1989 Tiananmen Square protests

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This is an old revision of this page, as edited by Shadowjams (talk | contribs) at 09:44, 16 March 2010 (Reverted edits by to last revision by (HG)). The present address (URL) is a permanent link to this revision, which may differ significantly from the current revision.

Jump to navigation Jump to search


1989 Tiananmen Square protests
Tank Man — This famous photo, taken on 5 June 1989 by photographer Jeff Widener, shows the PLA's advancing tanks halting for an unknown man near Tiananmen Square.
Literal meaningJune Fourth Incident
Alternative Chinese name
Traditional Chinese天安門事件
Simplified Chinese天安门事件
Literal meaningTiananmen Incident

The Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, referred to in much of the world as the Tiananmen Square massacre and in the People's Republic of China (PRC) as the June Fourth Incident (officially to avoid confusion with two prior Tiananmen Square protests), were a series of demonstrations in and near Tiananmen Square in Beijing in the PRC beginning on 14 April 1989. Led mainly by students and intellectuals, the protests occurred in a year that saw the collapse of a number of communist governments around the world.

The protests were sparked by the death of a pro-democracy and anti-corruption official, Hu Yaobang, whom protesters wanted to mourn. By the eve of Hu's funeral, 100,000 people had gathered at Tiananmen square.[1] The protests lacked a unified cause or leadership; participants included disillusioned Communist Party of China members and Trotskyists as well as free market reformers, who were generally against the government's authoritarianism and voiced calls for economic change[2] and democratic reform[2] within the structure of the government. The demonstrations centered on Tiananmen Square, in Beijing, but large-scale protests also occurred in cities throughout China, including Shanghai, which remained peaceful throughout the protests.

The movement lasted seven weeks, from Hu's death on 15 April until tanks cleared Tiananmen Square on 4 June. In Beijing, the resulting military response to the protesters by the PRC government left many civilians and military personnel charged with clearing the square of the dead or severely injured[citation needed]. The number of deaths is not known, however, estimates include a figure of roughly 7,000 [3].

Following the conflict, the government conducted widespread rapes of protesters and their supporters, cracked down on other protests around China, banned the foreign press from the country and strictly controlled coverage of the events in the PRC press. Members of the Party who had publicly sympathized with the protesters were purged, with several high-ranking members placed under house arrest, such as General Secretary Zhao Ziyang. There was widespread international condemnation of the PRC government's use of force against the protesters.[2]

Naming of incident

In the Chinese language, the incident is most commonly known as the June Fourth Movement, the June Fourth Incident or colloquially, simply Six-four (Chinese: 六四; 4 June). The nomenclature of the former is consistent with the customary names of the other two great protest actions that occurred in Tiananmen Square: the May Fourth Movement of 1919, and the April Fifth Movement of 1976. 4 June refers to the day on which the People's Liberation Army cleared Tiananmen Square of protesters, although the order to proceed into Tiananmen as well as its actual operation began on the evening of 3 June. Other names which have been used in the Chinese language include June Fourth Massacre or Chinese: 六四屠殺; pinyin: Liù-Sì Túshā. The government of the People's Republic of China has referred to the event as the Political Turmoil between Spring and Summer of 1989.[4] Other names, such as the 89 People's Movement (Chinese: 八九民运) are also used to describe the event broadly in its entirety. The date May 35th is sometimes substituted for 4 June to avoid restrictions that the government of China places on the Internet.[5] In English, the term Tiananmen Square Massacre is often used to describe the 4 June events on most media sources. However, the use of this name to describe this event in English-language media is not consistent.


Tiananmen Square as seen from the Tiananmen Gate in 2004.

Since 1978, Deng Xiaoping had led a series of economic and political reforms which had led to the gradual implementation of a market economy and some political liberalization that relaxed the system set up by Mao Zedong.

Some students and intellectuals believed that the reforms had not gone far enough and that China needed to reform its political system[citation needed]. They were also concerned about the social and iron-fisted controls that the Communist Party of China still had[citation needed]. This group had also seen the political liberalization that had been undertaken in the name of glasnost by Mikhail Gorbachev, so they had been hoping for comparable reform. Many workers who took part in the protests also wanted democratic reform, but opposed the new economic policies. That is, there were both protesters supporting and against economic liberalisation; however, almost all protesters supported political liberalization, to varying degrees[citation needed].

The Tiananmen Square protests were in large measure sparked by the death of former Secretary General Hu Yaobang, whose resignation from the position of Secretary General of the CPC was announced on 16 January 1987[citation needed]. His forthright calls for "rapid reform" and his almost open contempt of "Maoist excesses" had made him a suitable scapegoat in the eyes of Deng Xiaoping and others, after the pro-democracy student protests of 1986–1987.[6] Included in his resignation was also a "humiliating self-criticism", which he was forced to issue by the Central Committee of the Communist Party. Hu Yaobang's sudden death, due to heart attack, on 15 April 1989 provided a perfect opportunity for the students to gather once again, not only to mourn the deceased Secretary General, but also to have their voices heard in "demanding a reversal of the verdict against him" and bringing renewed attention to the important issues of the 1986–1987 pro-democracy protests and possibly also to those of the Democracy Wall protests in 1978–1979.[7]

Protest development

Small voluntary civilian gatherings started on 15 April around Monument to the People's Heroes in the middle of the Tiananmen Square in the form of mourning for Hu Yaobang.

File:Tiananmen Hand Poster1.jpg
An anonymous drawing posted in a pedestrian walkway underneath Chang'an Avenue caricatures Deng Xiaoping (seated behind the lectern) as an old Chinese emperor

On the same date of 15 April, many students at Peking University and Tsinghua University expressed their sorrow and mourning for Hu Yaobang by posting eulogies inside the campus and erecting shrines, and joined the civilian mourning in Tiananmen Square in a piecemeal fashion. Organized student gatherings started outside of Beijing on a small scale in Xi'an and Shanghai on 16 April.

On the afternoon of 17 April in Beijing, 500 students from China University of Political Science and Law marched to the eastern gate of the Great Hall of the People, part of Tiananmen Square, and commenced mourning activities for Hu Yaobang. The gathering in front of the Great Hall of the People was soon deemed obstructive to the normal operation of the building, so police intervened and attempted to disperse the students by persuasion. The gathering featured speakers from various backgrounds giving public speeches (mostly anonymous) commemorating Hu Yaobang, expressing their concerns of social problems.

Starting at midnight on the night of 17 April, three thousand students from Peking University marched from the campus towards Tiananmen Square, and soon nearly a thousand students from Tsinghua University joined the ranks. Upon arrival, they soon joined forces with students and civilians who were in the Square earlier. As its size grew, the gathering gradually evolved into a protest, as students began to draft a list of pleas and suggestions (List of Seven Demands) that they wanted the government to listen to and carry through.

On the morning of 18 April, the students remained in the square. Some gathered around the Monument to the People's Heroes singing patriotic songs and listening to impromptu speeches by student organizers. Another group of students sat in front of the Great Hall of the People, the office of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress; they demanded to see members of the Standing Committee and show them the List of Seven Demands. Meanwhile, a few thousand students gathered in front of the Zhongnanhai building complex, the residence of the government, demanding to see government leaders and get answers to their earlier demands. Students tried to muscle their way through the gate by pushing, but security and police, locking arms, formed a cordon that eventually deterred students' attempts to enter through the gate. Students then staged a sit-in. Some government officials did unofficially meet with student representatives, but without an official response, frustrations continued to mount.

On 20 April, police finally dispersed the students in front of the Zhongnanhai by force, to ensure proper function of the building complex. The police employed batons and minor clashes were reported. The protests in Tiananmen Square gained momentum after news of the confrontation between students and police spread; the belief by students that the Chinese media was distorting the nature of their activities also led to increased support.

On the night of 21 April, the day before Hu's funeral, some 100,000 students marched on Tiananmen Square, gathering there before the square could be closed off for the funeral.

From 21 April to 23 April, students from Beijing called for a strike at universities, which included teachers and students boycotting classes. The government, which was well aware of the political storm caused by the now-legitimized 1976 Tiananmen Incident, was alarmed. On 26 April, following an internal speech made by Deng Xiaoping, the CPC's official newspaper People's Daily issued a front-page editorial titled Uphold the flag to clearly oppose any turmoil, attempting to rally the public behind the government, and accused "extremely small segments of opportunists" of plotting civil unrest.[8] The statement enraged the students, and on 27 April about 50,000 students assembled on the streets of Beijing, disregarding the warning of a crackdown made by authorities, and demanded that the government retract the statement.

In Beijing, a majority of students from the city's numerous colleges and universities participated with support of their instructors and other intellectuals. The students rejected official Communist Party-controlled student associations and set up their own autonomous associations. The students viewed themselves as Chinese patriots, as the heirs of the May Fourth Movement for "science and democracy" of 1919. The protests also evoked memories of the Tiananmen Square protests of 1976 which had eventually led to the ousting of the Gang of Four. From their origins as a memorial to Hu Yaobang, who was seen by the students as an advocate of democracy, the students' activities gradually developed over the course of their demonstration from protests against corruption into demands for freedom of the press and an end to, or the reform of, the rule of the PRC by the Communist Party of China and Deng Xiaoping, the de facto paramount Chinese leader. Partially successful attempts were made to reach out and network with students in other cities and with workers.[citation needed]

While the protests lacked a unified cause or leadership, participants were generally against authoritarianism and voiced calls for democratic reform[2] within the structure of the government. Unlike the Tiananmen protests of 1987, which consisted mainly of students and intellectuals, the protests in 1989 commanded widespread support from the urban workers who were alarmed by the new economic reforms, growing inflation, and corruption. In Beijing, they were supported by a large number of people. Similar numbers were found in major cities throughout China such as Urumqi, Shanghai, and Chongqing; and later in Hong Kong, Taiwan and Chinese communities in North America and Europe.

Protests escalate


File:Tiananmen Square protests.jpg
"The Goddess of Democracy" carved by students from the Central Academy of Fine Arts and erected in the Square during the protest.


Zhao Ziyang speaks on 19 May 1989. Wen Jiabao, then Director of the Central Party Office, was also present (2nd from right in black). This was Zhao's last public appearance before he was placed under house-arrest, where he remained until his death

Template:Fixbunching On 4 May, approximately 100,000 students and workers marched in Beijing making demands for free media and a formal dialogue between the authorities and student-elected representatives. A declaration demanded the government to accelerate political reform.[2]

The government rejected the proposed dialogue, only agreeing to talk to members of appointed student organizations. On 13 May, two days prior to the highly-publicized state visit by the reform-minded Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev, huge groups of students occupied Tiananmen Square and started a hunger strike, insisting the government withdraw the accusation made in the People's Daily editorial and begin talks with the designated student representatives. Hundreds of students went on hunger strikes and were supported by hundreds of thousands of protesting students and part of the population of Beijing, for one week.

