Tidal (king)

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King of Goiim
House Goiim[1]

Tidal (תִדְעָל), king of Goyim, is a monarch mentioned in Genesis 14:1. Genesis describes Tidal was one of the four kings that fought Abraham in the Battle of Siddim. The historical reality of kings and events related in Genesis is doubted by modern scholarship.[2]

The word goyim in biblical Hebrew can be translated as "nations" or "peoples" or "ethnic groups" (in modern Hebrew it means "Gentiles") although biblical scholars suggest that in this verse it may instead be a reference to the region of Gutium.[3]

Theories about the name[edit]

  • The name Tidal is considered equivalent to Tudhaliya,[4] the name both of a Proto-Hittite king and a Hittite king. The name continued as "Tudal" down to the Neo-Hittite period.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Genesis 14 NIV - Abram Rescues Lot - At the time when". Bible Gateway. Retrieved 2015-07-28. 
  2. ^ Paula M. McNutt (1 January 1999). Reconstructing the Society of Ancient Israel. Westminster John Knox Press. p. 41. ISBN 978-0-664-22265-9. But it is now generally recognized that there is nothing specific in the Genesis stories that can be definitively related to known history in or around Canaan in the early second century B.C.E., and that there is, in fact, no solid evidence for any date. 
  3. ^ Frank Moore Colby; Talcott Williams (1917). The New International Encyclopædia. Dodd, Mead and Company. p. 264. 
  4. ^ Adam Simon van der Woude; Adrianus van Selms (1968). Adhuc Loquitur. E. J. Brill. p. 36.