Ti (simplified Chinese: 体; traditional Chinese: 體; pinyin: tǐ; Wade–Giles: t'i) is the Chinese word for substance or body. The philosopher Zhang Zai described the ti as "that which is never absent, that is, through all transformations."
In Neo-Confucianism, this concept is often associated with yong, which means "use" or "function." Such function or how the yong of a thing is its activity or its response when stimulated underscores the link. Like the concepts of nei-wai (inner-outer) and ben-mo (root-branch), ti-yong is central to Chinese metaphysics.  The link was adopted in order to manifest the actual meaning of the two truths and the relationship between them.
- Cua, Antonio (2003). Encyclopedia of Chinese Philosophy. New York: Routledge. p. 720. ISBN 0415939135.
- Ruokanen, Miikka; Huang, Paulos (2010). Christianity and Chinese Culture. Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B. Eerdmans Publishing. p. 49. ISBN 9780802865564.
- Shih, Chang-qing (2004). The Two Truths in Chinese Buddhism. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers, Pvt. Ltd. p. 158. ISBN 8120820355.
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