Tiger reserves of India

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The tiger reserves of India were set up in 1973 and are governed under Project Tiger, which is administered by the National Tiger Conservation Authority, Government of India. Tiger reserves were designated in 50 protected areas until 2018.[1] In 2022, the 53rd tiger reserve was declared in Ranipur Wildlife Sanctuary, Uttar Pradesh, and the State's third tiger reserve.[2]

India is home to 80 percent of tigers in the world. In 2006, India estimated that there were 1,411 tigers, which more than doubled to a population 3,167 tigers in 2022.[3][4]

The increase in population of tigers in India played a major role in driving up global populations as well; the number of wild tigers globally rose from 3,159 in 2010 to 3,890 in 2016 according to World Wildlife Fund and Global Tiger Forum.[5]

Goal[edit]

State forestry departments operate 71,027.1 km2 (27,423.7 sq mi) of declared reserves "to ensure maintenance of viable populations of the conservation dependent Bengal tigers in India". The tigers are maintained for their scientific, economic, aesthetic, cultural and ecological values and to preserve for all time areas of biological importance as a national heritage for the benefit, educational purposes."[6]

Population assessment[edit]

State wise Bengal tiger population India as of 2018

By the year 2018, according to the National Tiger Conservation Authority, there were estimated only 2,967 tigers in existence in India.[7] The 2010 National Tiger Assessment estimated the total population of tigers in India at 1,706. As per Ministry of Environment and Forests, the tiger population in India stood at 2,226 in 2014 with an increase of 30.5% since the 2010 estimate. This exhaustive study indicated that better protected tiger source sites, especially tiger reserves, have maintained viable populations. However, the area occupied by tigers outside protected areas has decreased considerably. This demonstrates the need for corridors in order for tigers to move between source sites. The existing tiger reserves represent around one-third of India's high density forest area.[8] More tigers were killed in the first quarter of 2016 than in the entire previous year. This significant revelation comes at a time when the tiger census numbers are disputed by the scientific community.

In 2010–11, the National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA) in partnership with the Wildlife Institute of India (WII) undertook an independent management effectiveness evaluation (MEE) of the 53 tiger reserves in the country. The reserves were categorized into four major categories. Madhya pradesh has the highest number of tigers(526) in the age group of 1.5 years with more than 408 big cats. Other states with significant populations include Karnataka (524), Uttarakhand (442), Tamil Nadu (229), Maharashtra (190), Assam (167), Kerala (136) and Uttar Pradesh (117).[9]

List of tiger reserves[edit]

