Tiglath-Pileser III

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Tiglath-Pileser III
Tilglath pileser iii.jpg
Tiglath-Pileser III: stela from the walls of his palace (British Museum, London).
King of the Neo-Assyrian Empire
Reign745–727 BC
PredecessorAshur-nirari V
SuccessorShalmaneser V
Died727 BC
IssueShalmaneser V
Sargon II (?)
FatherAllegedly Adad-nirari III

Tiglath-Pileser III (cuneiform: 𒆪𒋾𒀀𒂍𒈗𒊏 TUKUL.TI.A.É.ŠÁR.RA; Akkadian: Tukultī-apil-Ešarra, meaning "my trust is in the son of the Ešarra"; Hebrew: תִּגְלַת פִּלְאֶסֶרTiglat Pil’eser) was a prominent king of Assyria in the eighth century BCE (ruled 745–727 BCE)[1][2] who introduced advanced civil, military, and political systems into the Neo-Assyrian Empire.[3][4]

He made sweeping changes to the Assyrian government, considerably improving its efficiency and security. He created Assyria's first professional standing army.[5][6]

Tiglath-Pileser III subjugated much of the Near East region; to the south, his fellow Mesopotamians in Babylonia and Chaldea, and further south still, the Arabs, Magan, Meluhha, and Dilmunites of the Arabian Peninsula. In the south west, Israel, Judah, Philistia, Samarra, Moab, Edom, the Suteans and Nabatea fell. To the north, Urartu, Armenia and Scythia in the Caucasus Mountains, Cimmeria by the Black Sea, and Nairi were subjugated, and in the north west much of eastern and south western Asia Minor, including the Hittites, Phrygia, Cilicia, Commagene, Tabal, Corduene and Caria. In the west, the Greeks of Cyprus and Aram (modern Syria), and the Mediterranean city-states of Phoenicia/Caanan were subjugated. To the east he subjugated Persia, Media, Gutium, Mannea, Cissia and Elam. Later in his reign he was crowned king in Babylonia.

Tiglath-Pileser III discouraged revolts against Assyrian rule with the use of forced deportations of thousands of people all over the empire. He is one of the most successful military commanders in world history, conquering most of the world known to the Assyrians before his death.

Origins[edit]

Tiglath-pileser III, an alabaster bas-relief from the king's central palace at Nimrud, Mesopotamia.

In the inscriptions ascribed to Tiglath-Pileser III, he described himself as a son of Adad-nirari III, but the accuracy of this claim remains as uncertain as the ascription itself. It is supposed that he seized the throne in the midst of civil war on 13 Ayaru, 745 BCE.[1][7]

Tiglath-pileser III stands over an enemy, bas-relief from the Central Palace at Nimrud.

A mutilated brick inscription states that he is the son of Adad-nirari (III); however, the Assyrian King List makes Tiglath-pileser (III) the son of Ahur-nirari (V), son of Adad-nirari (III). This is quite a discrepancy for the King list places Adad-nirari III four monarchs before Tiglath-pileser's reign and depicts Ashur-nirari (V) as both his father and immediate predecessor upon the throne. The list goes on to relate that Shalmaneser III (IV), and Ashur-dan III (III) were brothers, being the sons of Adad-nirari (III). Ashur-nirari (V) is also said to be a son of Adad-nirari (III), implying brotherhood with Shalmaneser III (IV), and Ashur-dan III (III). The Assyrian records contain very little information concerning Adad-nirari (III) and nothing about Shalmaneser III (IV) or Ashur-dan III (III). Significantly, an alabaster stele was discovered in 1894 at Tell Abta displaying the name Tiglath-pileser imprinted over that of Shalmaneser (IV), a successor of Adad-Nirari (III) and the third sovereign prior to Tiglath-pileser (III). This find coupled with the aforementioned absence of information relative to Shalmaneser III (IV) and Ashur-dan III (III) strongly implies that Tiglath-pileser was a usurper to the throne and that he destroyed the records of his three immediate predecessors—Ashur-nirari (V), Shalmaneser III (IV), and Ashur-dan III (III).

No less Assyrian authority than Daniel David Luckenbill, commenting on the brick inscription, was led to pen “...whether we err in ascribing these texts to Tiglath-Pileser III is still to be determined.” [8]

It was in Babylon that he was referred to as Pulu and his son as Ululayu.[9] The identification of Pul (2 Kings 15:19) with Tiglath-Pileser III is also referenced in the Phoenician inscription from Incirli, line 5 of which reads: פאל מל[ך] אשר רב "Pu'lu, the great king of Assyria".[10] Professor of Biblical studies Mary Katherine Y.H. Hom states,