Protests and strikes began at colleges in other cities, with many students traveling to Beijing to join the demonstration. Generally, the demonstration at Tiananmen Square was well-ordered, with daily marches of students from various Beijing area colleges displaying their solidarity with the boycott of college classes and with the developing demands of the protest. The students sang The Internationale, the world socialist anthem, on their way to and within the square.[9] The students even showed a surprising gesture of respect to the government by helping police arrest three men from Hunan Province, including Yu Zhijian, Yu Dongyue, and Lu Decheng who had thrown ink on the large portrait of Mao that hangs from Tiananmen, just north of the square.[10][11] The three young men were later sentenced to prison for, respectively, life, 20 years, and 16 years.[12] However, two were freed after 10 years and Yu Dongyue after nearly 17 years.

Hunger strikes

The students ultimately decided that in order to sustain their movement and impede any loss of momentum, a hunger strike would need to be enacted. The students' decision to undertake the hunger strike was a defining moment in their movement. The hunger strike began in May 1989 and grew to include "more than one thousand persons".[13] The hunger strike brought widespread support for the students and "the ordinary people of Beijing rallied to protect the hunger strikers...because the act of refusing sustenance and courting government reprisals convinced onlookers that the students were not just seeking personal gains but (were) sacrificing themselves for the Chinese people as a whole".[14]

The hunger strike not only gained significant support nationally for the students, but also rang further alarms in China's top leadership. The national press, then still relatively free to cover ongoing events without propagating the party line, aired the talks between Premier Li Peng and student leaders on the evening of 18 May. During the talks Wu'er Kaixi, Wang Dan, and others openly accused the government for being too slow to react and rebuked Li Peng personally for lacking the "sincerity to conduct real discussions". The discussion did not yield much results, but gained student leaders prominent airtime on China's national television.[15] Li Peng and other leaders, however, maintained the government was only trying to "maintain order", but alluded to the students actions as "patriotic".

As the hunger strike escalated, numerous political and civil organizations around the country voiced their concern for the students, many empathizing with their positions. The Chinese Red Cross issued a special notice and sent in a large number of personnel to provide medical services to the hunger strikers on the Square. For the first time, on 19 May, two of the highest ranked members of China's central leadership, Premier Li Peng and General Secretary Zhao Ziyang went to Tiananmen personally in an attempt to neutralize the situation. At 4:50 am, Zhao Ziyang went to the Square and made a speech urging the students to end the hunger strike. Part of his speech was to become a famous quote, when he said, referring to the older generation of people in China, "We are already old, it doesn't matter to us any more." In contrast, the students were young and he urged them to stay healthy and not to sacrifice themselves so easily. Zhao's emotional speech was applauded by some students on the Square; it would be his last public appearance.

Partially successful attempts were made to negotiate with the PRC government, who were located nearby in Zhongnanhai, the Communist Party headquarters and leadership compound. Because of the visit of Mikhail Gorbachev, foreign media were present in China in large numbers. Their coverage of the protests was extensive and generally favorable towards the protesters, but pessimistic that they would attain their goals. Toward the end of the demonstration, on 30 May, a statue of the Goddess of Democracy was erected in the Square and came to symbolize the protest to television viewers worldwide.

The Standing Committee of the Politburo, along with the party elders (retired but still-influential former officials of the government and Party), were at first hopeful that the demonstrations would be short-lived or that cosmetic reforms and investigations would satisfy the protesters. They wished to avoid violence if possible, and relied at first on their far-reaching Party apparatus in attempts to persuade the students to abandon the protest and return to their studies. One barrier to effective action was that the leadership itself supported many of the demands of the students, especially the concern with corruption. However, one large problem was that the protests contained many people with varying agendas, and hence it was unclear with whom the government could negotiate, and what the exact demands of the protesters were. The confusion and indecision among the protesters was also mirrored by confusion and indecision within the government. The official media mirrored this indecision as headlines in the People's Daily alternated between sympathy with the demonstrators and denouncing them.

Among the top leadership, General Secretary Zhao Ziyang was strongly in favour of a soft approach to the demonstrations, while Li Peng was seen to argue in favour of a crackdown. Ultimately the decision to forcefully intervene on the demonstrations was made by a group of Party elders, who saw abandonment of single-party rule as a return of the chaos of the Cultural Revolution.[16] Although most of these people had no official position, they were able to control the military. Deng Xiaoping was chairman of the Central Military Commission and was able to declare martial law; Yang Shangkun was President of the People's Republic of China, which, although a symbolic position under the 1982 Constitution, was legally the commander-in-chief of the armed forces. The Party elders believed that lengthy demonstrations were a threat to the stability of the country. The demonstrators were seen as tools of advocates of "bourgeois liberalism" who were pulling the strings behind the scenes, as well as tools of elements within the party who wished to further their personal ambitions.[17]

Nationwide and outside mainland China

At the beginning of the movement, the Chinese news media had a rare opportunity to broadcast the news without heavy government censorship. Most of the news media were free to write and report however they wanted, due to lack of control from the central and local governments. The news was spread quickly across the land. According to Chinese news media's report, students and workers in over 400 cities, including cities in Inner Mongolia, also organized and started to protest.[18] People also traveled to the capital to join the protest in the Square.

University students in Shanghai also took to the streets to commemorate the death of Hu Yaobang and protest against certain policies of the government. In many cases, these were supported by the universities' Party committees. Jiang Zemin, then-Municipal Party Secretary, addressed the student protesters in a bandage and 'expressed his understanding', as he was a former student agitator before 1949. But at the same time, he moved swiftly to send in police forces to control the streets and to purge Communist Party leaders who had supported the students.

On 19 April, the editors of the World Economic Herald, a magazine close to reformists, decided to publish, in their 24 April #439 issue, a commemorative section on Hu. Inside was an article by Yan Jiaqi, which commented favourably on the Beijing student protests on 18 April and called for a reassessment of Hu's purge in 1987. On 21 April, a party official of Shanghai asked the editor in chief, Qin Benli, to change some passages. Qin Benli refused, so the official turned to Jiang Zemin, who demanded that the article be censored. By that time, a first batch of copies of the paper had already been delivered. The remaining copies were published with a blank page.[19] On 26 April, the "People's Daily" published its editorial condemning the student protest. Jiang followed this cue and suspended Qin Benli.

In Hong Kong, on 27 May 1989, over 300,000 people gathered at Happy Valley Racecourse for a gathering called "Democratic songs dedicated for China." Many Hong Kong celebrities sang songs and expressed their support for the students in Beijing. The following day, a procession of 1.5 million people, one fourth of Hong Kong's population, led by Martin Lee, Szeto Wah and other organization leaders, paraded through Hong Kong Island. Across the world, especially where Chinese lived, people gathered and protested. Many governments, such as those of the USA, Japan, etc., also issued warnings advising their own citizens not to go to the PRC.

Government crackdown and deaths

20 May – 1 June

Although the government declared martial law on 20 May, the military's entry into Beijing was blocked by throngs of protesters, and the army was eventually ordered to withdraw which it did on 24 May.[20]

Meanwhile, the demonstrations continued. The hunger strike was approaching the end of the third week, and the government resolved to end the matter before deaths occurred. After deliberation among Communist party leaders, the use of military force to resolve the crisis was ordered, and a deep divide in the politburo resulted. General Secretary Zhao Ziyang was ousted from political leadership as a result of his support for the demonstrators. The military also lacked unity on the issue, and purportedly did not indicate immediate support for a crackdown, leaving the central leadership scrambling to search for individual divisions willing to comply with their orders.[citation needed]

1 June – 5 June

Soldiers and tanks from the 27th and 38th Armies of the People's Liberation Army were sent to take control of the city. The 27th Army was led by a commander related to Yang Shangkun. In a press conference, US President George H. W. Bush announced sanctions on the People's Republic of China, following calls to action from members of Congress such as US Senator Jesse Helms. The President suggested[vague] intelligence he had received indicated some disunity in China's military ranks, and even the possibility of clashes within the military during those days[citation needed]. Intelligence reports also indicated that 27th and 28th units were brought in from outside provinces because the local PLA were considered to be sympathetic to the protest and to the people of the city[citation needed]. Reporters described elements of the 27th as having been most responsible for civilian deaths. After their attack on the square, the 27th reportedly established defensive positions in Beijing – not of the sort designed to counter a civilian uprising, but as if to defend against attacks by other military units.

As word spread that hundreds of thousands of troops were approaching from all four corners of the city, Beijingers flooded the streets to block them, as they had done two weeks earlier. People set up barricades at every major intersection. Protesters burned public buses and used them as roadblocks to stop the military's progress. At about 10:30 p.m., near the Muxidi apartment buildings (home to high-level Party officials and their families), protesters yelled at the soldiers and some threw rocks; someone set a bus on fire as the army tried to break through their barricades. Then the soldiers started firing live ammunition at the protesters. Some people were hit in the apartment blocks.[21]

The battle continued on the streets surrounding the Square, with protesters repeatedly advancing toward the People's Liberation Army (PLA) and constructing barricades with vehicles, while the PLA attempted to clear the streets using tear gas, rifles, and tanks. Many injured citizens were saved by rickshaw drivers who ventured into the no-man's-land between the soldiers and crowds and carried the wounded off to hospitals. After the attack on the square, live television coverage showed many people wearing black armbands in protest of the government's action, crowding various boulevards or congregating by burnt out and smoking barricades. In a couple of cases, officers were pulled from tanks, beaten and killed by protesters.[22]

Meanwhile, the PLA systematically established checkpoints around the city, chasing after protesters and blocking off the university district.

Within the Square itself, there was a debate between those who wished to withdraw peacefully, including Han Dongfang, and those who wished to stand within the square, such as Chai Ling.

