A completed game of Tic-tac-toe
|Playing time||~1 minute|
|Skill(s) required||Strategy, tactics, observation|
|Synonym(s)||Noughts and crosses
Xs and Os
Tic-tac-toe (also known as noughts and crosses or Xs and Os) is a paper-and-pencil game for two players, X and O, who take turns marking the spaces in a 3×3 grid. The player who succeeds in placing three of their marks in a horizontal, vertical, or diagonal row wins the game.
The following example game is won by the first player, X:
Because of the simplicity of tic-tac-toe, it is often used as a pedagogical tool for teaching the concepts of good sportsmanship and the branch of artificial intelligence that deals with the searching of game trees. It is straightforward to write a computer program to play tic-tac-toe perfectly, to enumerate the 765 essentially different positions (the state space complexity), or the 26,830 possible games up to rotations and reflections (the game tree complexity) on this space.
The game can be generalized to an m,n,k-game in which two players alternate placing stones of their own color on an m×n board, with the goal of getting k of their own color in a row. Tic-tac-toe is the (3,3,3)-game. Harary's generalized tic-tac-toe is an even broader generalization of tic tac toe. It can also be generalized as a nd game. Tic-tac-toe is the game where n equals 3 and d equals 2.
An early variation of tic-tac-toe was played in the Roman Empire, around the first century BC. It was called Terni Lapilli and instead of having any number of pieces, each player only had three, thus they had to move them around to empty spaces to keep playing. The game's grid markings have been found chalked all over Rome. However, according to Claudia Zaslavsky's book Tic Tac Toe: And Other Three-In-A Row Games from Ancient Egypt to the Modern Computer, Tic-tac-toe could be traced back to ancient Egypt. Another closely related ancient game is Three Men's Morris which is also played on a simple grid and requires three pieces in a row to finish.
The different names of the game are more recent . The first print reference to "noughts and crosses", the British name, appeared in 1864. In his novel "Can You Forgive Her", 1864, Anthony Trollope refers to a clerk playing "tit-tat-toe". The first print reference to a game called "tick-tack-toe" occurred in 1884, but referred to "a children's game played on a slate, consisting in trying with the eyes shut to bring the pencil down on one of the numbers of a set, the number hit being scored". "Tic-tac-toe" may also derive from "tick-tack", the name of an old version of backgammon first described in 1558. The U.S. renaming of Noughts and crosses as tic-tac-toe occurred in the 20th century.
In 1952, OXO (or Noughts and Crosses), developed by British computer scientist Alexander S. Douglas for the EDSAC computer at the University of Cambridge, became one of the first known video games. The computer player could play perfect games of tic-tac-toe against a human opponent.
In 1975, tic-tac-toe was also used by MIT students to demonstrate the computational power of Tinkertoy elements. The Tinkertoy computer, made out of (almost) only Tinkertoys, is able to play tic-tac-toe perfectly. It is currently on display at the Museum of Science, Boston.
Despite its apparent simplicity, Tic-tac-toe requires detailed analysis to determine even some elementary combinatory facts, the most interesting of which are the number of possible games and the number of possible positions. A position is merely a state of the board, while a game usually refers to the way a terminal position is obtained.
Naive counting leads to 19,683 possible board layouts (39 since each of the nine spaces can be X, O or blank), and 362,880 (i.e., 9!) possible games (different sequences for placing the Xs and Os on the board). However, two matters much reduce these numbers:
- The game ends when three-in-a-row is obtained.
- If X starts, the number of Xs is always either equal to or exactly 1 more than the number of Os.
The complete analysis is further complicated by the definitions used when setting the conditions, like board symmetries.
Number of terminal positions
When considering only the state of the board, and after taking into account board symmetries (i.e. rotations and reflections), there are only 138 terminal board positions. Assuming that X makes the first move every time:
- 91 distinct positions are won by (X)
- 44 distinct positions are won by (O)
- 3 distinct positions are drawn (also known as a cat's game)
A player can play a perfect game of tic-tac-toe (to win or, at least, draw) if they choose the first available move from the following list, each turn, as used in Newell and Simon's 1972 tic-tac-toe program.
- Win: If the player has two in a row, they can place a third to get three in a row.
- Block: If the opponent has two in a row, the player must play the third themselves to block the opponent.