The occurrences of Pulu for Tiglath-Pileser III are both rare and late. At the same time, ‘contemporary and nearly contemporary documents in both Babylonia and Assyria—the king’s own royal inscriptions, the Assyrian kinglists and eponym lists, economic texts coming from Babylon during his reign, and the Babylonian Chronicle—uniformly refer to him as Tiglath-Pileser.’41 Furthermore, Pulu is a well attested Assyrian name, 42 the fact of which heightens the possibility that Pulu is a non-exceptional name for Tiglath-Pileser III. Exactly how and when Pulu came to be associated with Tiglath-Pileser III cannot be conclusively deduced. One may cautiously forward that it appears that the association arose relatively late—terminus a quo the date of Babylonian King List A (which Brinkmanship dates to ca. 6th or early 5th c. BCE).43 As for the association itself, it remains an attractive hypothesis that Pulu is a quasi-hypocristic derived from the second element of Tiglath-Pileser.44 Given that the name’s particular use for Tiglath-Pileser III is late, it seems more likely than not that Pulu was only a late designation for the Assyrian monarch, and that the use of Pul in 2 Kgs 15:19 is anachronistic.45[11]

Reign[edit]

Tiglath-Pileser III besieging a town named U[pa?], possibly in Turkey.[12]

Assyrian power in the Near East greatly increased as the result of Tiglath-Pileser's military reforms (see "Reforms" below) and of his campaigns of conquest. Upon ascending the throne, he claimed (in Annal 9, which dates to 745 BCE, his first regnal year) to have annexed Babylonia, from "Dur-(Kuri)galzu, Sippar of Shamash, ... the cities [of Ba]bylonia up to the Uqnu river [by the shore of the Lo]wer [Sea]"[13] (which referred to the Persian Gulf), and subsequently placed his eunuch over them as governor. Also in his first year of reign he defeated the powerful kingdom of Urartu (Armenia), whose hegemony under the rulership of Sarduri II had extended to Asia Minor, northern Mesopotamia, western Iran and Syria; there he found unrivalled horses for his war-chariots.[14] He also defeated the Medes before making war on and conquering the Neo-Hittites, Syria and Phoenicia. He took Arpad in 740 BCE after three years of siege, annexed it as a province (over which he placed one of his eunuchs as governors), and subjected Hamath to tribute. Assyrian inscriptions record in 740 BCE, the fifth year of his reign, a victory over Azariah (Uzziah), king of Judah, whose achievements appear in 2 Chronicles 26. He also subjugated Damascus, the Arabs under Queen Zabibe, Menahem of Israel and Sam'al's king Azriyau, who all paid him tribute.[15] In 737 and 736 BCE he turned his attention again to Iran, conquering the Medes and Persians and occupying a large part of Iran.[15] According to the royal inscriptions of Tiglath-Pileser many of the inhabitants were enslaved and deported to other parts of the Assyrian empire, as commonly done by his predecessors. At sieges, captives were slaughtered, and their bodies raised on stakes and displayed before the city (illustration, right).

In October 729 BCE, Tiglath-Pileser assumed total control of Babylon, capturing the Babylonian king Nabu-mukin-zeri (ABC 1 Col.1:21) and having himself crowned as "King Pulu of Babylon."

Biblical account[edit]

The core territory of Assyria in the 8th century BC. After the death of Adad-nirari III in 783 BC, Assyria had entered a period of instability and decline, and lost its suzerainty over its former vassal and tributary states.
Map showing Tiglath-Pileser's conquests and deportation of Israelites. Tiglath-Pileser III discouraged revolts against Assyrian rule with the use of forced deportations of thousands of people all over the empire.[16]

Biblical records describe how Tiglath-Pileser III exacted 1,000 talents of silver as tribute from King Menahem of the Kingdom of Israel (2 Kings 15:19) and later defeated his successor Pekah (2 Kings 15:29).

Pekah had allied with Rezin, king of the Arameans against Ahaz (known to the Assyrians as Yahu-khazi), of the Kingdom of Judah, who responded by appealing for the Assyrian monarch's help with the Temple gold and silver. Tiglath-Pileser answered swiftly. He first marched his army down the eastern Mediterranean coast, taking coastal cities all the way to Egypt. This cut off his enemies' access to the sea. Once this was achieved, he returned to the Northern Kingdom of Israel, destroyed their army, and deported the Reubenites, Gadites, and the people of Manasseh to Halah, Habor, Hara, and the Gozan river (1 Chron 5:26). He then installed an Israelite puppet king, Hoshea, (732–723 BCE) in the place of Pekah. He concluded this extensive campaign by marching north and west, ravaging Aramaea, seizing Damascus, executing Rezin, and deporting the survivors to Kir (2 Kings 16:9).

Beyond this, the Assyrian alliance was not beneficial to Ahaz (2 Chron 28:20).

Reforms[edit]

Upon ascending the throne, Tiglath-Pileser instituted several reforms to different sectors of the Assyrian state, which arguably revived Assyria's hegemony over the Near East.