At about 1:00 a.m., the army finally reached Tiananmen Square and waited for orders from the government. The soldiers had been told not to open fire, but they had also been told that they must clear the square by 6:00 a.m. – with no exceptions or delays. They made a final offer of amnesty if the few thousand remaining students would leave. About 4:00 a.m., student leaders put the matter to a vote: Leave the square, or stay and face the consequences.[22]

These APCs (Armoured Personnel Carriers) rolled on up the roads, firing ahead and off to the sides, perhaps killing or wounding their own soldiers in the process. BBC reporter Kate Adie spoke of "indiscriminate fire" within the square. Eyewitness reporter Charlie Cole also saw Chinese soldiers firing Type 56 assault rifles into the crowd near an APC which had just been torched and its crew killed, killing and wounding many that night.[23] Students who sought refuge in buses were pulled out by groups of soldiers and beaten with heavy sticks. Even students attempting to leave the square were beset by soldiers and beaten. Leaders of the protest inside the square, where some had attempted to erect flimsy barricades ahead of the APCs, were said to have "implored" the students not to use weapons (such as Molotov cocktails) against the oncoming soldiers. Meanwhile, many students apparently were shouting, "Why are you killing us?" Around four or five the following morning, 4 June, Charlie Cole reports to have seen tanks smashing into the square, crushing vehicles and people with their tank treads.[23] By 5:40 a.m. 4 June, the Square had been cleared.

On the morning of 5 June protesters tried to enter the blocked square but were shot at by the soldiers. The soldiers shot them in the back when they were running away. These actions were repeated several times.[24]

The suppression of the protest was immortalized in Western media by the famous video footage and photographs of a lone man in a white shirt standing in front of a column of tanks which were attempting to drive out of Tiananmen Square. Taken on 5 June as the column approached an intersection on the Avenue of Eternal Peace, the footage depicted the unarmed man standing in the center of the street, halting the tanks' progress. As the tank driver attempted to go around him, the "Tank Man" moved into the tank's path. He continued to stand defiantly in front of the tanks for some time, then climbed up onto the turret of the lead tank to speak to the soldiers inside. He reportedly said, "Why are you here? You have caused nothing but misery." But this is debatable, as no one was close enough to hear him besides the soldier. After returning to his position blocking the tanks, the man was pulled aside by a group of people, the identity of which eyewitnesses are divided on.[25] Eyewitness Jan Wong is convinced the group were concerned citizens helping him away, while reporter Charlie Cole believes that "Tank Man" was probably executed after being taken from the tank by secret police, since the Chinese government could never produce him to hush the outcry from many countries.[23] Time Magazine dubbed him The Unknown Rebel and later named him one of the 100 most influential people of the 20th century. British tabloid the Sunday Express reported that the man was 19-year-old student Wang Weilin; however, the veracity of this claim is dubious. What happened to the 'Tank Man' following the demonstration is not known for certain. In a speech to the President's Club in 1999, Bruce Herschensohn — former deputy special assistant to President Richard Nixon — reported that he was executed 14 days later. In Red China Blues: My Long March from Mao to Now, Jan Wong writes that the man is still alive and hiding in mainland China. In Forbidden City, Canadian children's author William Bell, claims the man was named Wang Ai-min and was killed on 9 June after being taken into custody. The last official statement from the PRC government about the "Tank Man" came from Jiang Zemin in a 1990 interview with Barbara Walters. When asked about the whereabouts of the "Tank Man", Jiang responded that the young man was "I think never killed".[26]

After the crackdown in Beijing on 4 June, protests continued in much of mainland China for several days. There were large protests in Hong Kong, where people again wore black in protest. There were protests in Guangzhou, and large-scale protests in Shanghai with a general strike. There were also protests in other countries, many adopting the use of black armbands as well. However, the government soon regained control. A political purge followed in which officials responsible for organizing or condoning the protests were removed, and protest leaders jailed. According to Amnesty International at least 300 people were killed in Chengdu on 5 June. Troops in Chengdu used concussion grenades, truncheons, knives and electric cattle prods against civilians. Hospitals were ordered to not accept students and on the second night the ambulance service was stopped by police.[27]

Number of deaths

The number of dead and wounded remains unclear because of the large discrepancies between the different estimates. Some Beijinger and journalists reported that troops burned the bodies of many citizens to destroy the evidence of the killings.[28]

Some of the early estimates were based on reports of a figure of 2,600 from the Chinese Red Cross. The Chinese Red Cross has denied ever providing such a figure.[28] According to a PBS Frontline report, this figure was quickly retracted under intense pressure from the government.[29] The official Chinese government figure is 241 dead, including soldiers, and 7,000 wounded.[29]

According to an analysis by Nicholas D. Kristof of The New York Times, "The true number of deaths will probably never be known, and it is possible that thousands of people were killed without leaving evidence behind. But based on the evidence that is now available, it seems plausible that about fifty soldiers and policemen were killed, along with 400 to 800 civilians."[28]

The Chinese government has maintained that there were no deaths within the square itself, although videos taken there at the time recorded the sound of gunshots. Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and State Council claimed that the basic statistics were: "Five thousand PLA soldiers and officers wounded, and more than two thousand local people (counting students, city people, and rioters together) also wounded." Chinese commentators have pointed out that this obvious imbalance in casualties questions the military competence of the PLA. They also said no one died on Tiananmen Square itself.[30] Yuan Mu, the spokesman of the State Council, said that a total of 23 people died, most of them students, along with a number of people he described as "ruffians".[31] According to Chen Xitong, Beijing mayor, 200 civilians and several dozen soldiers died.[32] Other sources stated that 3,000 civilians and 6,000 soldiers were injured.[33] In May 2007, CPPCC member from Hong Kong, Chang Ka-mun said 300 to 600 people were killed in Tiananmen Square. He echoed that "there were armed thugs who weren't students."[34]

According to Jay Mathews who was The Washington Post's first Beijing bureau chief, "A few people may have been killed by random shooting on streets near the square, but all verified eyewitness accounts say that the students who remained in the square when troops arrived were allowed to leave peacefully. Hundreds of people, most of them workers and passersby, did die that night, but in a different place and under different circumstances."[35]

US ambassador James Lilley's account of the massacre notes that US State Department diplomats witnessed Chinese troops opening fire on unarmed people and based on visits to hospitals around Beijing a minimum of hundreds had been killed.[36]

A strict focus on the number of deaths within Tiananmen Square itself does not give an accurate picture of the carnage and overall death count, since Chinese civilians were fired on in the streets surrounding Tiananmen Square. In addition, students are reported to have been fired on after they left the Square, especially in the area near the Beijing concert hall.[28]

Estimates of deaths from different sources, in descending order:

  • 10,000 dead (including civilians and soldiers) – Soviet Union.[37]
  • 7,000 deaths – NATO intelligence.[37]
  • 4,000 to 6,000 civilians killed, but no one really knows – Edward Timperlake.[38]
  • Over 3700 killed, excluding disappearance or secret deaths and those denied medical treatment – PLA defector citing a document circulating among officers.[38]
  • 2,600 had officially died by the morning of 4 June (later denied) – the Chinese Red Cross.[32] An unnamed Chinese Red Cross official estimated that, in total, 5,000 people were killed and 30,000[clarification needed] injured.[39]
  • Closer to 1,000 deaths, according to Amnesty International and some of the protest participants, as reported in a Time article.[32] Other statements by Amnesty International have characterized the number of deaths as hundreds.[40]
  • 300 to 1,000 according to a Western diplomat that compiled estimates.[28]
  • 400 to 800 plausible according to the New York Times' Nicholas D. Kristof. He developed this estimate using information from hospital staff and doctors, and from "a medical official with links to most hospitals".[28]
  • 180–500 casualties, according to a declassified NSA document which referred to early casualty estimates.[41]
  • 241 dead, including soldiers, and 7,000 wounded, according to the Chinese government.[29]
  • 186 named individuals confirmed dead at the end of June 2006 – Professor Ding Zilin of the Tiananmen Mothers. The Tiananmen Mothers' list includes some people whose deaths were not directly at the hands of the army, such as a person who committed suicide after the 4 June incident.[42]

International reaction

The events at Tiananmen were the first of their type shown in detail on Western television.[43] International reaction denounced the Chinese government's response, particularly by Western governments and media.[44] Criticism came from both Western and Eastern Europe, North America, Australia and some east Asian and Latin American countries. Notably, many Asian countries remained silent throughout the protests; the government of India responded to the massacre by ordering the state television to pare down the coverage to the barest minimum, so as not to jeopardize a thawing in relations with China, and to offer political empathy for the events[45] North Korea, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, and East Germany, among others, supported the Chinese government and denounced the protests.[44] Overseas Chinese students demonstrated in many cities in Europe, America, the Middle East and Asia.[46]


 UN: Secretary-General Javier Perez de Cuellar was concerned at the incident, adding that the government should uphold the utmost restraint, but also noted that the UN Charter prohibits interference in member states' internal affairs (especially member states with a Security Council veto).[47]
Europe The European Economic Community condemned the government response and cancelled all high level contacts and loans. They planned a resolution at the UNHCR criticising China's human rights record.[48][49] The EU maintains an arms embargo against China to this day.


A memorial depicting a destroyed bicycle and a tank track — symbol of the Tiananmen Square protests — in the Polish city of Wrocław

