Tick–tock was a production model adopted in 2007 by chip manufacturer Intel. Under this model, every microarchitecture change (tock) was followed by a die shrink of the process technology (tick). It was replaced by the process–architecture–optimization model, which was announced in 2016 and is like a tick–tock cycle followed by an optimization phase. As a general engineering model, tick-tock is a model that refreshes one side of a binary system each release cycle.
Every "tick" represented a shrinking of the process technology of the previous microarchitecture (sometimes introducing new instructions, as with Broadwell, released in late 2014) and every "tock" designated a new microarchitecture. These occurred roughly every year to 18 months. In 2014, Intel created a "tock refresh" of a tock in the form of a smaller update to the microarchitecture not considered a new generation in and of itself.
In March 2016, Intel announced in a Form 10-K report that it deprecated the tick–tock cycle in favor of a three-step process–architecture–optimization model, under which three generations of processors are produced under a single manufacturing process, with the third generation out of three focusing on optimization. The first optimization of the Skylake architecture was Kaby Lake. Intel then announced a second optimization, Coffee Lake, making a total of four generations at 14 nm.
|8P/4P Server||4P/2P Server/WS||Embedded Xeon||1P Xeon||Enthusiast/WS||Desktop||Mobile|
|65 nm||P6, NetBurst||Presler,
|Tock||Sandy Bridge||Sandy Bridge||2||1||SNB||JKT (Jaketown)||2011-01-09||(Skipped)||Sandy Bridge-EP||Gladden||Sandy Bridge||Sandy Bridge-E||Sandy Bridge||Sandy Bridge-M|
|Tick||22 nm||Ivy Bridge||3||2||IVB||IVT (Ivytown)||2012-04-29||Ivy Bridge-EX||Ivy Bridge-EP||Gladden||Ivy Bridge||Ivy Bridge-E||Ivy Bridge||Ivy Bridge-M|
|Tock||Haswell||Haswell||4||3||HSW, CRW (Crystal Well)
with Iris Pro
|4||N/A||HSW, CRW (Crystal Well)
with Iris Pro
|No server version released||Devil's Canyon||No mobile version|
|Kaby Lake||7||6||KBL||2017-01-03||Only 1P server (Xeon E3) version released||Kaby Lake-DT/H
cores: 4 (4/8)
|Kaby Lake-X||Kaby Lake||Kaby Lake-H|
|Kaby Lake R||8||N/A||KBL-R||2017-08-21||Only mobile version released||Kaby Lake R|
|Coffee Lake||8, 9||E-2xxx||CFL||2017-10-05||Cascade Lake-SP
Cooper Lake (Q2'20)
|Cascade Lake-AP||Coffee Lake-DT/H
cores: 6 (12)
|Skylake-X Refresh||Coffee Lake-S
Coffee Lake-H Refresh
|2018-08-28||Only mobile version released||Whiskey Lake-U|
|Comet Lake||10||N/A||CML||2019-08-21||No server version released||Comet Lake-W||Comet Lake-S||Comet Lake-H|
|Process||Cannon Lake||8||N/A||CNL||2018-05-16||Only mobile version released||Cannon Lake-U|
|Architecture||Cypress Cove||Rocket Lake||12||N/A||N/A||1Q21||Rocket Lake|
|10 nm||Sunny Cove||Ice Lake||10||ICL||2019-08-01||Ice Lake-SP (1H21)||Ice Lake-U|
|Optimization||Tiger Lake||11||N/A||TGL||2020-09-02||Only mobile version released||Tiger Lake-H35|
|Process||Sapphire Rapids||Sapphire Rapids (2021)|
|Architecture||7 nm||Granite Rapids|
This section may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards. The specific problem is:
|Bonnell ?||2008||Silverthorne||N/A||Diamondville||Tunnel Creek & Stellarton||N/A||Sodaville|
|Tick||32 nm||Saltwell||2011||Medfield (Penwell & Lexington) & Clover Trail+ (Cloverview)||Clover Trail (Cloverview)||Cedar Trail (Cedarview)||Unknown||Centerton & Briarwood||Unknown||Berryville|
|Silvermont||2013||Merrifield (Tangier) & Moorefield (Anniedale) & Slayton||Bay Trail-T (Valleyview)||Bay Trail-M (Valleyview)||Bay Trail-D (Valleyview)||Bay Trail-I (Valleyview)||Avoton||Rangeley||Unknown|
|Tick||14 nm||Airmont||2014||Binghamton & Riverton||Cherry Trail-T (Cherryview)||Braswell||Denverton
|Goldmont||2016||Broxton Cancelled||Broxton Cancelled
|Apollo Lake||Apollo Lake||Unknown||Denverton||Unknown||Unknown|
Note: There is further the Xeon Phi. It has up to now undergone four development steps with a current top model that got the code name Knights Landing (shortcut: KNL; the predecessor code names all had the leading term Knights in their name) that is derived from the Silvermont architecture as used for the Intel Atom series but realized in a shrunk 14 nm (FinFET) technology.
