Tibet–Ladakh–Mughal War

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Tibet–Ladakh–Mughal War
Date 1679–84
Location Ladakh
Result Treaty of Tingmosgang
Belligerents
Ganden Phodrang

Mughal Empire

Commanders and leaders
Galdan Chhewang Deldan Namgyal
Fidai Khan

The Tibet–Ladakh–Mughal War of 1679–84 was fought between the Gelug dominated Tibetan Ganden Phodrang government and the Drukpa Kagyu Ladakh, with assistance from the Mughal Empire troops.

In the late 17th century, Ladakh sided with Bhutan in its dispute with Tibet. The Tibetans decided to punish Ladakh for interfering in their relations with Bhutan and the oppression of Gelug monasteries in Ladakh.[1]

In 1679 the 5th Dalai Lama appointed the lama of the Tashilhunpo Monastery, the Koshut Galdan Chhewang, as the commander of the Tibeto-Mongol expedition to Ladakh.[1] Galdan Chhewang first secured his flanks when he made a treaty with Raja Kehri Singh of Bashahr, granting him trade rights with Tibet.[1]

Galdan Chhewang's first campaign resulted in the defeat of the Ladakhi army, led by Sakya rGya-mTsho, at Khan-dMar.[2] The next year he defeated the Ladakhis again Byan-la and occupied the country with the exception of Basgo, Ladakh's capital, which would hold out against the Tibetan attacks for the next three years.[2]

The stalemate was broken with the Mughal Empire's intervention in the war. The Muslim Mughals had included Ladakh in their sphere of influence in 1665.[1] Kashmiri historians assert that after this, the king converted to Islam in return. However, Ladakhi chronicles do not mention such a thing and Ladakhi people refute it. The king agreed to give tribute to the Mughals in return for their help.[3][4]

In his struggle for power over Tibet, brutality and terror was employed by the Fifth Dalai Lama.[5] The Moghuls withdrew after being paid off by the 5th Dalai Lama.[6]

With the help of reinforcements from Galdan Boshugtu Khan, Khan of the Zungar Empire, the Tibetans attacked again in 1684. The Tibetans were victorious and concluded a treaty with Ladakh then they retreated back to Lhasa on December 1684.

The Treaty of Tingmosgang in 1684 settled the dispute between Tibet and Ladakh but severely restricted Ladakh's independence. The Treaty fixed the Tibetan-Ladakhi border at the Lhari stream near Demchok and regulated trade and tribute missions from Ladakh to Tibet.[1]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e March of Central Asia Ram Rahul p.51
  2. ^ a b New Light on the Tibet-Ladakh-Mughal War of 1679-84 Zahiruddin Ahmad p.349
  3. ^ https://books.google.com/books?id=Z6y2E9gw5oIC&pg=PA34
  4. ^ https://books.google.com/books?id=mg8My6WaWRcC&pg=PA63
  5. ^ Johan Elverskog (6 June 2011). Buddhism and Islam on the Silk Road. University of Pennsylvania Press. pp. 222–. ISBN 0-8122-0531-6. 
  6. ^ Johan Elverskog (6 June 2011). Buddhism and Islam on the Silk Road. University of Pennsylvania Press. pp. 223–. ISBN 0-8122-0531-6. 

References[edit]

  • Ahmad, Zahiruddin (1968). "New Light on the Tibet-Ladakh-Mughal War of 1679-84". East and West. Istituto Italiano per l'Africa e l'Oriente. 18 (3/4 (September–December 1968)): 340–361. JSTOR 29755343. 
  • Rahul, Ram (2000). March of Central Asia. Indus Publishing. ISBN 8173871094.