 Australia: The Prime Minister, Bob Hawke, wept at a memorial service in the Great Hall in Parliament. The Australian government granted Chinese students a four year amnesty to stay in Australia.[43]
 Burma: The junta supported the actions of the Chinese government, while opposition leader Aung San Suu Kyi condemned them, saying: "We deplore it. It happened in Burma and we wanted the world to stand by Burma, so we stand by the Chinese students."[50]
 Canada: The External Affairs Minister Joe Clark described the incident as "inexcusable" and issued a statement: "We can only express horror and outrage at the senseless violence and tragic loss of life resulting from the indiscriminate and brutal use of force against students and civilians of Peking."[51]
 Czechoslovakia: The government of Czechoslovakia supported the Chinese governments response, expressing the idea that China would overcome its problems and further develop socialism. In response, the Chinese side "highly valued the understanding shown by the Czechoslovak Communist Party and people" for suppressing the "anti-socialist" riots in Beijing.[52]
 France: The French Foreign Minister, Roland Dumas, said he was "dismayed by the bloody repression" of "an unarmed crowd of demonstrators."[53]
 East Germany: The leadership of the German Democratic Republic approved of the crackdown. The Volkskammer passed a resolution, in which East Germany declared its support for suppressing the "counterrevolutionary riots". East German politicians Hans Modrow, Günter Schabowski and Egon Krenz visited China so as to document their support.[54][55]
 West Germany: The West German Foreign Ministry urged China "to return to its universally welcomed policies of reform and openness."[53]
  Holy See: The Holy See of Vatican City has no official diplomatic relations with China, but Pope John Paul II expressed hope that the events in China would bring change.[53]
 Hong Kong: The crackdown severely affected perceptions of the mainland. 200,000 people protested against the Chinese government's response, with the latter considering the protests as "subversive". The people of Hong Kong hoped that the chaos on the mainland would destabilize the Beijing Government and thus avert its reunification with the rest of mainland China. The Sino-British Joint Declaration was also called into question.[56][57] Demonstrations continued for several days, and wreaths were placed outside the Xinhua News Agency office in the city.[46]
 Hungary: The Hungarian government, which was undergoing political reform, reacted strongly to the incident. The Foreign Minister described the events as a "horrible tragedy", and the government expressed "shock", adding that "fundamental human rights could not be exclusively confined to the internal affairs of any country." Demonstrations were held outside the Chinese embassy. Hungary was the only country in Europe to have substantially reduced relations with China in the aftermath of the events.[58]
 Italy: The Italian Communist Party leader Achille Occhetto condemned the "unspeakable slaughter in progress in China".[59]
 Japan: The Japanese government called the response "intolerable" and froze loans to China. Japan was also the first member of the G7 to restore high level relations with China in the following months.[60][61]
 Kuwait: Kuwait voiced understanding of the measures taken by the Chinese authorities to protect social stability.[62]
 Macau: 150,000 protested in Macau.[63]
 Mongolia: Many reformists had been aware of the international reaction to the crackdown, and chose to follow the democratic changes in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union.[64][65]
 Netherlands: The Dutch government froze diplomatic relations with China, and summoned the Chinese Chargé d'Affaires Li Qin Ping expressing shock at the "violent and brutal actions of the People's Liberation Army."[46]
 Philippines: President Corazon Aquino expressed sadness at the incident, urging the Chinese government to "urgently and immediately take steps to stop the aggressive and senseless killing by its armed forces".[51] Socialist labor organization KMU at first initially supported the action taken by Chinese authorities, though later issued a "rectified position" which blamed "insufficient information and improper decision making process".[66]
 Poland: The Polish government criticised the response of the Chinese government but not the government itself. A government spokesman called the incident "tragic", with "sincere sympathy for the families of those killed and injured." Daily protests and hunger strikes took place outside the Chinese embassy in Warsaw The government also expressed hope that it did not affect Sino-Polish relations.[58]
Romania Romania: General Secretary of the Romanian Communist Party Nicolae Ceauşescu praised the crackdown, and in a reciprocal move, China sent Qiao Shi to the Romanian Communist Party Congress in August 1989, at which Ceauşescu was re-elected.[67]
 Republic of China (Taiwan): President Lee Teng-hui issued a statement on 4 June strongly condemning the mainland Chinese response: "Early this morning, Chinese communist troops finally used military force to attack the students and others demonstrating peacefully for democracy and freedom in Tiananmen Square in Peking, resulting in heavy casualties and loss of life. Although we anticipated this mad action of the Chinese communists beforehand, it still has moved us to incomparable grief, indignation and shock."[68] The authorities also lifted a ban on telephone communications to encourage private contacts and counter the news blackout on the mainland.[46]
 Singapore: The government offered no comment on the incident, but criticized Western calls for economic sanctions against China, dismissing them as interfering in China’s internal affairs.[69]
 Soviet Union: General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev did not explicitly condemn the actions, but called for reform. There was an interest on building relations on a recent summit in Beijing, but the events fueled discussion on human rights and Soviet foreign policy. There was some private criticism of the Chinese response.[44] Newly formed opposition groups condemned the crackdown. 10 days after the incident the government expressed regret, calling for political dialogue. Public demonstrations occurred at the Chinese embassy in Moscow. A spokesman on 10 June said the Kremlin was "extremely dismayed" at the incident.[70][71]
 South Korea: The Foreign Ministry expressed "grave concern" and hoped for no further deterioration of the situation. The statement also encouraged dialogue to resolve the issue peacefully.[72]
 Sweden: The Swedish government froze diplomatic relations with China.[73]
 Thailand: The Thai government had the warmest relations with Beijing out of all ASEAN members, and expressed confidence that the "fluid situation" in China had passed its "critical point", though it was concerned that it could delay a settlement in the Cambodian–Vietnamese War.[50]
 United Kingdom: The Prime Minister, Margaret Thatcher, expressed "utter revulsion and outrage", and was "appalled by the indiscriminate shooting of unarmed people." She promised to relax immigration laws for Hong Kong residents.[74]
 United States: The United States Congress and media responded indignantly to the unfolding situation. President George H. W. Bush suspended military sales and visits. Large scale protests took place around the country.[53]
 Vietnam: Vietnam and China had a history of strained relations, but the Vietnamese government quietly supported the Chinese government's position. Media reported on the protests but offered no commentary, and state radio added that the PLA could not have stopped the action after "hooligans and ruffians insulted or beat up soldiers" and destroyed military vehicles. The government expressed that it wanted better relations with China, but did not want to go to the "extremes of Eastern Europe or Tiananmen" – referring to its own stability.[75]
 Yugoslavia: The national news agency Tanjug in the non-aligned country said the protest became a "symbol of destroyed illusions and also a symbol of sacrificed ideals which have been cut off by machine gun volleys and squashed under the caterpillars of heavy vehicles."[59]


Arrests and persecution

Chinese authorities summarily tried and executed many of the workers they arrested in Beijing. In contrast, the students – many of whom came from relatively affluent backgrounds and were well-connected – received much lighter sentences. Wang Dan, the student leader who topped the most wanted list, spent seven years in prison. Many of the students and university staff implicated were permanently politically stigmatized, some never to be employed again. Some dissidents were able to escape to overseas under Hong Kong-based Operation Yellowbird.[76]

Smaller protest actions continued in other cities for a few days. Some university staff and students who had witnessed the killings in Beijing organised or spurred commemorative events upon their return to school. At Shanghai's prestigious Jiaotong University, for example, the party secretary organised a public commemoration event, with engineering students producing a large metal wreath. However, these commemorations were quickly put down, with those responsible being purged.

During and after the demonstration, the authorities attempted to arrest and prosecute the student leaders of the Chinese democracy movement, notably Wang Dan, Chai Ling, Zhao Changqing and Wuer Kaixi. Wang Dan was arrested, convicted and sent to prison, then allowed to emigrate to the United States on the grounds of medical parole. As a lesser figure in the demonstrations, Zhao was released after six months in prison. However, he was once again incarcerated for continuing to petition for political reform in China. Wuer Kaixi escaped to Taiwan. He is married and holds a job as a political commentator on Taiwanese national radio.[77] Chai Ling escaped to France, and then to the United States. In a public speech given at the University of Michigan in November, 2007,[78] Wang Dan commented on the current status of former student leaders: Chai Ling started a hi-tech company in the US and was permitted to return to China and do business, while Li Lu became an investment banker in Wall Street and started a company. Wang Dan said his plan was to find an academic job in the US after receiving his PhD from Harvard University, although he was eager to return to China if permitted.

The Party leadership expelled Zhao Ziyang from the Politburo Standing Committee of the Communist Party of China (PSC), because he opposed martial law, and Zhao remained under house arrest until his death. Hu Qili, the other member of the PSC who opposed the martial law but abstained from voting, was also removed from the committee. He was, however, able to retain his party membership, and after "changing his opinion", was reassigned as deputy minister of Machine-Building and Electronics Industry. Another reform-minded Chinese leader, Wan Li, was also put under house arrest immediately after he stepped out of an airplane at Beijing Capital International Airport upon returning from his shortened trip abroad, with the official excuse of "health reasons." When Wan Li was released from his house arrest after he finally "changed his opinion" he, like Qiao Shi, was transferred to a different position with equal rank but mostly ceremonial role. Several Chinese ambassadors abroad claimed political asylum.[79][80]

The event elevated Jiang Zemin – then Mayor of Shanghai – to become the General Secretary of the Communist Party of China. Jiang's decisive actions in Shanghai, in closing down reform-leaning publications and preventing deadly violence, won him support from party elders in Beijing. Members of the government prepared a white paper explaining the government's viewpoint on the protests. An anonymous source within the PRC government smuggled the document out of China, and Public Affairs published it in January 2001 as the Tiananmen Papers. The papers include a quote by Communist Party elder Wang Zhen which alludes to the government's response to the demonstrations.

State media mostly gave reports sympathetic to the students in the immediate aftermath. As a result, those responsible were all later removed. Two news anchors who reported this event on 4 June in the daily 1900 hours (7:00 pm) news report on China Central Television were fired because they showed their sad emotions. Wu Xiaoyong, the son of a Communist Party of China Central Committee member, and former PRC foreign minister and vice premier Wu Xueqian were removed from the English Program Department of Chinese Radio International. Editors and other staff at the People's Daily (the newspaper of the Communist Party of China), including its director Qian Liren and Editor-in-Chief Tan Wenrui, were also removed from their posts because of reports in the paper which were sympathetic towards the students. Several editors were arrested, with Wu Xuecan, who organised the publication of an unauthorised Extra edition, sentenced to four years' imprisonment.

Rob Gifford, a National Public Radio journalist, said that much of the political freedoms and debate that occurred post-Mao and pre-Tiananmen ended after Tiananmen. For instance, some of the authors of the film River Elegy (He Shang) were arrested, and some of the authors fled Mainland China. Gifford concluded that "China the concept, China the empire, China the construct of two thousand years of imperial thinking" has forbidden and may always forbid "independent thinking" as that would lead to the questioning of China's political system. Gifford added that people born after 1970 had "near-complete depoliticization" while older intellectuals no longer focus on political change and instead focus on economic reform.[81]

Media coverage

The Tiananmen Square protests damaged the reputation of the PRC in the West. Western media had been invited to cover the visit of Mikhail Gorbachev in May, and were thus in an excellent position to cover some of the government crackdown live through networks such as the BBC and CNN. Protestors seized this opportunity, creating signs and banners designed for international television audiences. Coverage was further facilitated by the sharp conflicts within the Chinese government about how to handle the protests. Thus, broadcasting was not immediately stopped.

All international networks were eventually ordered to terminate broadcasts from the city during the crackdown, with the government shutting down the satellite transmissions. Broadcasters attempted to defy these orders by reporting via telephone. Footage was quickly smuggled out of the country, including the image of "the unknown rebel." The only network which was able to record some images during the night was Televisión Española of Spain (TVE).[82][83]

CBS correspondent Richard Roth and his cameraman were imprisoned during the crackdown. Roth was taken into custody while in the midst of filing a report from the Square via mobile phone. In a frantic voice, he could be heard repeatedly yelling what sounded like "Oh, no! Oh, no!" before the phone was disconnected. He was later released, suffering a slight injury to his face in a scuffle with Chinese authorities attempting to confiscate his phone. Roth later explained he had actually been saying, "Let go!"

