Tibareni

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Tibareni, along with Macrones inhabiting Northeast Anatolia
Tibarenia in a map of the voyage of the Argonauts by Abraham Ortelius, 1624

The Tibareni (Georgian: ტიბერია, Tiberia; Greek: Τιβαρηνοί[1] and Τιβαρανοί[1]; Tubal, Thobeles in Josephus) were a people residing on the coast of ancient Pontus referred to in Herodotus, Xenophon, Strabo and other classical authors.

They occupied the country between the Chalybes and the Mosynoeci, on the east of the river Isis, and the country was called Tibarenia (Ancient Greek: Τιβαρηνία).[1] They are mentioned as early as the time of Herodotus,[2] and were believed to be of Scythian origin.[3][4][5][6] Strabo describes them as inhabiting the mountains branching off from the Montes Moschici and Colchici, and mentions Cotyura as their principal town.[7][8] They appear to have been a harmless and happy people, who performed all their duties in a joyous manner.[3][6][9] Their arms consisted of wooden helmets, small shields, and short spears with long points.[10] Xenophon and his Greeks spent three days in travelling through their country.[11][12][13][14]

These three tribes[which?] still neighbored each other, along the Black Sea coast of Anatolia (ancient Pontus), as late as in Roman times. Tibareni, along with the other Proto-Georgian tribes were subjugated by the Achaemenid Empire in the 6th-5th centuries BC and were incorporated into the XIX Satrapy.[citation needed]

They are often identified with Tabal, a Neo-Hittite kingdom of South Central Anatolia which formed during the early Iron Age.[citation needed]

They could have relations with pre-Sumerian mesopotamian city of Bad-Tibira, known as "Fortress of the Smiths" as Tibareni are one of the Kartvelian tribes which were early metalsmiths.[citation needed]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Stephanus of Byzantium, Ethnica, § T622.6
  2. ^ Herodotus. Histories. 3.94.
  3. ^ a b Schol. ad Apoll. Rhod. 2.378, 1010
  4. ^ Xenophon. Anabasis. 5.5.2.
  5. ^ Periplus of Pseudo-Scylax
  6. ^ a b Stephanus of Byzantium. Ethnica. s.v. Τιβαρηνία.
  7. ^ Strabo. Geographica. xi. p.527. Page numbers refer to those of Isaac Casaubon's edition.
  8. ^ Pliny. Naturalis Historia. 6.4.
  9. ^ Anon. Peripl. P. E. p. 12; Pomponius Mela. De situ orbis. 1.19.
  10. ^ Herodotus. Histories. 7.78.
  11. ^ Xenophon. Anabasis. 7.8.25.
  12. ^ Diodorus Siculus. Bibliotheca historica (Historical Library). 14.30.
  13. ^ Dionys. Per. 767; Pomponius Mela. De situ orbis. 1.2.
  14. ^ Strabo. Geographica. ii. p.129, vii. p. 309, xi. p. 549, xii. p. 555. Page numbers refer to those of Isaac Casaubon's edition.

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainSmith, William, ed. (1854–1857). "Tibareni". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. London: John Murray.

See also[edit]