The first of such reforms entailed thwarting the powers of the high Assyrian officials, which during the reigns of his predecessors had become excessive. Officials such as Shamshi-ilu, who was turtanu (General) and a prominent official since the time of Adad-nirari III, often led their own campaigns and erected their own commemorative stelae, often without mentioning the king at all. [17] Since his earliest inscriptions (and thus from the beginning of his reign), he gave regular mention of appointing eunuchs as governors of (newly conquered) provinces; this removed the threat of provincial rule becoming a dynastic matter. He also sought to reduce the power of his officials by reducing the size of the provinces (in some cases the northern provinces were increased to include newly conquered territories), thus decreasing their resources, should they desire to incite a revolt. Subsequently, there were more provinces, more governors (most of whom were eunuchs), and less power per governor.

The second reform targeted the army. Instead of a largely native Assyrian army which normally campaigned only in the summer time, Tiglath-Pileser incorporated large numbers of conquered people into the army, thus adding a substantial foreign element. This force mainly comprised the light infantry, whereas the native Assyrians comprised the cavalry, heavy infantry, and charioteers. As a result of Tiglath-Pileser's military reforms, the Assyrian Empire was armed with a greatly expanded army which could campaign throughout the year. The addition of the cavalry and the chariot contingents was to counter the steppe cultures lurking nearby to the north, who sometimes invaded the northern colonies with cavalry and primitive chariots.

Legacy[edit]

Assyrian relief depicting battle with camel riders, from Kalhu (Nimrud) Central Palace, Tiglath Pileser III, 728 BCE, British Museum

Tiglath-Pileser III's conquests and reforms led to the establishment of the Neo-Assyrian Kingdom as a true empire. He built a royal palace in Kalhu (the biblical Calah/Nimrud, the so-called "central palace"), later dismantled by Esarhaddon. He had his royal annals engraved across the bas-reliefs depicting his military achievements on the sculptured slabs decorating his palace.

On his death he was succeeded by his son Ululayu, who took the name Shalmaneser V and further campaigned in the Levant, defeated Egypt, and captured Samaria.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Lendering, Jona (2006). "Assyrian Eponym List (2/3)". Livius.org.
  2. ^ Tadmor 1994, p. 29.
  3. ^ Healy 1991, p. 17
  4. ^ Frye, Wolfram & Dietz 2016.
  5. ^ Howard 2002, p. 36.
  6. ^ Schwartzwald 2014, p. 24.
  7. ^ Chisholm 1911, p. 968.
  8. ^ Jones 2005, p. 150.
  9. ^ Nemet-Nejat 1998, p. 38.
  10. ^ Kaufman 2007, pp. 7–26
  11. ^ Katherine, Mary. The Characterization of an Empire : The Portrayal of the Assyrians in Kings and Chronicles. Eugene, Oregon, Pickwick Publications, 2018, p. 20.
  12. ^ "Wall panel; relief British Museum". The British Museum.
  13. ^ Tadmor 1994, p. 43.
  14. ^ Luckenbill 1927, p. 84.
  15. ^ a b Roux, Georges. Ancient Iraq[full citation needed]
  16. ^ Healy 1991, p. 21.
  17. ^ Shafer 1998, pp. 32–33.

References[edit]

  • Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Tiglath-Pileser III or IV" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 26 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 968.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Frye, Richard N.; Wolfram, Th. von Soden; Dietz, O. Edzard (15 April 2016). "History of Mesopotamia". Encyclopædia Britannica.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Healy, Mark (1991). The Ancient Assyrians. London: Osprey. ISBN 1-85532-163-7. OCLC 26351868.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Howard, Michael (2002). Transnationalism in Ancient and Medieval Societies: The Role of Cross-Border Trade and Travel. McFarland. p. 36. ISBN 978-0786468034.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Kaufman, Stephen A. (2007). "The Phoenician Inscription of the Incirli Trilingual: A Tentative Reconstruction and Translation". MAARAV. 14 (2): 7–26.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Luckenbill, D. D. (1927). Ancient Records of Assyria and Babylonia. II. Chicago.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Nemet-Nejat, Karen Rhea (1998). Daily Life in Ancient Mesopotamia. p. 38.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Tadmor, Hayim (1994). The Inscriptions of Tiglath-Pileser III, King of Assyria: Critical Edition, with Introductions, Translations, and Commentary. Jerusalem: Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Schwartzwald, Jack (2014). The Ancient Near East, Greece and Rome: A Brief History. McFarland. p. 24. ISBN 978-0786478064.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Shafer, A.T. (1998). The Carving of an Empire: Neo-Assyrian Monuments on the Periphery. pp. 32–33.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)

Further reading[edit]

Preceded by
Ashur-nirari V
King of Assyria
745–727 BCE
Succeeded by
Shalmaneser V
Preceded by
Nabu-mukin-zeri
King of Babylon
729–727 BCE