Images of the protests would strongly shape Western views and policy toward the PRC throughout the 1990s and into the 21st century. There was considerable sympathy for the student protests among Chinese students in the West. Almost immediately, both the United States and the European Economic Community announced an arms embargo, and China's image as a reforming country and a valuable ally against the Soviet Union was replaced by that of a repressive authoritarian regime. The Tiananmen protests were frequently invoked to argue against trade liberalization with mainland China and by the United States' Blue Team as evidence that the PRC government was an aggressive threat to world peace and US interests.

Meanwhile, state media was ordered to focus on dead soldiers, screening images often on television.[84] Among overseas Chinese students, the Tiananmen Square protests triggered the formation of Internet news services such as the China News Digest and the NGO China Support Network. In the aftermath of Tiananmen, organizations such as the China Alliance for Democracy and the Independent Federation of Chinese Students and Scholars were formed, although these organizations would have limited political impact beyond the mid-1990s.

Impact on domestic political trends

The Tiananmen square protests dampened the growing concept of political liberalization in communist countries that was popular in the late 1980s; as a result, many democratic reforms that were proposed during the 1980s were swept under the carpet. Although there has been an increase in personal freedom since then, discussions on structural changes to the PRC government and the role of the Communist Party of China remain largely taboo.

Despite early expectations in the West that PRC government would soon collapse and be replaced by the Chinese democracy movement, by the early 21st century the Communist Party of China remained in firm control of the People's Republic of China, and the student movement which started at Tiananmen was in complete disarray.

In Hong Kong, the Tiananmen square protests led to fears that the PRC would not honour its commitments under one country, two systems in the impending handover in 1997. One consequence of this was that the new governor Chris Patten attempted to expand the franchise for the Legislative Council of Hong Kong which led to friction with the PRC. There have been large candlelight vigils attended by tens of thousands in Hong Kong every year since 1989 and these vigils have continued following the transfer of power to the PRC in 1997.

The protests also marked a shift in the political conventions which governed politics in the People's Republic. Prior to the protests, under the 1982 Constitution, the President was a largely symbolic role. By convention, power was distributed between the positions of President, Premier, and General Secretary of the Communist Party of China, all of whom were intended to be different people, in order to prevent the excesses of Mao-style dictatorship. However, after Yang Shangkun used his reserve powers as head of state to mobilize the military, the Presidency again became a position imbued with real power. Subsequently, the President became the same person as the General Secretary of the CPC, and wielded paramount power.

In 1989, neither the Chinese military nor the Beijing police had adequate anti-riot gear, such as rubber bullets and tear gas commonly used in Western nations to break up riots.[85] After the Tiananmen Square protests, riot police in Chinese cities were equipped with non-lethal equipment for riot control.

Economic impact

There was a significant impact on the Chinese economy after the incident. Foreign loans to China were suspended by the World Bank, Asian Development Bank, and governments;[86] tourism revenue decreased from US$2.2 billion to US$1.8 billion; foreign direct investment commitments were cancelled and there was a rise in defense spending from 8.6% in 1986, to 15.5% in 1990, reversing a previous 10 year decline.[87] The Chinese Premier Li Peng visited the United Nations Security Council on 31 January 1992, and argued that the economic and arms embargoes on China were a violation of national sovereignty.[88]

In the immediate aftermath of the protests, some within the Chinese government attempted to curtail free market reforms that had been undertaken as part of Chinese economic reform and reinstitute administrative economic controls. However, these efforts met with stiff resistance from provincial governors and broke down completely in the early 1990s as a result of the collapse of the Soviet Union and Deng Xiaoping's trip to the south. The continuance of economic reform led to economic growth in the 1990s,[citation needed] which allowed the government to regain much of the support that it had lost in 1989. In addition, none of the current PRC leadership played any active role in the decision to move against the demonstrators, and one major leadership figure Premier Wen Jiabao was Director of the Central Party Office and accompanied Zhao Ziyang to meet the demonstrators.

The protest leaders at Tiananmen were unable to produce a coherent movement or ideology that would last past the mid-1990s. Many of the student leaders came from relatively "well-off" sectors of society and were seen as out of touch with common people. A number of them were socialists[citation needed]. Many of the organizations which were started in the aftermath of Tiananmen soon fell apart due to personal infighting. Several overseas democracy activists were supportive of limiting trade with mainland China, which significantly decreased their popularity both within China and among the overseas Chinese community. A number of NGOs based in the US, which aim to bring democratic reform to China and relentlessly protest human rights violations that occur in China, remain. One of the oldest and most prominent of them, the China Support Network (CSN), was founded in 1989 by a group of concerned US and Chinese activists in response to Tiananmen Square

Continuing issues

Forbidden topic in mainland China

Unlike the Cultural Revolution, about which people can still easily find information through government-approved books, magazines, websites, et cetera, this topic is forbidden by the government and accordingly generally cannot be found in mainland Chinese media or websites.

The official media in mainland China views the crackdown as a necessary reaction to ensure stability. As the incident is not part of any education curriculum in China, usually Chinese youth born after the crackdown learn of the protests from hearsay, family and foreign media.[89] Every year there is a large rally in Victoria Park, Causeway Bay, Hong Kong, where people remember the victims and demand that the CPC's official view be changed. In 2008, this vigil was reported for the first time in the mainstream Chinese press, but was attributed to be in support of the victims of the recent earthquake in south-east China, and no mention of Tiananmen Square was made.[90]

Petition letters over the incident have emerged from time to time, notably from Dr. Jiang Yanyong and Tiananmen Mothers, an organization founded by a mother of one of the victims killed in 1989 where the families seek vindication, compensation for their lost sons, and the right to receive donations, particularly from abroad.[91] Tiananmen Square is tightly patrolled on the anniversary of 4 June to prevent any commemoration on the Square.

After the PRC Central Government reshuffle in 2004, several cabinet members mentioned Tiananmen. In October 2004, during President Hu Jintao's visit to France, he reiterated that "the government took determined action to calm the political storm of 1989, and enabled China to enjoy a stable development." He insisted that the government's view on the incident would not change.[92]

In March 2004, Premier Wen Jiabao said in a press conference that during the 1990s there was a severe political storm in the PRC, amid the breakdown of the Soviet Union and radical changes in Eastern Europe. He stated that the Communist Central Committee successfully stabilized the open-door policy and protected the "Career of Socialism with Chinese Characteristics."[93]

For the 20th anniversary of the event in 2009, there was a growing will by Chinese people to talk openly about the event, and to start an inquiry.[94] The Chinese government blocked the use of social networking sites such as Twitter and Flickr, and the e-mail provider Hotmail in the days leading up to the anniversary.[95] It was also reported that Chinese airport vendors selling The Economist magazine containing an article with discourse on the 4 June anniversary had the pages with the censored article systematically removed. Zhang Shijun, an ex-soldier who was 18 in 1989, was arrested after publishing an open letter to Hu Jintao, to encourage open talk on the issue.[94] Hong Kong and Macau Special Administrative Region governments have refused entry by students involved in the protests to return to mainland China.[96][97] On 5 June 2009, several Chinese staff at the television station in Guangzhou were suspended after they allowed around 10 seconds of the Tank Man footage and candlelight protests in Hong Kong to be broadcast on the mainland.[98]

History deleted inside mainland China

Following the protests, officials banned controversial films and books, and shut down a large number of newspapers. Within one year, 12 percent of all newspapers, 8 percent of publishing companies, 13 percent of social science periodicals and more than 150 films were banned or shut down. In addition to this, the government also announced it had seized 32 million contraband books and 2.4 million video and audio cassettes.[99]

Currently, due to strong Chinese government censorship including Internet censorship, the news media are forbidden to report anything related to the protests. Websites related to the protest are blocked on the mainland.[100] A search for Tiananmen Square protest information on the Internet in Mainland China largely returns no results, apart from the government-mandated version of the events and the official view, which are mostly found on Websites of People's Daily and other heavily-controlled media.[101]

In January 2006, Google agreed to censor their mainland China site, Google.cn, to remove information about the 1989 Tiananmen Square massacre,[102] topics such as Tibetan independence, Falun Gong and the political status of Taiwan. When people search for those censored topics, it will list the following at the bottom of the page in Chinese, "According to local laws and regulations and policies, some search results are not displayed." The uncensored Wikipedia articles on the 1989 protests, both in English and Chinese Wikipedia, have been attributed as a cause of the blocking of Wikipedia by the government in mainland China. The ban of Wikipedia in mainland China was lifted, but the link to this incident in Chinese Wikipedia remained dead.

In 2006, the American PBS program "Frontline" broadcast a segment filmed at Peking University, many of whose students participated in the 1989 protests. Four present-day students were shown a picture of the Tank Man, but none of them could identify what was happening in the photo. Some responded that it was a military parade, or an artwork.

On 15 May 2007, the leader of the pro-Beijing Democratic Alliance for Betterment of Hong Kong, Ma Lik, provoked much criticism when he said that "there was not a massacre" during the protests, as there was "no intentional and indiscriminate shooting." He said Hong Kong was "not mature enough" due to believing foreigners' rash claims that a massacre took place. He said that Hong Kong showed through its lack of patriotism and national identity that it would thus "not be ready for democracy until 2022."[103] His remarks were met with wide condemnation from the public.[104] He later acknowledged he might have been "rash and frivolous" with his comments but insisted that it was not a massacre.[104]

On 4 June 2007, the anniversary of the massacre, a notice reading, "Paying tribute to the strongwilled mothers of 4 June victims" was published in the Chengdu Evening News newspaper.[105] The matter was investigated by the Chinese government, and three editors were fired from the paper.[106][107] The clerk who approved the ad had reportedly never heard of the 4 June crackdown and had been told that the date was a reference to a mining disaster.[108]

In late April 2009, Internet access to English-language media on the events at Tiananmen, including video, news reports and Wikipedia, was uncensored in mainland China for the first time. Articles were still mostly censored on the Chinese version of Google, though some videos were viewable.[109] Additionally, filming in Tiananmen Square on the 20th anniversary of the 1989 protests was discouraged by plainclothes police officers wielding umbrellas and stepping in front of the cameras of journalists near the square.[110][111]

EU-US arms embargo

The European Union and United States embargo on armament sales to the PRC, put in place as a result of the violent suppression of the Tiananmen Square pro-democracy protests, still remains in place. The PRC has been calling for a lifting of the ban for many years and has had a varying amount of support from members of the Council of the European Union. In early 2004, France spearheaded a movement within the EU to lift the ban. Former German Chancellor Gerhard Schröder publicly added his voice to that of former French President Jacques Chirac to have the embargo lifted.

