Tiger reserves of India

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The tiger reserves of India were set up in 1973 and are governed by Project Tiger, which is administrated by the National Tiger Conservation Authority. Until 2018, 50 protected areas have been designated tiger reserves.[1]

India is home to 80 percent of tigers in the world. In 2006, there were 1,411 tigers which increased to 1,706 in 2010, 2,226 in 2014 and 2,967 in 2018.[2] The Indian increase played a big role in driving up global populations as well; the number of wild tigers globally rose from 3,159 in 2010 to 3,890 in 2016 according to World Wildlife Fund and Global Tiger Forum.[3]

Goals[edit]

71,027.1 km2 (27,423.7 sq mi) of declared reserves are operated by state forestry departments "to ensure maintenance of viable populations of the conservation dependent Bengal tigers in India". The tigers are maintained for their scientific, economic, aesthetic, cultural and ecological values and to preserve for all time areas of biological importance as a national heritage for the benefit, educational purposes."[4]

Population assessment[edit]

By the year 2018, according to the National Tiger Conservation Authority, there were estimated only 2,967 tigers in existence in India.[5] The 2010 National Tiger Assessment estimated the total population of tigers in India at 1,706. As per Ministry of Environment and Forests, the tiger population in India stood at 2,226 in 2014 with an increase of 30.5% since the 2010 estimate. This exhaustive study indicated that better protected tiger source sites, especially tiger reserves, have maintained viable populations. However, the area occupied by tigers outside protected areas has decreased considerably. This demonstrates the need for corridors in order for tigers to move between source sites. The existing tiger reserves represent around one-third of India's high density forest area.[6] More tigers were killed in the first quarter of 2016 than in the entire previous year. This significant revelation comes at a time when the tiger census numbers are disputed by the scientific community.

In 2010-11, the National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA) in partnership with the Wildlife Institute of India (WII) undertook an independent management effectiveness evaluation (MEE) of the 53 tiger reserves in the country. The reserves were categorized into four major categories. Madhya pradesh has the highest number of tigers(526) in the age group of 1.5 years with more than 408 big cats. Other states with significant populations included Uttarakhand (442), Karnataka (524), Tamil Nadu (229), Maharashtra (190), Assam (167), Kerala (136) and Uttar Pradesh (117).[7]

List of tiger reserves[edit]