- Fork: Create an opportunity where the player has two threats to win (two non-blocked lines of 2).
- Blocking an opponent's fork:
- Option 1: The player should create two in a row to force the opponent into defending, as long as it doesn't result in them creating a fork. For example, if "X" has a corner, "O" has the center, and "X" has the opposite corner as well, "O" must not play a corner in order to win. (Playing a corner in this scenario creates a fork for "X" to win.)
- Option 2: If there is a configuration where the opponent can fork, the player should block that fork.
- Center: A player marks the center. (If it is the first move of the game, playing on a corner gives "O" more opportunities to make a mistake and may therefore be the better choice; however, it makes no difference between perfect players.)
- Opposite corner: If the opponent is in the corner, the player plays the opposite corner.
- Empty corner: The player plays in a corner square.
- Empty side: The player plays in a middle square on any of the 4 sides.
The first player, who shall be designated "X", has 3 possible positions to mark during the first turn. Superficially, it might seem that there are 9 possible positions, corresponding to the 9 squares in the grid. However, by rotating the board, we will find that in the first turn, every corner mark is strategically equivalent to every other corner mark. The same is true of every edge (side middle) mark. For strategy purposes, there are therefore only three possible first marks: corner, edge, or center. Player X can win or force a draw from any of these starting marks; however, playing the corner gives the opponent the smallest choice of squares which must be played to avoid losing. This makes the corner the best opening move for X, when the opponent is not a perfect player.
The second player, who shall be designated "O", must respond to X's opening mark in such a way as to avoid the forced win. Player O must always respond to a corner opening with a center mark, and to a center opening with a corner mark. An edge opening must be answered either with a center mark, a corner mark next to the X, or an edge mark opposite the X. Any other responses will allow X to force the win. Once the opening is completed, O's task is to follow the above list of priorities in order to force the draw, or else to gain a win if X makes a weak play.
More detailedly, to guarantee a draw, O should adopt the following strategies:
- If X plays corner opening move (best move for them), O should take center, and then an edge, forcing X to block in the next move. This will stop any forks from happening. When both X and O are perfect players and X chooses to start by marking a corner, O takes the center, and X takes the corner opposite the original. In that case, O is free to choose any edge as its second move. However, if X is not a perfect player and has played a corner and then an edge, O should not play the opposite edge as its second move, because then X is not forced to block in the next move and can fork.
- If X plays edge opening move, O should take center, and then follow the above list of priorities, mainly paying attention to block forks.
- If X plays center opening move, O should take corner, and then follow the above list of priorities, mainly paying attention to block forks.
When X plays corner first (best move for them), and O is not a perfect player, the following may happen:
- If O responds with a center mark (best move for them), a perfect X player will take the corner opposite the original. Then O should play an edge. However, if O plays a corner as its second move, a perfect X player will mark the remaining corner, blocking O's 3-in-a-row and making their own fork.
- If O responds with a corner mark, X is guaranteed to win, by simply taking any of the other two corners and then the last, a fork. (since when X takes the third corner, O can only take the position between the two X's. Then X can take the only remaining corner to win)
- If O responds with an edge mark, X is guaranteed to win, by taking center, then O can only take the corner opposite the corner which X plays first. Then X can take a corner to win.
Consider a board with the nine positions numbered as follows:
When X plays 1 as their opening move, then O should take 5. Then X takes 9 (in this situation, O should not take 3 or 7, O should take 2, 4, 6 or 8):
- X1 → O5 → X9 → O2 → X8 → O7 → X3 → O6 → X4, this game will be a draw.
or 6 (in this situation, O should not take 4 or 7, O should take 2, 3, 8 or 9. In fact, taking 9 is the best move, since a non-perfect player X may take 4, then O can take 7 to win).
- X1 → O5 → X6 → O2 → X8, then O should not take 3, or X can take 7 to win, and O should not take 4, or X can take 9 to win, O should take 7 or 9.
- X1 → O5 → X6 → O2 → X8 → O7 → X3 → O9 → X4, this game will be a draw.
- X1 → O5 → X6 → O2 → X8 → O9 → X4 (7) → O7 (4) → X3, this game will be a draw.
- X1 → O5 → X6 → O3 → X7 → O4 → X8 (9) → O9 (8) → X2, this game will be a draw.
- X1 → O5 → X6 → O8 → X2 → O3 → X7 → O4 → X9, this game will be a draw.