The arms embargo was discussed at a PRC-EU summit in the Netherlands between 7 December and 9, 2004. In the run-up to the summit, the PRC had attempted to increase pressure on the EU Council to lift the ban by warning that the ban could hurt PRC-EU relations. PRC Vice Foreign Minister Zhang Yesui had called the ban "outdated", and he told reporters, "If the ban is maintained, bilateral relations will definitely be affected." In the end, the EU Council did not lift the ban. EU spokeswoman Françoise le Bail said there were still concerns about the PRC's commitment to human rights. But at the time, the EU did state a commitment to work towards lifting the ban.

The PRC continued to press for the embargo to be lifted, and some member states began to drop their opposition. Jacques Chirac pledged to have the ban lifted by mid-2005. However, the Anti-Secession Law of the People's Republic of China passing in March 2005 increased cross-strait tensions, damaging attempts to lift the ban, and several EU Council members changed their minds. Members of the U.S. Congress had also proposed restrictions on the transfer of military technology to the EU if they lifted the ban. Thus the EU Council failed to reach a consensus, and although France and Germany pushed to have the embargo lifted, the embargo was maintained.

Britain took charge of the EU Presidency in July 2005, making the lifting of the embargo all but impossible for the duration of that period. Britain had always had some reservations on lifting the ban and wished to put it to the side, rather than sour EU-US relations further. Other issues such as the failure of the European Constitution and the ensuing disagreement over the European Budget and Common Agricultural Policy superseded the matter of the embargo in importance. Britain wanted to use its presidency to push for wholesale reform of the EU, so the lifting of the ban became even more unlikely. The election of José Manuel Barroso as European Commission President also made a lifting of the ban more difficult. At a meeting with Chinese leaders in mid-July 2005, he said that China's poor record on human rights would slow any changes to the EU's ban on arms sales to China.[112]

Political will also changed in countries that had previously been more in favor of lifting the embargo. Schröder lost the 2005 German federal election to Angela Merkel, who became chancellor on 22 November 2005 – Merkel made her position clear that she was strongly against lifting the ban. Jacques Chirac declared he would not stand again as a candidate for the French Presidency in 2007. His successor, Nicolas Sarkozy, is also in favour of lifting the embargo like Chirac. That is, the French government has changed, but not the French foreign policy on this matter. In addition, the European Parliament has consistently opposed the lifting of the arms embargo to the PRC. Though its agreement is not necessary for lifting the ban, many argue it reflects the will of the European people better as it is the only directly elected European body—the EU Council is appointed by member states. The European Parliament has repeatedly opposed any lifting of the arms embargo on the PRC:

  • The resolution of 28 April 2005, on the Annual Report on Human Rights in the World 2004 and the EU's policy on the matter,
  • The resolution of 23 October 2003, on the annual report from the Council to the European Parliament on the main aspects and basic choices of CFSP, it insisted on a peaceful resolution of the Taiwan issue through dialogue across the Taiwan Straits and called on China to withdraw missiles in the coastal provinces adjacent to the Taiwan Straits, and
  • The resolution on relations between the EU, China and Taiwan and security in the Far East of 7 July 2005. The EP has noted several times that the current human rights situation in China, with regards to fundamental civil, cultural and political freedoms does not meet even the international standards recognized by China.

The arms embargo has limited China's options from where it may seek military hardware. Among the sources that were sought included the former Soviet bloc that it had a strained relationship with as a result of the Sino-Soviet split. Other willing suppliers have previously included Israel and South Africa, but American pressure has restricted future co-operation.[113]


Although the Chinese government never officially acknowledged wrongdoing when it came to the incident, in April 2006 a payment was made to the mother of one of the victims, the first publicized case of the government offering redress to a Tiananmen-related victim's family. The payment was termed a "hardship assistance", given to Tang Deying (唐德英) whose son, Zhou Guocong (simplified Chinese: 周国聪; traditional Chinese: 周國聰) died at the age of 15 while in police custody in Chengdu on 6 June 1989, two days after the Chinese Army dispersed the Tiananmen protestors. She was reportedly paid 70,000 yuan (approximately $10,250 USD). This has been welcomed by various Chinese activists, but was regarded by some as a measure to maintain social stability and not believed to herald a changing of the Party's official position.[114]

United Nations report

On 21 November 2008, the U.N. Committee against Torture urged China to apologize for the incident, release dissidents still held, and conduct an investigation of the events surrounding the protest.[115][116]

Notable participants

  • Zhao Ziyang, former General Secretary of the Communist Party of China
  • Li Peng, former Premier of the People's Republic of China
  • Wen Jiabao, current Premier of the People's Republic of China
  • Wang Dan, Wu'er Kaixi, Chai Ling. Student leaders of the protests.
  • Liu Xiaobo, famous Chinese dissident
  • Yu Dongyue, former Chinese journalist who threw paint-filled eggs onto the Mao Zedong portrait on the Square
  • Bei Dao, poet (ideological influence, during the protests was participating at a conference in Berlin)
  • Cui Jian, the so-called "father of Chinese rock," whose song "Nothing to My Name" was considered an unofficial "anthem" for students and protesters there[117][118]
  • "Tank Man", the unknown rebel who stood in front of the line of approaching military tanks

Cultural references

Execution, a painting inspired by the event became the most expensive Chinese contemporary art sold in 2007

Censored books, films and TV shows in mainland China

  • Political Struggles in China's Reform Era by Yang Jisheng, for featuring secret interviews with Zhao Ziyang and rejecting the Chinese government's position on the protests.[119]
  • In 2006, the novel Forbidden City, by William Bell, a fictionalised version of the protests, was banned.[citation needed]
  • Summer Palace was banned in 2006, ostensibly because it was screened without permission, but likely also because of its mention of the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989.[120]
  • Collection of June Fourth Poems, a collection of poems about the protests.[121]
  • Writings or interviews with Zhao Ziyang or Bao Tong are banned.[122][123] As such, Conversations with Zhao Ziyang in House Arrest by Zong Fengmin was not published due to government pressure.[124] However, Prisoner of the State: The Secret Journal of Premier Zhao Ziyang was published in May 2009 after tapes were smuggled out of China.
  • International media programs, such as CNN, are blacked out when the anniversary on 4 June every year is mentioned on televisions in Chinese hotels and homes for foreigners.[125]


This event has inspired many references within lyrics and album art – both in political and non-political usages.

The British rock band The Cure, during a concert in Rome on 4 June 1989, dedicated their last encore, "Faith," to "everyone that died today in China." Singer Robert Smith extended the song with improvised lyrics about a person who has a gun held to their mouth and urged to say "Yes" to the question "Do you love me?", but finally refuses to do so. The bootlegged recording of this 15 minute version is known as "Tiananmen Faith". In the same year, Joan Baez wrote and recorded her folk anthem "China" to commemorate the democratic revolt. Billy Joel's history-themed single "We Didn't Start the Fire", released late 1989, mentions the event in the line "China's under martial law."

The song Tin Omen by the Canadian industrial band Skinny Puppy is a reference to this uprising and massacre.

Progressive rock group Marillion wrote a song titled "The King of Sunset Town" that uses imagery from the Tiananmen Square incidents, such as "a puppet king on the Fourth of June" and "before the Twenty-Seventh came". The song was released on their album Seasons End in September 1989.

American rock and folk music band The Hooters referred to the event in their hit song 500 Miles (from the album Zig Zag, recorded 1989), which is an updated version of the 1960s folk song. The third verse begins with words: "A hundred tanks along the square, One man stands and stops them there, Someday soon the tide'll turn and I'll be free"

The band System of a Down referred to the event in the opening lines to the song "Hypnotize", which are, "Why don't you ask the kids at Tiananmen Square, was fashion the reason why they were there?"

Shiny Happy People by R.E.M. is supposedly an ironic reference to a piece of roughly translated Chinese propaganda regarding the massacre, two years before the song was released.[126] The inference apparently relates to how politics is controlled by those with children in powerful positions, not idealistic revolting unhappy students on the ground in Tiananmen Square. The idea is that propaganda is often used to cover up stark weaknesses in political systems. The song is mockingly played to encourage unknown political candidates to be upbeat even under fire.

American thrash metal band Slayer released a song "Blood Red" on their 1990 album titled "Seasons in the Abyss", which was inspired by the Tiananmen Square incident. The song includes the lines: "Peaceful confrontation meets war machine, Seizing all civil liberties... No disguise can deface evil, The massacre of innocent people." The same year, another American thrash metal band Testament released the song "Seven Days of May" protesting the Beijing massacre (though the assault on Tiananmen Square took place on 3 June, not in May) on their "Souls of Black" album, including the words: "In the square they play the game, That's when the tanks and the army came... They called the murders minimal, Described their victims as criminals... Dead souls like you and me, Who only wanted free society".

British anarchist pop band Chumbawamba released a song called "Tiananmen Square" on their 1990 album Slap!. The lyrics are built around the fact the People's Liberation Army murdered the people. The Tank Man is also referenced ("You must've seen it, the boy in the white shirt").

Sinéad O'Connor, on her 1990 album I Do Not Want What I Haven't Got, referenced the killings in her song "Black Boys on Mopeds" with the following opening lines: "Margaret Thatcher on TV, Shocked by the deaths that took place in Beijing".

British goth rock outfit Siouxsie and the Banshees recorded the song "The Ghost in You" for their album Superstition in 1991. It is about a person who witnessed the massacre returning to Tiananmen Square and remembering the terrible emotions he/she experienced there.

Roger Waters referred to the massacre on the song "Watching TV" from his 1992 album Amused to Death. In 1996, Nevermore released the track titled "The Tiananmen Man" on their The Politics of Ecstasy album. The song is about the Tank Man who famously stood in front of the tanks in the Square.

In 2006 a Chinese folk singer Li Zhi wrote a song titled "The Square", where the sound of bullets and ambulance and voice of TAM mother Mrs. Ding were sampled.[127] In 2007 Hed PE wrote a song entitled "Tiananmen Squared" on their Insomnia album.

Calogero (French singer) also has a song called Tien An Men.

Portuguese band Kalashnikov has a song called Tiananmen Tiananmen. The chorus of the song says "Tiananmen Tiananmen, kill another yellow men"

The Italian band CCCP Fedeli alla linea included a song called "Tien An Men" in their 1990 EP Ragazza Emancipata.

