Tiger reserves of India

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There are 50[1] tiger reserves in India[2] which are governed by Project Tiger which is administrated by the National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA). India is home to 70 percent of tigers in the world. In 2006, there were 1,411 tigers which increased to 1,706 in 2010 and 2,226 in 2014.[3] The total number of wild tigers has risen to 3,890 in 2016 according to World Wildlife Fund and Global Tiger Forum.

Goals[edit]

71,027.1 km2 (27,423.7 sq mi) of declared reserves are operated by state forestry departments "to ensure maintenance of viable populations of the conservation dependent Bengal tigers in India". The tigers are maintained for their scientific, economic, aesthetic, cultural and ecological values and to preserve for all time areas of biological importance as a national heritage for the benefit, education and enjoyment of the people."[4]

Population assessment[edit]

By the year 2012, according to the National Tiger Conservation Authority, there were estimated only 1,411 tigers in existence in India.[5] The 2010 National Tiger Assessment estimated the total population of tigers in India at 1,706. As per Ministry of Environment and Forests, the tiger population in India stood at 2,226 in 2014 with an increase of 30.5% since the 2010 estimate. This exhaustive study indicated that better protected tiger source sites, especially tiger reserves, have maintained viable populations. However, the area occupied by tigers outside protected areas has decreased considerably. This demonstrates the need for corridors in order for tigers to move between source sites. The existing tiger reserves represent around one-third of India's high density forest area.[6] More tigers were killed in the first quarter of 2016 than in the entire previous year. This significant revelation comes at a time when the tiger census numbers are disputed by the scientific community. [1]Some tigers get tamed and poorly fed by owners. In 2010-11, the National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA) in partnership with the Wildlife Institute of India (WII) undertook an independent management effectiveness evaluation (MEE) of the 49 tiger reserves in the country. The reserves were categorized into four major categories. Karnataka has the highest number of tigers in the age group of 1.5 years with more than 408 big cats. Other states with significant populations included Uttarakhand (340), Madhya Pradesh (308), Tamil Nadu (229), Maharashtra (190), Assam (167), Kerala (136) and Uttar Pradesh (117). [7]


List of Tiger reserves[8]

Si No. Tiger Reserve (Year of Creation) State
1 Bandipur (1973-74) Karnataka
2 Corbett (1973-74) Uttarakhand
3 Kanha (1973-74) Madhya Pradesh
4 Manas (1973-74) Assam
5 Melghat (1973-74) Maharashtra
6 Palamau (1973-74) Jharkhand
7 Ranthambore (1973-74) Rajasthan
8 Similipal (1973-74) Odisha
9 Sunderbans (1973-74) West Bengal
10 Periyar (1978-79) Kerala
11 Sariska (1978-79) Rajasthan
12 Buxa (1982-83) West Bengal
13 Indravati (1982-83) Chhattisgarh
14 Namdapha (1982-83) Arunachal Pradesh
15 Dudhwa (1987-88) Uttar Pradesh
16 Kalakad-Mundanthurai (1988-89) Tamil Nadu
17 Valmiki (1989-90) Bihar
18 Pench (1992-93) Madhya Pradesh
19 Tadoba-Andhari (1993-94) Maharashtra
20 Bandhavgarh (1993-94) Madhya Pradesh
21 Panna (1994-95) Madhya Pradesh
22 Dampa (1994-95) Mizoram
23 Bhadra (1998-99) Karnataka
24 Pench (1998-99) Maharashtra
25 Pakke (1999-2000) Arunachal Pradesh
26 Nameri (1999-2000) Assam
27 Satpura (1999-2000) Madhya Pradesh
28 Anamalai (2008-09) Tamil Nadu
29 Udanti-Sitanadi (2008-09) Chhattisgarh
30 Satkosia (2008-09) Odisha
31 Kaziranga (2008-09) Assam
32 Achanakmar (2008-09) Chhattisgarh
33 Dandeli-Anshi (Kali) (2008-09) Karnataka
34 Sanjay-Dubri (2008-09) Madhya Pradesh
35 Mudumalai (2008-09) Tamil Nadu
36 Nagarahole (2008-09) Karnataka
37 Parambikulam (2008-09) Kerala
38 Sahyadri (2009-10) Maharashtra
39 Biligiri Ranganatha Temple (2010-11) Karnataka
40 Kawal (2012-13) Telangana
41 Sathyamangalam (2013-14) Tamil Nadu
42 Mukandra Hills (2013-14) Rajasthan
43 Nawegaon-Nagzira (2013-14) Maharashtra
44 Nagarjunsagar Srisailam (1982-83) Andhra Pradesh
45 Amrabad (2014) Telangana
46 Pilibhit (2014) Uttar Pradesh
47 Bor (2014) Maharashtra
48 Rajaji (2015) Uttarakhand
49 Orang (2016) Assam
50 Kamlang (2016) Arunachal Pradesh

Future[edit]

In addition to existing reserves, the in-principle approval has been accorded by the National Tiger Conservation Authority for the creation of four new tiger reserves, and the sites are: Ratapani Tiger Reserve (Madhya Pradesh), Sunabeda Tiger Reserve (Odisha), and Guru Ghasidas (Chhattisgarh). Final approval has been accorded to Kudremukh National Park (Karnataka) for declaring as tiger reserves by States. The State Governments have been advised to send proposals for declaring the following areas as tiger reserves: (i) Suhelwa[9] (Uttar Pradesh), (ii) Mhadei Sanctuary (Goa), (iii) Srivilliputhur Grizzled Squirrel Wildlife Sanctuary / Megamalai Wildlife Sanctuary / Varushanadu Valley (Tamil Nadu), (iv) Dibang Wildlife Sanctuary (Arunachal Pradesh) and (v) Cauvery-MM Hills (Karnataka).[10]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-05-25. Retrieved 2016-02-28.
  2. ^ "Core buffer areas". Government of India. Archived from the original on 25 May 2015. Retrieved 22 January 2016.
  3. ^ "India's tiger population sees 30% increase". BBC. 20 January 2015.
  4. ^ "Project Tiger" (PDF). Delhi: Government of India. Retrieved 22 January 2016.
  5. ^ Wildlife Institute of India, Dehradun (2008). Y.V. Jhala; R. Gopal; Q. Qureshi, eds. Status of the Tigers, Co-predators and Prey in India (PDF). TR 08/001. New Delhi: National Tiger Conservation Authority, Govt. of India. p. 151. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-06-02.
  6. ^ "Tiger Estimate in India" (PDF). Public Information Brochure. New Delhi: Ministry of Environment and Forests, GOI. 28 March 2011. p. 9. Retrieved 21 June 2011.
  7. ^ "India's tiger population rises". Deccan Chronicle. 15 January 2015.
  8. ^ "NTCA".
  9. ^ "Suhelwa Sanctuary". UP Tourism. Retrieved 22 January 2016.
  10. ^ http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/home/environment/flora-fauna/In-principle-approval-given-to-4-new-tiger-reserves-Government/articleshow/51211020.cms