Tidal Basin

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Tidal Basin (Washington, D.C.)
USA-Tidal Basin.JPG
Tidal Basin on April 13, 2013, showing the Washington Monument undergoing renovation and paddle boat docks.
Tidal Basin (Washington, D.C.) is located in the District of Columbia
Tidal Basin (Washington, D.C.)
Tidal Basin (Washington, D.C.)
LocationWashington, D.C.
Coordinates38°53′03″N 77°02′21″W / 38.88417°N 77.03917°W / 38.88417; -77.03917 (Tidal Basin (District of Columbia))Coordinates: 38°53′03″N 77°02′21″W / 38.88417°N 77.03917°W / 38.88417; -77.03917 (Tidal Basin (District of Columbia))
TypeArtificial
Primary inflowsPotomac River
38°52′49″N 77°02′25″W / 38.88028°N 77.04028°W / 38.88028; -77.04028 (Tidal Basin (District of Columbia) Inlet Gate)
Primary outflowsWashington Channel
38°52′58″N 77°01′59″W / 38.88278°N 77.03306°W / 38.88278; -77.03306 (Tidal Basin (District of Columbia) Outlet Gate)
Basin countriesUnited States
Surface area107 acres (0.43 km2)
Average depth10 feet (3.0 m)
Surface elevation3 feet (0.91 m)
References"Tidal Basin". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey.

The Tidal Basin is a man-made reservoir located between the Potomac River and the Washington Channel in Washington, D.C. It is part of West Potomac Park, is near the National Mall and is a focal point of the National Cherry Blossom Festival held each spring. The Jefferson Memorial, the Martin Luther King Jr. Memorial, the Franklin Delano Roosevelt Memorial, and the George Mason Memorial are situated adjacent to the Tidal Basin. The basin covers an area of about 107 acres (43 ha) and is 10 feet (3.0 m) deep.

History[edit]

The concept of the Tidal Basin originated in the 1870s to serve both as a visual centerpiece and as a means for flushing the Washington Channel, a harbor separated from the Potomac River by fill lands where East Potomac Park is situated.[1] Colonel Peter Conover Hains of the United States Army Corps of Engineers oversaw the Basin's design and construction.[2]

Tidal Basin between 1909 and 1932 with cherry trees in blossom

The Basin was initially named the Tidal Reservoir.[3] It later received the name of Twining Lake to honor Major William Johnson Twining of the Corps of Engineers, who served on the Board of Commissioners of the District of Columbia as its Engineer Commissioner during 1879.[4]

In the Commissioners' annual report to Congress for that year, Major Twining proposed to create the tidal reservoir and use its water to help "flush" the Washington Channel.[5] A 1917 map of Washington that the U.S. Public Buildings Commission prepared shows the basin with the name "Twining Lake".[6]

Sea level rise and land subsidence has caused portions of the paths next to the water to flood twice daily at high tide. A redesign of the Tidal Basin was therefore under consideration during 2020.[7]

Tidal Basin Bathing Beach[edit]

Swimmers and an announcer participating in an event at the Tidal Basin Bathing Beach (August 1924)

In August 1918, the Congressionally-funded Tidal Basin Bathing Beach opened in front of the site of the present-day Jefferson Memorial. Although the racially-segregated beach was "a place to see people and be seen", a strictly-enforced rule prohibited women’s bathing suits that stopped more than six inches above the knee.[8]

By one estimate, the beach attracted up to 20,000 people on a July day in 1920. The beach hosted beauty contests until 1922, when a beach official banned the pageants for being too risqué.[8]

Congress had planned to open a separate beach for African-Americans nearby, but southern senators blocked the plan. Rather than integrating the beach, Congress ordered its dismantling in 1925.[8]

Design[edit]

Satellite image of the western portion of the National Mall, the Tidal Basin and West Potomac Park (April 2002). The Washington Channel (not visible) is to the right of the Tidal Basin.
1897 map of Washington, D.C., showing the "Tidal Reservoir", the Potomac River and the Washington Channel

The basin is designed to release 250 million US gallons (950,000 m3) of water captured at high tide twice a day. The inlet gates, located on the Potomac side of the basin, allow water to enter the basin during high tide. During this time, the outlet gates, on the Washington Channel side, close to store incoming water and block the flow of water and sediment into the channel.[9]

As the tide begins to ebb, the general outflow of water from the basin forces the inlet gates to close. This same force is applied to the outlet gates, which open into the channel. Silt build up is swept away by the extra force of water running from the Tidal Basin through the channel.[9]

The U.S. Corps of Engineers, which maintains the Basin's gates, has restored their functioning.[9] As part of the restoration and redesign of the Lincoln Memorial Reflecting Pool, completed in 2012, water is pumped from the Tidal Basin to fill the pool.[9][10]

Kutz Memorial Bridge[edit]

The Kutz Memorial Bridge crosses the northern lobe of the Tidal Basin, carrying eastbound Independence Avenue traffic in three lanes.[11] The bridge's name commemorates Brigadier General Charles Willauer Kutz, a Commissioner of Engineering for the District of Columbia during the first half of the 20th century.[12][13]

Architect Paul Philippe Cret designed the multi-span plate girder bridge, which the engineering firm of Alexander and Repass constructed. Construction began in 1941 and reached completion in 1943. The bridge was dedicated after alterations in 1954. The structure is made of concrete and steel on pilings with granite facing. It is 433 ft (132 m) long and 46 ft (14 m) wide.[12]

Recreation[edit]

From mid-March until October, paddle-boats are available for rent at a dock near the eastern end of the Tidal Basin.[14] The activity is very popular during the Cherry Blossom Festival, which takes place in April.

