietnam in 1976, following the reunification of North Vietnam and South Vietnam at the end of the Vietnam War. Though it has two verses, only the first one is usually sung, like the Star-Spangled Banner.

History[edit]

Its lyrics and title were based on Văn Cao's previous works, "Thăng Long" (lit. "Rising Dragon", a former name of Hanoi).[1] Part of the lyrics were also different during its early stages,[2][3] as it went through numerous changes starting in the early 1940s.

Lyric changes and completion[edit]

"Tiến Quân Ca" went through many changes shortly after it was composed. For instance, the first sentence "Đoàn quân Việt Nam đi" ("The Vietnamese army marches") was originally "Đoàn quân Việt Minh đi"[2] ("The Viet Minh army marches""). The sixth part of the lyrics was also originally "Thề phanh thây uống máu quân thù"[3][4] (We swear to tear apart the enemy and drink their blood), expressing his anger at the colonials administration for letting two million Vietnamese people perish. After many suggestions, Văn Cao changed it to "Vì nhân dân chiến đấu không ngừng" ("For the people let's fight until the end").[2] The last sentence "Tiến lên! Cùng thét lên! Chí trai là nơi đây ước nguyền!" ("Together we shout onwards, our spirit is here") was changed to "Núi sông Việt Nam ta vững bền" ("Vietnam's mountains and rivers shall be us forever"), but when it was published it was changed to "Nước non Việt Nam ta vững bền!", which had the same meaning but a slightly different tone, which Văn Cao commented, "With a song that requires solemn, 'nước non' seemed too weak while being sung with 'núi sông' would be more reasonable."[2]

After completion of work, Văn Cao met and let Vũ Quý try the song. Vũ Quý was very happy at his work, and "Tiến Quân Ca" was published in papers on November 1944 with lithographs by Văn Cao.[5]

On 17 August 1945, the song was sung for the first time at a rally of civil servants in Hanoi by a Ph.D under the flag of the Việt Minh, and "robbed the loudspeakers". Văn Cao quoted, "That quiet man was an attraction to thousands of people listening that day".[6][7]

The poet and musician Nguyễn Đình Thi was touched after hearing Văn Cao sing the song and asked each person to write another song for "The Viet Minh Frontline". He posted his own "Diệt Phát Xít", meaning "Killing Fascists". Văn Cao wrote "Chiến Sĩ Việt Nam", meaning "Vietnam Soldiers". Both songs are still popular and sung to the public today.[5]

As a national anthem[edit]

On 17 August 1945, Hồ Chí Minh approved Tiến Quân Ca to be officially recognized as the anthem of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam.

On 2 September 1945, marching was officially performed on the day of the Proclamation of Independence at Ba Đình Square by the Liberation Army band commanded by Đinh Ngọc Liên. At the day before the performance, musicians Dinh Ngoc Lien, Nguyen Huu Hieu, and Văn Cao discussed for changing the two words in "Tiến Quân Ca" in order to shorten the song by shortening the length of the first E pitches in the word "đoàn" and the F in the middle of the word "xác" to make the song more "snappy".[8]

In 1946, the 1st National Assembly officially recognized "Tiến Quân Ca" as the national anthem. In the first Constitution of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam in Article 3, it states directly about the national anthem. In 1955, the 5th session of the first National Assembly decided to invite authors to participate in another editing of the song.[9][10] Văn Cao had regrets after this because the "heroic spirit" of the song had been lost after being edited.[1]

After 1975, the government of South Vietnam fell, and on 2 July 1976, the Provisional Revolutionary Government of the Republic of South Vietnam (in most common situation, the phrase "Viet Cong" actually refers to it) and the Democratic Republic of Vietnam agreed to be reunified into the new Socialist Republic of Vietnam. "Tiến Quân Ca" was chosen as the national anthem. In 1981,[11] a contest was opened for a new national anthem but after more a year, it was and has never been mentioned again nor are there any official statement about the results. Thus, "Tiến Quân Ca" remains today as the national anthem of Vietnam.

Copyright[edit]

Copyright of the lyrics and the music sheet[edit]

In 2010, Nghiêm Thúy Băng, the wife of late musician Văn Cao, addressed a letter to the Minister of Culture, Sports and Tourism of Vietnam proposing to donate the work "Tien quan ca" to the public, the Party, the National Assembly and the State. This is also the wish of Văn Cao when he was still alive.[12][13][14][15]

However, in 2015, the family of Văn Cao, registered the song with the Vietnam Center for Protection of Music Copyright, demanding royalties for all public performances except in certain situations like schools and "important state ceremonies". Văn Cao's eldest son Văn Thao said that his family "never reached consensus on 'gifting' the song, so they authorized the center to collect royalties on his father's songs".[16]

The copyright announcement has angered many veteran musicians. Nguyen Quang Long says the "anthem must belong to the public, and people should be allowed to sing it without worrying about royalties". Singer Ánh Tuyết, who is best known for her performance of Cao's songs, agrees that the anthem "long ago became a song of the people, so it should be gifted to the people".