Si No. Tiger Reserve Year of creation State Population of tigers, 2018[1] Population of tigers, 2023 Area Core (km2) Area buffer (km2)
1 Bandipur 1973–74 Karnataka 120 150 868.63
2 Corbett 1973–74 Uttarakhand 216 260 1318.54
3 Kanha 1973–74 Madhya Pradesh 80 105 940
4 Manas 1973–74 Assam 11 58 500
5 Melghat 1973–74 Maharashtra 25 57 1677
6 Palamau 1973–74 Jharkhand 3 1 414.93
7 Ranthambore 1973–74 Rajasthan 37 57 1334
8 Similipal 1973–74 Odisha 9 16 2750
9 Sunderbans 1973–74 West Bengal 96[10] 100 1330.10
10 Periyar 1978–79 Kerala 20 30 350
11 Sariska 1978–79 Rajasthan 9 19 881
12 Buxa 1982–83 West Bengal 2 1 760
13 Indravati 1982–83 Chhattisgarh 12 1 1258.37
14 Namdapha 1982–83 Arunachal Pradesh 11 1 1985.23
15 Dudhwa 1987–88 Uttar Pradesh 58 135 490.3
16 Kalakad-Mundanthurai 1988–89 Tamil Nadu 10 5 895 706.542
17 Valmiki 1989–90 Bihar 40 54 898.45
18 Pench 1992–93 Madhya Pradesh 43 (contiguous with Maharashtra) 77 (contiguous with Maharashtra) 292.85
19 Tadoba-Andhari 1993–94 Maharashtra 115 97 625.4
20 Bandhavgarh 1993–94 Madhya Pradesh 63 135 1536
21 Panna 1994–95 Madhya Pradesh 17 55 542.67
22 Dampa 1994–95 Mizoram 0 0 500
23 Bhadra 1998–99 Karnataka 22 28 892.46
24 Pench 1998–99 Maharashtra 35 (contiguous with Madhya Pradesh) 48 (contiguous with Madhya Pradesh) 257.26
25 Pakke 1999–2000 Arunachal Pradesh 7 6 861.95
26 Nameri 1999–2000 Assam 5 3 200
27 Satpura 1999–2000 Madhya Pradesh 26 50 524
28 Anamalai 2008–09 Tamil Nadu 13 16 958.59 521.28
29 Sitanadi 2008–09 Chhattisgarh 4 1 556
30 Satkosia 2008–09 Odisha 3 0 796
31 Kaziranga 2008–09 Assam 103 104 858.98
32 Achanakmar 2008–09 Chhattisgarh 11 5 557.55
33 Dandeli-Anshi Tiger Reserve 2008–09 Karnataka 5 17 1300
34 Sanjay 2008–09 Madhya Pradesh 8 16 466.68
35 Mudumalai 2007 Tamil Nadu 103 114 321 367.59
36 Nagarhole 2008–09 Karnataka 101 141 642.39
37 Parambikulam 2008–09 Kerala 19 31 643.66
38 Sahyadri 2009–10 Maharashtra 7 0 1166
39 Biligiri Ranganatha Temple 2010–11 Karnataka 68 37 539.52
40 Kawal 2012–13 Telangana 0 2015.44
41 Sathyamangalam 2013–14 Tamil Nadu 72 85 793.49 614.91
42 Mukandra Hills 2013–14 Rajasthan 1 759.99
43 Nawegaon 2013–14 Maharashtra 7 11 133.88
44 Nagarjunsagar-Srisailam 1982–83 Andhra Pradesh 74 58 3728
45 Amrabad 2014 Telangana 12 2611.4
46 Pilibhit 2014 Uttar Pradesh 65 63 602.79
47 Bor 2014 Maharashtra 5 9 121.1
48 Rajaji 2015 Uttarakhand 54 820.5
49 Orang 2016 Assam 16 78.81
50 Kamlang 2016 Arunachal Pradesh 0 783
51 Srivilliputhur – Megamalai 2021 Tamil Nadu 14 12 641.86 374.7
52 Ramgarh Vishdhari 2022 Rajasthan 35 1 1501.89
53 Ranipur Wildlife Sanctuary[11] 2022 Uttar Pradesh
54 Veerangana Durgavati Tiger Reserve[12] 2023 Madhya Pradesh 1414.006
  • Note that Amangarh Tiger Reserve in Uttar Pradesh is a buffer zone of Jim Corbett National Park,[13] and may not be regarded as a separate tiger reserve. It has a buffer zone of 80.6 km2 (31.1 sq mi) but no core area of critical tiger habitat.[14]
  • Note that designation of Guru Ghasidas - Tamor Pingla National Park as a Tiger Reserve was paused by Chhattisgarh State Government in July 2023.[15]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Jhala, Y. V.; Qureshi, Q.; Nayak, A. K. (2019). Status of tigers, co-predators and prey in India 2018. Summary Report. TR No./2019/05 (PDF) (Report). New Delhi, Dehradun: National Tiger Conservation Authority & Wildlife Institute of India.
  2. ^ "Uttar Pradesh gears up for its fourth tiger reserve in Chitrakoot". newsonair.com. 2022.
  3. ^ "India's tiger population sees 33% increase". BBC. 2019.
  4. ^ "India's tiger population tops 3,000, shows census". The Hindu. 2023-04-09. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 2023-05-24.
  5. ^ "2967 – What the new global Tiger number means". WWF. 2016.
  6. ^ "Project Tiger" (PDF). Delhi: Government of India. Retrieved 22 January 2016.
  7. ^ Y.V. Jhala; R. Gopal; Q. Qureshi, eds. (2008). Status of the Tigers, Co-predators and Prey in India (PDF) (Report). National Tiger Conservation Authority, Govt. of India, New Delhi, and Wildlife Institute of India, Dehradun. TR 08/001. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-06-02.
  8. ^ "Tiger Estimate in India" (PDF). Public Information Brochure. New Delhi: Ministry of Environment and Forests, GOI. 28 March 2011. p. 9. Retrieved 21 June 2011.
  9. ^ "India's tiger population rises". Deccan Chronicle. 15 January 2015.
  10. ^ "Sunderbans home to 96 tigers, Bengal Forest Dept. estimates". The Hindu. 2021-07-29. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 2023-05-31.
  11. ^ "Uttar Pradesh gets its 4th tiger reserve with Ranipur Tiger Reserve". The Times of India. ISSN 0971-8257. Retrieved 2023-05-27.
  12. ^ "Veerangana Durgavati : The Latest Addition to India's Network of Tiger Reserves". National tiger Conservation Authority. Retrieved 2023-09-25.
  13. ^ "National Tiger Conservation Authority". ntca.gov.in. Retrieved 2021-09-19.
  14. ^ "Tiger Reserves". Wildlife Institute of India. Retrieved 2021-09-19.
  15. ^ "54 Tiger Reserves in India - Map & List - gkinsights.com". 2023-08-23. Retrieved 2023-08-29.