- "Intel Tick–Tock Model". Intel.com. Intel Corporation.
- "Intel tick–tock model". intel.com. Intel Corporation. Retrieved 2014-11-02.
A yearly product cadence moves the industry forward in a predictable fashion that can be planned in advance.
- "Intel Haswell Refresh Processors Codenamed Devil's Canyon - Launching in Mid 2014 With Unlocked Design and Improved TIM". Wccftech.com. 2014-03-20. Retrieved 2017-04-29.
- "Intel's 'Tick–Tock' Seemingly Dead, Becomes 'Process–Architecture–Optimization'". Anandtech.com. Retrieved 23 March 2016.
- "Intel Official News on Twitter". Twitter. Retrieved 2017-04-29.
- "Intel's 8th-gen 'Coffee Lake' chips reuse 14nm process as other Core CPUs ease into new tech". PC World. Retrieved 2017-04-29.
- Intel Releases Linux CPU Microcodes To fix Meltdown & Spectre Bugs by Lawrence Abrams on January 11, 2018
- Linux* Processor Microcode Data File Version 20180312 on 3/12/2018
- Crothers, Brooke (2009-02-10). "Intel moves up rollout of new chips | Nanotech - The Circuits Blog". CNet.com. Retrieved 2014-02-25.
- "Intel CEO: Latest Platforms, Processors Form New Foundations For Digital Entertainment And Wireless Computing". Intel.com. Intel Corporation.
- "Intel Unveils World's Best Processor". Intel.com (Press release). Intel Corporation.
- "Intel Unveils 16 Next-Generation Processors, Including First Notebook Chips Built on 45nm Technology". Intel.com (Press release). Intel Corporation. January 7, 2008.
- "Intel Launches Fastest Processor on the Planet". Intel.com (Press release). Intel Corporation. November 17, 2008.
- Bohr, Mark (February 10, 2009). "Intel 32nm Technology" (PDF). Intel.com. Intel Corporation. Retrieved July 7, 2017.
- "Revolutionizing How We Use Technology—Today and Beyond". Intel.com. Logic Technology Development, Intel Corporation.
- Crothers, Brooke (November 15, 2010). "Intel Sandy Bridge chip coming January 5". CNet.com. Retrieved July 7, 2017.
- Pop, Sebastian (April 9, 2012). "Intel Ivy Bridge CPU Range Complete by Next Year". Softpedia.com. Retrieved July 7, 2017.
- Bohr, Mark; Mistry, Kaizad (May 2011). "Intel's Revolutionary 22 nm Transistor Technology" (PDF). Intel.com. Intel Corporation. Retrieved July 7, 2017.
- Novakovic, Nebojsa (April 9, 2012). "Ivy Bridge EP and EX coming up in a year's time – the multi-socket platform heaven". VR-Zone.com. VR Zone AP Pte. Ltd. Retrieved July 7, 2017.
- Knight, Shawn (March 19, 2012). "Ivy Bridge-E Delayed Until Second Half of 2013". techspot.com. Retrieved July 7, 2017.
- Products formerly Crystal Well at Intel web page
- What is Crystalwell? by Matt Egan on OCT 31, 2013 at macworld.com
- "Leaked specifications of Haswell GT1/GT2/GT3 IGP". TechNewsPedia.com. 2012-05-20. Retrieved 2014-02-25.
- "Intel Core i7-4790K: Devils Canyon mit bis zu 4,4 GHz, ohne verlöteten Deckel" [Intel Core i7-4790K: Devils Canyon with up to 4.4 GHz, without soldered lid]. golem.de (in German). June 3, 2014. Retrieved July 7, 2017.
- Demerjian, Charlie (March 31, 2011). "After Intel's Haswell comes Broadwell". SemiAccurate.com. Stone Arch Networking Services, Inc. Retrieved July 7, 2017.
- Shilov, Anton (August 21, 2015). "Intel to release 22-core Xeon E5 v4 'Broadwell-EP' late in 2015". KitGuru.net. Retrieved July 7, 2017.
- Carey, Gabe (July 7, 2015). "The wait for Skylake is almost over, first desktop chips likely to hit August 5". DigitalTrends.com. Retrieved July 7, 2017.
- "Intel 14nm Kaby Lake "Skylake Refresh" Platform Detailed – Launching in 2H 2016, 256 MB eDRAM H-Series and 91W K-Series Unveiled". wccftech.com. July 2015.