- X1 → O5 → X6 → O9, then X should not take 4, or O can take 7 to win, X should take 2, 3, 7 or 8.
- X1 → O5 → X6 → O9 → X2 → O3 → X7 → O4 → X8, this game will be a draw.
- X1 → O5 → X6 → O9 → X3 → O2 → X8 → O4 (7) → X7 (4), this game will be a draw.
- X1 → O5 → X6 → O9 → X7 → O4 → X2 (3) → O3 (2) → X8, this game will be a draw
- X1 → O5 → X6 → O9 → X8 → O2 (3, 4, 7) → X4/7 (4/7, 2/3, 2/3) → O7/4 (7/4, 3/2, 3/2) → X3 (2, 7, 4), this game will be a draw.
In both of these situations (X takes 9 or 6 as second move), X has a property to win.
If X is not a perfect player, X may take 2 or 3 as second move. Then this game will be a draw, X cannot win.
- X1 → O5 → X2 → O3 → X7 → O4 → X6 → O8 (9) → X9 (8), this game will be a draw.
- X1 → O5 → X3 → O2 → X8 → O4 (6) → X6 (4) → O9 (7) → X7 (9), this game will be a draw.
If X plays 1 opening move, and O is not a perfect player, the following may happen:
Although O takes the only good position (5) as first move, but O takes a bad position as second move:
- X1 → O5 → X9 → O3 → X7, then X can take 4 or 8 to win.
- X1 → O5 → X6 → O4 → X3, then X can take 2 or 9 to win.
- X1 → O5 → X6 → O7 → X3, then X can take 2 or 9 to win.
Although O takes good positions as the first two moves, but O takes a bad position as third move:
- X1 → O5 → X6 → O2 → X8 → O3 → X7, then X can take 4 or 9 to win.
- X1 → O5 → X6 → O2 → X8 → O4 → X9, then X can take 3 or 7 to win.
O takes a bad position as first move (except of 5, all other positions are bad):
- X1 → O3 → X7 → O4 → X9, then X can take 5 or 8 to win.
- X1 → O9 → X3 → O2 → X7, then X can take 4 or 5 to win.
- X1 → O2 → X5 → O9 → X7, then X can take 3 or 4 to win.
- X1 → O6 → X5 → O9 → X3, then X can take 2 or 7 to win.
Tic tac toe has several variants. Some variants include:
- Number Scrabble(or Pick15)
- Misère tic tac toe - where making 3-in-a-row looses
- Quantum tic-tac-toe
- Treblecross - 1d tic tac toe
- Ultimate tic-tac-toe
- Wild tic-tac-toe
The game has a number of English names.
- Tick-tack-toe, tic-tac-toe, tick-tat-toe, or tit-tat-toe (United States, Canada)
- Noughts and crosses or naughts and crosses (United Kingdom, Republic of Ireland, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Zimbabwe)
- Exy-ozys, xsie-osies (verbal name only) (Northern Ireland)
- Xs and Os (Egypt, Republic of Ireland, Canada, Zimbabwe)
Sometimes, the games tic-tac-toe (where players keep adding "pieces") and Three Men's Morris (where pieces start to move after a certain number have been placed) are confused with each other.
In popular culture
- In the movie WarGames, a computer learns through a tic-tac-toe analogy that nuclear war is unwinnable.
- The BBC's Test Card F image includes a picture of a game. In the updated version, Test Card J, the game's X indicates the exact center of the screen.
- George Cooper (poet) wrote the words and John Rogers Thomas wrote the music for a song "Tit, Tac, Toe" in 1876.
- The adventure game Sam & Max Save the World features an arcade version called Tic-Tac-Doom, but its artificial intelligence is intentionally poor. Rather than beating the game, the player must lose it in order to progress.
- Episode 452 of This American Life recounts the true story of a legal defence team that sought to overturn the state of Florida's decision to execute a mentally ill murderer by eliciting a tic-tac-toe playing chicken as evidence
- In the 1957 film version of Twelve Angry Men there is a small scene were two jurors are playing the game in order to pass the time.
- In the Three Stooges short, Disorder in the Court, Moe and Larry are seen playing tic-tac-toe in a couple of different scenes. (One with Curly playing jacks over it.)