On 25 August 2015, the Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism sent an official letter to the music copyright agency to stop collecting royalties on "Tiến Quân Ca".[17]

On 8 July 2016, Văn Thao confirmed that he and his family were going to donate the song to their country and people as his father's last wish. A letter, signed by all the legal inheritors in the family, stated that the family would donate the song for free use.[18]

On 15 July 2016, The National Assembly Office held a ceremony in Hanoi to receive the national anthem, donated by family members of Văn Cao, and to bestow the composer with the Ho Chi Minh Order.[19][20][21][22][23] Also at the ceremony, Deputy Prime Minister Vũ Đức Đam presented a certificate of merit from the Prime Minister to Nghiêm Thúy Băng, the composer’s widow, in recognition of her efforts in preserving the composer’s works.[24][25]

Copyright of different recording versions of the anthem[edit]

There are still disputes over the copyrights of each recording versions of the anthem, for example during the broadcasting the football match between Laos and Vietnam on 6 December 2021, the sound of anthem music was muted using the reason of copyrights.[26] The copyright claims met with huge backlash from the author's family, the government, and other opinions who considered national anthem should be free for all.[27][28][29] Opposite opinions claimed that although the lyric and music sheet of the anthem is free, it is legal to claimed the copyright of specific recording versions of the anthem.[30][31][32]

The Government then announced a "free" recording version of the national anthem which had been already published on the government website and emphasized that "Vietnamese laws strictly forbid the obstruction of popularizing the national anthem, directly or indirectly, under the regulation of rules and laws."[33] The Department of Sport also issued an instruction called for the use of the "free" version published by the government.[34] The "free" version was then used in subsequent sport events.[35]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "VietNamNet". Vnn.vietnamnet.vn. Retrieved 3 September 2017.
  2. ^ a b c d "Không tìm thấy nội dung này - Báo điện tử Tiền Phong". Tienphong.vn. 17 August 2005. Retrieved 3 September 2017.
  3. ^ a b "Chủ tịch Hồ Chí Minh với bài Quốc ca Việt Nam". Old.bqllang.gov.vn. Retrieved 3 September 2017.
  4. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 7 September 2009. Retrieved 10 December 2016.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  5. ^ a b "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 20 December 2016. Retrieved 10 December 2016.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  6. ^ Bài Tiến Quân Ca, hồi ký Văn Cao trên tạp chí Sông Hương số 26, tháng 7 năm 1987
  7. ^ "Nhân Văn Giai Phẩm - phần XIII : Văn Cao". Viet.rfi.fr. 11 April 2010. Retrieved 3 September 2017.
  8. ^ "Bộ Kèn đồng của Ban nhạc Giải phóng quân đã cử hành Tiến quân ca trong ngày độc lập". Btlsqsvn.org.vn. Retrieved 3 September 2017.
  9. ^ "Quốc ca Nước Cộng hoà xã hội chủ nghĩa Việt Nam". Cpv.org.vn. Retrieved 3 September 2017.
  10. ^ "Archived copy". www.na.gov.vn. Archived from the original on 8 April 2009. Retrieved 15 January 2022.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  11. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 27 April 2014. Retrieved 10 December 2016.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  12. ^ "Gia đình cố nhạc sĩ Văn Cao hiến tặng "Tiến quân ca"". 11 July 2016.
  13. ^ "Yêu cầu dừng thu tiền bản quyền ca khúc Tiến quân ca". Thanh Niên. 26 August 2015.
  14. ^ Hiến tặng tác phẩm "Tiến quân ca"
  15. ^ "Hiến tặng Quốc ca là tâm nguyện của ông Văn Cao"
  16. ^ "Vietnam: Family seeks royalties for national anthem". Bbc.com. 28 August 2015. Retrieved 3 September 2017.
  17. ^ "Yêu cầu dừng thu tiền bản quyền ca khúc "Tiến quân ca"". Tuổi Trẻ. 26 August 2015.
  18. ^ [1] Archived 20 December 2016 at the Wayback Machine
  19. ^ "Lễ tiếp nhận bài "Tiến quân ca" và truy tặng Huân chương Hồ Chí Minh của Chủ tịch nước cho cố nhạc sĩ Văn Cao". Cov.gov.vn. Retrieved 3 September 2017.
  20. ^ "Composer's family presents national anthem to State, people". En.vietnamplus.vn. 16 July 2016. Retrieved 3 September 2017.
  21. ^ "Composer's family presents national anthem to State, people". English.von.vn. 16 July 2016. Retrieved 3 September 2017.
  22. ^ "Gia đình cố nhạc sĩ Văn Cao hiến tặng bài 'Tiến quân ca'". Vnexpress.net. Retrieved 3 September 2017.
  23. ^ "Composer's family presents national anthem to State, people". Vietnam News Agency. 16 July 2016.
  24. ^ "Composer of national anthem bestowed with Ho Chi Minh Order". Nhân Dân. 16 July 2016.
  25. ^ "Hiến tặng tác phẩm "Tiến quân ca" cho nhân dân và Tổ quốc". 15 July 2016.
  26. ^ "'Tiến quân ca' bị cắt tiếng gây bức xúc". vnexpress.net (in Vietnamese). 7 December 2021. Retrieved 1 February 2022.
  27. ^ 'Chiếc gậy' của BH Media, nhận vơ và sự trục lợi bản quyền các tác phẩm trên nền tảng số
  28. ^ Dư luận bức xúc khi Quốc ca Việt Nam bị BH Media nhận vơ bản quyền
  29. ^ Vụ Quốc ca bị tắt tiếng trên YouTube: Con trai nhạc sĩ Văn Cao rất bức xúc
  30. ^ Có phải ai cũng được quyền sử dụng Quốc ca?
  31. ^ Vụ BH Media phản pháo VTV về bản quyền Quốc ca: Luật sư nói gì?
  32. ^ Tự ý ngắt tiếng Quốc ca dù không bị "đánh" bản quyền bị xử lý như thế nào?
  33. ^ {Quốc ca Việt Nam đang được phát chính thức trên Chinhphu.vn, không ai có quyền ngăn chặn, cản trở việc phổ biến tác phẩm này
  34. ^ Hoạt động thể thao chính thức của Việt Nam sẽ sử dụng bản ghi Quốc ca đăng trên website Chính phủ
  35. ^ Quốc ca Việt Nam không bị tắt tiếng trong trận Việt Nam – Malaysia

External links[edit]