The Kaby Lake platform will be similar to Skylake platform that launches this year and will act as a platform refresher
- "Intel Releasing 14nm Kaby Lake Processor in 2016 Ahead of 10nm Cannonlake". legitreviews.com. 2015-07-08.
We have long known that Intel was planning a ‘Skylake Refresh’ that has always been on the roadmap between Skylake and Cannonlake, but it appears that refresh might be going by the code name Kaby lake now.
- Mujtaba, Hassan (January 20, 2016). "Intel's Cannonlake CPUs To Be Succeeded By 10nm Ice Lake Family in 2018 and 10nm Tiger Lake Family in 2019". WCCFTech.com. Retrieved July 7, 2017.
- Bright, Peter (July 15, 2015). "Intel confirms tick–tock shattering Kaby Lake processor as Moore's Law falters". ArsTechnica.com.
the switch to 10nm manufacturing has been delayed until the second half of 2017.
- Walton, Jarred (January 4, 2017). "Intel's Kaby Lake: Everything you need to know". PCGamer.com. Retrieved July 7, 2017.
Today marks the official launch date of the desktop S-series 7th Generation Core processors...
- "Intel® Core™ X-series Processors Product Specifications". Intel® ARK (Product Specs). Retrieved 2017-10-05.
- Products formerly Kaby Lake R
- Ngo, Allen (August 21, 2017). "Intel Core i5-8250U, i5-8350U, i7-8550U, and i7-8650U Kaby Lake-R series launches today". Notebookcheck.
Intel Core i5-8250U, i5-8350U, i7-8550U, and i7-8650U Kaby Lake-R launches today (Source: Intel)
- "Products formerly Coffee Lake".
- "Intel Unveils the 8th Gen Intel Core Processor Family for Desktop, Featuring Intel's Best Gaming Processor Ever | Intel Newsroom". Intel Newsroom. Retrieved 2017-10-05.
- "New 8th Gen Intel Core Processors Optimize Connectivity, Great Performance, Battery Life for Laptops | Intel Newsroom". Intel Newsroom. Retrieved 2018-08-30.
- "Intel Expands 10th Gen Intel Core Mobile Processor Family, Offering Double Digit Performance Gains". Intel Newsroom. Retrieved 2019-08-21.
- Tyson, Mark. "Intel Core i3-8121U 10nm processor hits ARK database". HEXUS.net. Retrieved 2019-06-17.
- "Intel Previews 11th Gen Core Rocket Lake: Core i9-11900K and Z590, Coming Q1". 2021-01-11. Retrieved 2021-01-16.
- Tyson, Mark (2012-05-15). "Intel currently developing 14nm, aiming towards 5nm chips". HEXUS.net. Retrieved 2014-02-25.
- Eassa, Ashraf (January 18, 2016). "What's the Name of Intel's Third 10-Nanometer Chip? This Fool has learned the code name of the follow-on to Intel's Icelake processor". Fool.com; The Motley Fool. Retrieved July 7, 2017.
- "Intel Launches First 10th Gen Intel Core Processors: Redefining the Next Era of Laptop Experiences". Retrieved 2019-08-07.
- "Intel Confirms 10nm Ice Lake Xeon Production Has Started". Retrieved 2021-01-16.
- "Intel Launches World's Best Processor for Thin-and-Light Laptops: 11th Gen Intel Core". Retrieved 2021-01-16.
- "Intel Confirms 10nm Ice Lake Xeon Production Has Started". Retrieved 2021-01-16.
- Lal Shimpi, Anand (May 6, 2013). "Intel's Silvermont Architecture Revealed: Getting Serious About Mobile". AnandTech.com. Retrieved July 7, 2017.
- Hiroshige, Goto. "Intel Products for Tablets & SmartPhones" (PDF). Impress.co.jp. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-11-14.
- "Import Data and Price of Anniedale". zauba.com. Retrieved July 7, 2017.
- Kazuaki Kasahara (November 30, 2012). "アウトオブオーダーと最新プロセスを採用する今後のAtom" [Future Atom adopting out-of-order and latest process]. Impress.co.jp (in Japanese). Retrieved July 7, 2017.
- "Products (Formerly Braswell)". Ark.Intel.com. Intel Corporation. Retrieved 5 April 2016.
- Smith, Ryan; Cutress, Ian (29 April 2016). "Intel's Changing Future: Smartphone SoCs Broxton & SoFIA Officially Canceled". Anandtech.com. Retrieved 29 June 2016.
- Intel veröffentlicht Xeon Phi mit bis zu 7 Teraflops
- "Intel Tick–Tock Model of Architecture & Silicon Cadence". intel.com. Intel Corporation.
- Intel Tick–Tock Model at IDF 2009, Anandtech.com
- "Intel Tick–Tock Model at IDF 2011" (PDF). intel.com. Intel Corporation. p. 21.