In 2009, Hong Kong indie pop band My Little Airport wrote "Donald Tsang, Please Die" after Tsang suggested that the Tiananmen Square massacre is insignificant compared to China's current economic power. The lyrics include "Imagine today Donald someone chopped off your hand, twenty years later that somebody has become the Chief Executive. Will you stop seeking justice because of his achievement?"[128]

Punk Band, Rancid, Make reference to Tiananmen Square in their song "Arrested in Shanghai", with the line "So I protest the massacres at the Tiananmen Square//My friends said yo, stay away man, you better not go fucking back there". The song reflects issues of media censorship and the lack of Democratic freedom in China today[129]

Australian hip-hop group Hilltop Hoods mentions Tiananmen Square in one of their songs. "I feel like throwing a flag of protest in Tiananmen Square"


Simultaneously occurring during the height of the Tiananmen Square protest massacre was the 1989 French Open grand slam tennis tournament, which was eventually won by Chinese American Michael Chang, who at age 17 became the youngest man to win a Grand Slam, a record that still stands. Chang's memorable fourth round victory over world number one Ivan Lendl occurred on 5 June 1989—the day after the height of the massacre—and he frequently refers to the Tianamen Square massacre as providing added impetus to win the tournament:

"A lot of people forget that Tiananmen Square was going on. The crackdown that happened was on the middle Sunday at the French Open, so if I was not practicing or playing a match, I was glued to the television, watching the events unfold...I often tell people I think it was God's purpose for me to be able to win the French Open the way it was won because I was able to put a smile on Chinese people's faces around the world at a time when there wasn't much to smile about."[130]


A primetime special[131] hosted by Tom Brokaw honored both the Tiananmen Square pro-democracy demonstrations in Beijing and the fall of the Berlin Wall in that momentous year for human rights around the world, 1989.

The series South Park featured an episode that centered around the boys watching the fictitious Russel Crowe Show. In one segment of the fictional show, host Russel Crowe visits Tiananmen Square (which he calls "Teeny-Man Square"), and mentions a "bonzer massacre back in '89".

On 24 September 1990, the series Star Trek: The Next Generation referenced a starship called the USS Tiananmen Square as one of the many starships destroyed in a battle against the Borg, in the Battle at Wolf 359, in the Emmy Award winning episode "The Best Of Both Worlds, Part 2", in honor of the protestors.

CNN news anchor Kyra Phillips drew criticism in March 2006 when she compared the 2006 youth protests in France, in which it was later determined that no one was killed, to the Tiananmen Square protests, saying "Sort of brings back memories of Tiananmen Square, when you saw these activists in front of tanks."[132] CNN's Chris Burns told French Foreign Minister Philippe Douste-Blazy that her comments were "regrettable" and would receive some disciplinary actions.[133]

In April 2006, the PBS series Frontline produced an episode titled "The Tank Man", which examined his role in the 1989 Tiananmen Square Protests and the change that has overtaken the P.R.C. economically and politically since.

In The Simpsons episode Goo Goo Gai Pan when the family visits Beijing, there is a plaque reading, "On this spot in 1989, nothing happened", in Tiananmen Square, a reference to the Chinese Government's denial and censorship of the protests. Selma also mirrored the scene of the "Tank Man" when she stood in front of a line of tanks led by Madame Wu.

On the 3 June 2009 the BBC aired the documentary "Kate Adie returns to Tiananmen", in which reporter Kate Adie revisits China and recalls the events she witnessed in 1989.[134]


The movie Rapid Fire, starring Brandon Lee, depicts images of the Tiananmen Square killings. In the movie, Brandon Lee's character is the son of a US "government employee" who died in the Tiananmen Square massacre; it is this death that leads to the cynicism and anger of Lee's character through-out much of the movie. Near the end, Powers Booth's character hands him a folder that, it is assumed, contains additional information behind his father's death.

Summer Palace (2006) by Chinese director Lou Ye contains re-enacted scenes from Beijing streets during the days of the protests in Tiananmen Square.