State wise Bengal tiger population India as of 2018
Si No. Tiger Reserve (Year of Creation) State Population of tigers, 2018[1]
1 Bandipur (1973–74) Karnataka 120
2 Corbett (1973–74) Uttarakhand 215
3 Kanha (1973–74) Madhya Pradesh 80
4 Manas (1973–74) Assam 11
5 Melghat (1973–74) Maharashtra 25
6 Palamau (1973–74) Jharkhand 3
7 Ranthambore (1973–74) Rajasthan 37
8 Similipal (1973–74) Odisha 3
9 Sunderbans (1973–74) West Bengal 68
10 Periyar (1978–79) Kerala 20
11 Sariska (1978–79) Rajasthan 9
12 Buxa (1982–83) West Bengal 2
13 Indravati (1982–83) Chhattisgarh 12
14 Namdapha (1982–83) Arunachal Pradesh 11
15 Dudhwa (1987–88) Uttar Pradesh 58
16 Kalakad-Mundanthurai (1988–89) Tamil Nadu 10
17 Valmiki (1989–90) Bihar 40
18 Pench (1992–93) Madhya Pradesh 43 (contiguous with Maharashtra)
19 Tadoba-Andhari (1993–94) Maharashtra 115
20 Bandhavgarh (1993–94) Madhya Pradesh 63
21 Panna (1994–95) Madhya Pradesh 17
22 Dampa (1994–95) Mizoram 0
23 Bhadra (1998–99) Karnataka 22
24 Pench (1998–99) Maharashtra 35 (contiguous with Madhya Pradesh)
25 Pakke (1999–2000) Arunachal Pradesh 7
26 Nameri (1999–2000) Assam 5
27 Satpura (1999–2000) Madhya Pradesh 26
28 Anamalai (2008–09) Tamil Nadu 13
29 Sitanadi (2008–09) Chhattisgarh 4
30 Satkosia (2008–09) Odisha 3
31 Kaziranga (2008–09) Assam 103
32 Achanakmar (2008–09) Chhattisgarh 11
33 Dandeli-Anshi Tiger Reserve(Kali) (2008–09) Karnataka 5
34 Sanjay (2008–09) Madhya Pradesh 8
35 Mudumalai (2007) Tamil Nadu 103
36 Nagarhole (2008–09) Karnataka 101
37 Parambikulam (2008–09) Kerala 19
38 Sahyadri (2009–10) Maharashtra 7
39 Biligiri Ranganatha Temple (2010–11) Karnataka 68
40 Kawal (2012–13) Telangana -
41 Sathyamangalam (2013–14) Tamil Nadu 72
42 Mukandra Hills (2013–14) Rajasthan -
43 Nawegaon (2013–14) Maharashtra 7
44 Nagarjunsagar-Srisailam (1982–83) Andhra Pradesh 74
45 Amrabad (2014) Telangana -
46 Pilibhit (2014) Uttar Pradesh 65
47 Bor (2014) Maharashtra 5
48 Rajaji (2015) Uttarakhand -
49 Orang (2016) Assam -
50 Kamlang (2016) Arunachal Pradesh -
51 Srivilliputhur - Megamalai (2021) Tamil Nadu 14
52 Ramgarh Vishdhari (2021) Rajasthan 35
53 Guru Ghasidas National Park and Tamor Pingla Wildlife Sanctuary (2021) Chhattisgarh -

Future[edit]

In addition to existing reserves, the in-principle approval has been accorded by the National Tiger Conservation Authority for the creation of two new tiger reserves, namely Ratapani Tiger Reserve in Madhya Pradesh and Sunabeda Tiger Reserve in Odisha. Final approval has been accorded to Kudremukh National Park to be declared as a tiger reserve. The State Governments have been advised to send proposals for declaring the following areas as tiger reserves: Suhelva Sanctuary in Uttar Pradesh, Mhadei Sanctuary in Goa, Dibang Wildlife Sanctuary in Arunachal Pradesh and Cauvery-MM Hills in Karnataka.[10]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Jhala, Y. V.; Qureshi, Q.; Nayak, A. K. (2019). Status of tigers, co-predators and prey in India 2018. Summary Report. TR No./2019/05 (PDF) (Report). New Delhi, Dehradun: National Tiger Conservation Authority & Wildlife Institute of India.
  2. ^ "India's tiger population sees 33% increase". BBC. 29 July 2019.
  3. ^ "2967 - WHAT THE NEW GLOBAL TIGER NUMBER MEANS". WWF. 2016.
  4. ^ "Project Tiger" (PDF). Delhi: Government of India. Retrieved 22 January 2016.
  5. ^ Y.V. Jhala; R. Gopal; Q. Qureshi, eds. (2008). Status of the Tigers, Co-predators and Prey in India (PDF) (Report). National Tiger Conservation Authority, Govt. of India, New Delhi, and Wildlife Institute of India, Dehradun. TR 08/001. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-06-02.
  6. ^ "Tiger Estimate in India" (PDF). Public Information Brochure. New Delhi: Ministry of Environment and Forests, GOI. 28 March 2011. p. 9. Retrieved 21 June 2011.
  7. ^ "India's tiger population rises". Deccan Chronicle. 15 January 2015.
  8. ^ "National Tiger Conservation Authority". ntca.gov.in. Retrieved 2021-09-19.
  9. ^ "Tiger Reserves". Wildlife Institute of India. Retrieved 2021-09-19.
  10. ^ "In-principle approval given to 4 new tiger reserves: Government". Times of India. 2016.