Incidents[edit]

The Tidal Basin was the scene of an incident involving the Chairman of the United States House Committee on Ways and Means, Democratic Congressman Wilbur Mills. At 2:00 a.m. on October 7, 1974, Park police stopped Mills' speeding car, whose driver, Albert G. Gapacini, had not turned on its headlights. Also in the car was an Argentine stripper known as Fanne Foxe. After the police stopped the car, Foxe jumped into the nearby Tidal Basin and was rescued. Police stated that both Mills and Foxe were intoxicated and that Mills was bleeding from his nose and scratches on his face.[15]

Images[edit]

The Tidal Basin as seen from the Franklin Delano Roosevelt Memorial in July 2009, showing The Washington Monument on the left and the Jefferson Memorial on the right.
The Tidal Basin and the Jefferson Memorial during the 2010 National Cherry Blossom Festival (March 31, 2010)

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Blair, Elizabeth (October 31, 2020). "Landscape Architects Unveil Plans To Save The National Mall's Tidal Basin". NPR News. Archived from the original on June 30, 2021. Retrieved June 30, 2021.
  2. ^ Chapel, p. 32.
  3. ^ Chapel, p. 42.
  4. ^ Chapel, pp. 26, 109.
  5. ^ Chapel, pp. 26–27.
  6. ^ Public Buildings Commission (1918). "Washington, the Mall and Vicinity: Buildings Occupied By Various Government Activities: 1917" (map). Washington, D.C.: United States Senate. LCCN 88690910. Retrieved February 17, 2021 – via Library of Congress. (Repository: Library of Congress Geography and Map Division)
  7. ^ Kennedy, Sarah (2020-02-17). "Climate change is coming for the Tidal Basin in Washington, D.C." Yale Climate Connections. Retrieved 2020-02-17.
  8. ^ a b c Knapp, Jackson (26 August 2018). "Once Upon a Time, the Tidal Basin Was a Swimming Beach". Washingtonian. Retrieved 29 June 2019.
  9. ^ a b c d "Tidal Basin, Washington, DC". National Mall and Memorial Parks. Department of the Interior: National Park Service. July 5, 2018. Archived from the original on December 13, 2020. Retrieved February 27, 2021.
  10. ^ Ruane, Michael E. (August 6, 2012). "Lincoln Memorial Reflecting Pool nearly ready after $34 million reconstruction". Washington Post. Archived from the original on July 10, 2017. Retrieved June 30, 2021.
  11. ^ Coordinates of Kutz Memorial Bridge: 38°53′13″N 77°02′22″W / 38.886948°N 77.039395°W / 38.886948; -77.039395 (Kutz Memorial Bridge)
  12. ^ a b (1) Park Historic Structures Program, National Park Service. "Kutz Memorial Bridge - Res. 332". List of Classified Structures. National Park Service. Archived from the original on September 24, 2015. Retrieved September 29, 2013.
    (2) "District of Columbia Inventory of Historic Sites" (PDF). District of Columbia Office of Planning - Historic Preservation Office. September 30, 2009. Archived (PDF) from the original on November 5, 2014. Retrieved May 16, 2016.
    (3) Bobeczko, Laura L.; Robinson, Judith H., Architectural Historians, Robinson & Associates, Inc. (July 31, 1998). "Kutz Bridge" (PDF). East and West Potomac Park Historic District: Revised National Register of Historic Places Nomination Form: National Register of Historic Places Registration Form (July 16, 1999): Continuation Sheet 7.26. United States Department of the Interior: National Park Service. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 25, 2021.
  13. ^ Anderson, John C. (March 6, 2010). "Memorial page for BG Charles Willauer Kutz (1870-1951)". Find a Grave. Archived from the original on September 16, 2019. Retrieved June 30, 2021.
  14. ^ (1) "Tidal Basin". Boating In DC. Guest Services, Inc. 2021. Archived from the original on February 14, 2021. Retrieved February 14, 2021.
    (2) Coordinates of paddle boat dock: 38°53′05″N 77°02′05″W / 38.884623°N 77.034729°W / 38.884623; -77.034729 (Tidal Basin paddle board dock)
  15. ^ Green, Stephen (1974-10-11). "Mills Admits Being Present During Tidal Basin Scuffle". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on October 12, 2008. Retrieved June 30, 2021.

References[edit]

External links[edit]

Map all coordinates using: OpenStreetMap 
Download coordinates as: KML

Public Domain This article incorporates public domain material from the National Park Service document: "http://www.nps.gov/nacc/pphtml/subnaturalfeatures19.html".