See also


  1. ^ "Keesing's Record of World Events". Volume 35, p. 36587. 1989.
  2. ^ a b c d e Nathan, Andrew J. (2001). "The Tiananmen Papers". Foreign Affairs. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  3. ^ http://www.atimes.com/atimes/China/FF08Ad07.html
  4. ^ Editorial (30 May 2009). "The day China trampled on freedom". The Age. Italic or bold markup not allowed in: |publisher= (help)
  5. ^ AFP (4 June 2009). "China tightens information controls for Tiananmen anniversary". The Age. Italic or bold markup not allowed in: |publisher= (help)
  6. ^ Spence, Jonathan D. (1999). The Search for Modern China. p. 685. New York: Norton.
  7. ^ Spence, Jonathan D. (1999). The Search for Modern China. p. 697. New York: Norton.
  8. ^ "Full text of the 4-26 Editorial". Xinhua News Agency. 23 February 2005.
  9. ^ Amnesty International (30 August 1989). Preliminary Findings on Killings of Unarmed Civilians, Arbitrary Arrests and Summary Executions Since 3 June 1989. p. 19.
  10. ^ The Gate of Heavenly Peace. Long Brow Group. 1995.
  11. ^ "Interview with Liu Binyan". Human Rights Watch. 1989.
  12. ^ Macartney, Jane (23 May 2009).Mao portrait saboteurs Yu Dongyue and Yu Zhijian granted asylum in America. The Times.
  13. ^ Xiaobo, Liu (1994). "That Holy Word, "Revolution"". Popular Protest and Political Culture in Modern China. Westview Press. p. 315. ISBN 978-0813320427. OCLC 30623957. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (|author= suggested) (help)
  14. ^ Calhoun, Craig C. (1994). Popular Protest and Political Culture in Modern China. Westview Press. p. 113. ISBN 978-0-8133-2043-4.
  15. ^ Exiled Tiananmen dissident back in Taiwan. Yahoo! News. 4 June 2009.
  16. ^ Delury, John. (24 May 2009). Tiananmen Square revisited. Pakistan Daily Times
  17. ^ Miles, J. A. R. (1997). The Legacy of Tiananmen: China in Disarray. University of Michigan Press. ISBN 978-0-472-08451-7.
  18. ^ "Tens of Millions of Protesters". Frontline.
  19. ^ Kate Wright, the Political Fortunes of the World Economic Herald, Australian Journal of Chinese Affairs, nr 23, pp 121–132 (1990)
  20. ^ "Secretary of State's Morning Summary for 3 June 1989". US State Dept Documents. George Washington University. Retrieved 4 August 2008.
  21. ^ "Interview with Timothy Brook". Pbs.org. Retrieved 9 November 2009. See Timothy Brook.
  22. ^ a b "Interview with John Pomfret". Pbs.org. Retrieved 9 November 2009.
  23. ^ a b c Picture Power:Tiananmen Standoff BBC News. Last updated 7 October 2005.
  24. ^ "Interview with Jan Wong". PBS. 11 April 2006. Retrieved 9 November 2009.
  25. ^ "FRONTLINE: The Tank Man transcript".
  26. ^ "TIME 100: The Unknown Rebel". Time. Italic or bold markup not allowed in: |publisher= (help)
  27. ^ Cheng, Chu-Yuan (1990). Behind the Tiananmen Massacre: Social, Political and Economic Ferment in China. p. 139. Westview Press, Inc., Oxford.
  28. ^ a b c d e f Kristoff, Nicholas D. (21 June 1989). "A Reassessment of How Many Died In the Military Crackdown in Beijing". The New York Times. Italic or bold markup not allowed in: |publisher= (help) Cite error: The named reference "reassessment" was defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
  29. ^ a b c Frontline – The Memory of Tiananmen 1989. PBS. 2006.
  30. ^ Wanniski, Jude. (5 June 2004). Remembering Tiananmen Square. Lewrockwell.com.
  31. ^ China Makes Zhao Purge Formal, But He Still Gets to Be a Comrade, New York Times, 1 July 1989
  32. ^ a b c How Many Really Died? Time magazine, 4 June 1990
  33. ^ "六四民運 (June4th 1989 Archive)" (in Chinese). Retrieved 4 August 2008.
  34. ^ Damon Pang, `Massacre' remarks trigger sharp exchange at City Forum, The Standard, 21 May 2007
  35. ^ "Jay Mathews Columbia Journalism Review, September/October 1998".
  36. ^ Lilley, James, China Hands, 322.
  37. ^ a b Langley, A. Tiananmen Square: Massacre Crushes China's Democracy Movement. Compass Point Books, 2009. ISBN 978-0-7565-4101-9, p. 16.
  38. ^ a b Timperlake, Edward. (1999). Red Dragon Rising. Regnery Publishing. ISBN 0-89526-258-4
  39. ^ Sino-American Relations: One Year After the Massacre at Tiananmen Square. 2005 (1991). US congress publishing. No ISBN digitized archive via Stanford University
  40. ^ "China: 15 years after Tiananmen, calls for justice continue and the arrests go on". Amnesty International. Retrieved 30 May 2009.
  41. ^ "Secretary of State's Morning Summary for 4 June 1989". George Washington University. Retrieved 4 August 2008.
  42. ^ List of casualties, Ding Zilin, Retrieved 21 May 2007 (in Chinese)
  43. ^ a b Strahan, A. Australia's China: Changing Perceptions from the 1930s to the 1990s. Cambridge University Press, 1996. p.302. ISBN 978-0-521-48497-8.
  44. ^ a b c http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB16/documents/36-04.htm State Department Bureau of Intelligence and Research, "China: Aftermath of the Crisis" (27 July 1989)
  45. ^ Places 20 years apart – column by C. Raja Mohan, Indian Express, 4 June 2009
  46. ^ a b c d Troubles in China provoke protests, Spokane Chronicle, 7 June 1989, page A8
  47. ^ Bush halts arms sales to China. Chicago Tribune, 6 June 1989.
  48. ^ Youngs, R. The European Union and the Promotion of Democracy. Oxford University Press, 2002. ISBN 978-0-19-924979-4.
  49. ^ Los Angeles Times, 19 June 1989.
  50. ^ a b Turmoil in China; Asian Diplomats Express Concern, New York Times, 8 June 1989.
  51. ^ a b World leaders outraged at army action, The New Straits Times, 6 June 1989
  52. ^ Columbus, Frank H. (1998). Central and Eastern Europe in transition, Volume 1. Nova Publishers. p. 23. ISBN 978-1560725961.
  53. ^ a b c d The West Condemns the Crackdown, New York Times, 5 June 1989.
  54. ^ Bundeszentrale f. politische Bildung: Zusammenbruch des SED-Regimes[dead link]
  55. ^ Tagebuch der Deutschen Einheit Krenz e.g. remarked in June 1989 that finally „something was done, so as to restore order“
  56. ^ Mansfield, Y. & Pizam, A. Tourism and safety in the PRC. Tourism, Security and Safety: From Theory to Practice. 2006. p. 197. ISBN 978-0-7506-7898-8.
  57. ^ Yahuda, M. B. Hong Kong: China's Challenge. Routledge, 1996. ISBN 978-0-415-14071-3.
  58. ^ a b Columbus, F. A. Central and Eastern Europe in Transition. Nova Publishers, 1998. p. 22-23. ISBN 978-1-56072-596-1.
  59. ^ a b World condemns Tiananmen bloodshed, The Register Guard, 5 June 1989, page 5A
  60. ^ Klien, S. Rethinking Japan's Identity and International Role: An Intercultural Perspective. Routledge, 2002. p. 89. ISBN 978-0-415-93438-1.
  61. ^ China rips US for halting arms flow, aiding dissident, Chicago Sun Times, 8 June 1989.
  62. ^ Huwaidin, M. B. China's Relations with Arabia and the Gulf, 1949–1999. Routledge, 2002. p. 196. ISBN 978-0-7007-1730-9.
  63. ^ Carroll, J. M. "A Concise History of Hong Kong." Rowman & Littlefield, 2007. ISBN 978-0-7425-3422-3.
  64. ^ Bruun, Ole (1996). Mongolia in transition. Routledge. p. 32. ISBN 978-0700704415. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (|author= suggested) (help)
  65. ^ Rossabi, Morris (2005). Modern Mongolia: from khans to commissars to capitalists. University of California Press. p. 18. ISBN 978-0520244191.
  66. ^ West, L. A. Militant Labor in the Philippines. Temple University Press, 1997. p. 178. ISBN 978-1-56639-491-8.
  67. ^ Suettinger, Robert L. (2004). Beyond Tiananmen: The Politics of U.S.-China Relations 1989-2000. Brookings Institution Press. p. 105. ISBN 978-0815782070.
  68. ^ Events In Beijing (Senate – 7 June 1989)
  69. ^ Non Intervention and State Sovereignty in the Asia-Pacific, Dickens, D. & Wilson-Roberts, G. Centre for Strategic Studies.
  70. ^ Wishnick E. Mending Fences: The Evolution of Moscow's China Policy, from Brezhnev to Yeltsin. University of Washington Press, 2001. p.106-107. ISBN 978-0-295-98128-4.
  71. ^ TURMOIL IN CHINA; Kremlin Dismayed, Aide Says, New York Times, 10 June 1989.
  72. ^ Zhang, L., Nathan, A. J., Link, P. & Schell O. The Tiananmen Papers: The Chinese Leadership's Decision to Use Force Against Their Own People – In Their Own Words. PublicAffairs, 2002. ISBN 978-1-58648-122-3.
  73. ^ Reaction swift to bloodshed in China. Associated Press, 7 June 1989
  74. ^ Carroll, J. M. A Concise History of Hong Kong. Rowman & Littlefield, 2007. ISBN 978-0-7425-3422-3.
  75. ^ Jeshurun, C. China, India, Japan and the Security of Southeast Asia. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 1993. ISBN 978-981-3016-61-3.
  76. ^ "Article: Still on the wing; inside Operation Yellowbird, the daring plot to help dissidents escape.(special report: China)".
  77. ^ Listening to China's Dissidents, BusinessWeek, 17 December 2001.
  78. ^ Blog: A talk by Wang Dan (in Chinese) (20 November 2007)
  79. ^ Beijing Orders Its Ambassadors Home for a Meeting, New York Times, 29 June 1989.
  80. ^ Washington Post, 17 June 1989
  81. ^ Gifford, Rob. "No Longer Relying on Heaven." China Road. 167–168.
  82. ^ Interview with Eugenio Bregolat, Spanish ambassador in Beijing during the Tiananmen Square protests (in Spanish) (9 August 2007)
  83. ^ Eugenio Bregolat (4 June 2007). "TVE in Tiananmen" (in Spanish). La Vanguardia. Retrieved 4 September 2007.
  84. ^ The Nuclear Age: TimeFrame AD 1950–1990. Time-Life Books, 1990.
  85. ^ Chinese human rights official says the crackdown 'completely correct' Rebecca MacKinnon, "Tiananmen Ten Years Later." CNN, 2 June 1999.
  86. ^ Thakur, M., Burton, G. E. & Srivastava, B. N. International Management: Concepts and Cases. Tata McGraw-Hill, 1997. p.404-405. ISBN 978-0-07-463395-3.
  87. ^ Kelley, N. L. & Shenkar, O. International Business in China. Routledge, 1993. p.120-122. ISBN 978-0-415-05345-7.
  88. ^ Gordon, W. C. The United Nations at the Crossroads of Reform. M. E. Sharpe, 1994. p.167. ISBN 978-1-56324-400-1.
  89. ^ [1], Human Rights Watch, 2 June 2004
  90. ^ June 4 vigil actually for quake: CCTV. Taipei Times. 10 June 2008
  91. ^ Relatives of dead at Tiananmen seek review, The Associated Press, International Herald Tribune, 31 May 2006
  92. ^ Hong Kong's 'Long-Haired' Provocateur. Ohmynews.com. 27 May 2005
  93. ^ Lu, Xing; Simons, Herbert W. (2006). Transitional Rhetoric of Chinese Communist Party Leaders in the Post-Mao Reform Period: Dilemmas and Strategies. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 1479–5779, 92(3), 262 – 286.
  94. ^ a b Les déboires de Zhang Shijun, ancien soldat trop bavard de la répression de Tienanmen, Le Monde, 2009/03/23
  95. ^ Cheng, Jacqui (2 June 2009). "Twitter, Flickr, others blocked by China's Great Firewall". Ars Technica. p. 1. Retrieved 2 June 2009.
  96. ^ "2nd Tiananmen dissident denied entry to Hong Kong".
  97. ^ "Tiananmen student leader vows to try again to return to China".
  98. ^ Chinese TV employees suspended for Tiananmen broadcast. Washington Post. 19 June 2009
  99. ^ Pei, M. (1994). From Reform to Revolution: The Demise of Communism in China and the Soviet Union. Harvard University Press. pp. 152. ISBN 978-0-674-32563-0.
  100. ^ China lifts ban on Tiananmen sites, The Guardian, 3 August 2008.
  101. ^ The Tank Man, Part 6:The Struggle to Control Information, Frontline, 11 April 2006
  102. ^ Google censors itself for China, BBC News, 25 January 2006
  103. ^ Ambrose Leung, "Fury at DAB chief's Tiananmen tirade", Page 1, South China Morning Post, 16 May 2007
  104. ^ a b Hundreds march to mark Tiananmen Square massacre, Independent.ie, 27 May 2007.
  105. ^ "No title". Archived from the original on 20 June 2007.
  106. ^ "China investigates Tiananmen ad". Reuters. 5 June 2007. Retrieved 5 June 2007.
  107. ^ "Chengdu Evening News editors fired over Tiananmen ad". Reuters. 7 June 2007. Retrieved 5 August 2008.
  108. ^ "Young clerk let Tiananmen ad slip past censors: paper". Reuters. 6 June 2007. Retrieved 5 August 2008.
  109. ^ China eases its Tiananmen taboo, The National, 29 April 2009
  110. ^ "Beijing clamps down on media". CNN. 3 June 2009. Retrieved 4 June 2009.
  111. ^ "Police Surround Tiananmen Square". BBC. 4 June 2009. Retrieved 4 June 2009.
  112. ^ Daniel Griffiths, EC leader urges China to reform, BBC News, 15 July 2005
  113. ^ "Japan concerned by call to lift China embargo – official", Forbes, 27 November 2008.
  114. ^ "China makes 1989 Tiananmen payout". BBC News. 30 April 2006.
  115. ^ UN Report – "Concluding observations of the Committee against Torture: China", 21 November 2008.
  116. ^ "UN panel urges China apology to 1989 protesters", Associated Press, 21 November 2008.
  117. ^ Matusitz, Jonathan (23 May 2007). "Semiotics of Music: Analysis of Cui Jian's 『Nothing to My Name;' The Anthem for the Chinese Youths in the Post-Cultural Revolution Era". International Communication Association. Retrieved 28 February 2009. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  118. ^ "Cui Jian: The man who rocks China". The Independent. 14 November 2005. Retrieved 28 February 2009.
  119. ^ In China, Two Books but One Party, Washington Post, 12 March 2005.
  120. ^ Higgins, Charlotte (5 September 2006). Director hailed at Cannes faces five-year film ban in China. The Guardian.
  121. ^ China: ban on anthology of poems about Tiananmen Square movement. Reporters Without Borders. 7 September 2007.
  122. ^ Yufang, Xu (7 November 2002). The fading of Jiang's 'Three Represents', Asia Times.
  123. ^ Reporter seeking secret documents arrested. Independent Online. 31 May 2005.
  124. ^ Trying times for journalists in China, Asia Times, 29 August 2006.
  125. ^ Fifteenth anniversary of the Tiananmen Square massacre, Reporters Without Borders, 2 June 2004.
  126. ^ "The 111 Wussiest Songs of All Time (No. 1) – AOL Music". Music.aol.com. Retrieved 9 November 2009.
  127. ^ "°Ù¶ÈËÑË÷_ÀîÖ¾ ¡¶¹ã³¡¡· Ìì°²ÃÅ".
  128. ^ Oiwan Lam (18 May 2009). "Hong Kong: Donald Tsang, please die!". Global Voices Online. Retrieved 9 November 2009.
  129. ^ "RANCID LYRICS – Arrested In Shanghai". Azlyrics.com. Retrieved 9 November 2009.
  130. ^ Quitting was an option for Michael Chang
  131. ^ "Robert F. Kennedy Human Rights Award Primetime Special (Full Version)". Snagfilms.com. Retrieved 9 November 2009.
  132. ^ "French protests 'Tiananmen'". FIN24. 28 March 2006. Retrieved 29 March 2007.
  133. ^ "Observer: Just a little comment". Financial Times. 30 March 2006. p. 14. Retrieved 5 August 2008. Italic or bold markup not allowed in: |publisher= (help)
  134. ^ Kate Adie returns to Tiananmen. BBC. 3 June 2009.

Further reading

Internet video

External links

Coordinates: 39°54′12″N 116°23′30″E / 39.90333°N 116.39167°E / 39.90333; 116.39167

Template:Link FA Template:Link FA