Various game shows have been based on tic-tac-toe and its variants:
- On Hollywood Squares, nine celebrities filled the cells of the tic-tac-toe grid; players put symbols on the board by correctly agreeing or disagreeing with a celebrity's answer to a question. Variations of the show include Storybook Squares and Hip Hop Squares. The British version was Celebrity Squares. Australia had various versions under the names of Celebrity Squares, Personality Squares & All Star Squares.
- In Tic-Tac-Dough, players put symbols up on the board by answering questions in various categories, which shuffle after each player's turn.
- In Beat the Teacher, contestants answer questions to win a turn to influence a tic-tac-toe grid.
- On The Price Is Right, several national variants feature a pricing game called "Secret X," in which players must guess prices of two small prizes to win Xs (in addition to one free X) to place on a blank board. They must place the Xs in position to guess the location of the titular "secret X" hidden in the center column of the board and form a tic-tac-toe line across or diagonally (no vertical lines allowed). There are no Os in this variant of the game.
- On Minute to Win It, the game Ping Tac Toe has one contestant playing the game with nine water-filled glasses and white and orange ping-pong balls, trying to get three in a row of either color. He must alternate colors after each successful landing and must be careful not to block himself.
Since the goal is to get 3 in a row, each person must switch taking turns, first X, then O. Players must use the board given to them, they cannot add extra sides on to the board. In order to win, the 3 letters must all connect in a straight line in one direction, up or down, left or right, or diagonally.
- 3-D Tic-Tac-Toe
- Hales–Jewett theorem
- Pick 15
- SOS (game)
- Tic-tac-toe variants
- Ultimate tic-tac-toe
- Schaefer, Steve (2002). "MathRec Solutions (Tic-Tac-Toe)". Retrieved 2015-09-18.
- Pham, Duc-Nghia; Park, Seong-Bae (2014-11-12). PRICAI 2014: Trends in Artificial Intelligence: 13th Pacific Rim International Conference on Artificial Intelligence, PRICAI 2014, Gold Coast, QLD, Australia, December 1-5, 2014, Proceedings. Springer. ISBN 9783319135601.
- Golomb, Solomon; Hales, Alfred. "Hypercube Tic-Tac-Toe" (PDF). Retrieved December 17, 2016.
- "Sweetooth Design Company | Food & Design | Oakland, USA". Sweetooth Design Company | Food & Design | Oakland, USA. Retrieved 2016-12-04.
- Zaslavsky, Claudia (1982). Tic Tac Toe: And Other Three-In-A Row Games from Ancient Egypt to the Modern Computer. Crowell. ISBN 0-690-04316-3.
- Canisius College – Morris Games
- Oxford English Dictionary entries for "Noughts and Crosses", "Tick-Tack" and "Tick-Tack-Toe", dictionary.oed.com
- Wolf, Mark J. P. (2012-08-16). Encyclopedia of Video Games: The Culture, Technology, and Art of Gaming. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 3–7. ISBN 978-0-313-37936-9.
- Cohen, D. S. (2014-09-20). "OXO aka Noughts and Crosses - The First Video Game". About.com. IAC. Archived from the original on 2015-12-22. Retrieved 2015-12-18.
- "Tinkertoys and tic-tac-toe". Archived from the original on August 24, 2007. Retrieved 2007-09-27.
- Bolon, Thomas (2013-05-21). How to never lose at Tic-Tac-Toe. BookCountry. ISBN 9781463001926.
- "Searching for the cat in tic tac toe". TimesDaily. Retrieved 2016-12-19.
- Kevin Crowley, Robert S. Siegler (1993). "Flexible Strategy Use in Young Children's Tic-Tac-Toe". Cognitive Science. 17 (4): 531–561. doi:10.1016/0364-0213(93)90003-Q.
- Martin Gardner (1988). Hexaflexagons and Other Mathematical Diversions. University of Chicago Press.
- Averbach, Bonnie; Chein, Orin (2012-03-15). Problem Solving Through Recreational Mathematics. Courier Corporation. ISBN 9780486131740.
- "452: Poultry Slam 2011". This American Life. Retrieved 28 May 2016.
|Look up tic-tac-toe in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Tic Tac Toe.|
- Wolfram's MathWorld
- Interactive Tic-Tac-Toe - Example web app with an AI that plays tic-tac-toe.
- Ultimate Tic Tac Toe - 9-board variation