Tigrayans

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Tigrayans
ተጋሩ (Tigrinya)
Regions with significant populations
 Ethiopia 6.500.000[1]
 United States 20.000[2]
 Israel 10.000[3][4]
 Sudan 50.000[2]
 Italy 8.800[2]
 Canada 10.220[5]
 Germany 25.000[2]
 Yemen 11.000[2]
 Sweden 13.000[2]
 United Kingdom 12.400 [6]
 Australia 2,794 [7]
 Djibouti 600 [8]
Languages
Tigrinya
Religion
predominantly Christianity (Ethiopian Orthodox) ·
minority Islam (Sunni) · Judaism
Related ethnic groups
Agaw · Amhara · Beja · Beta Israel · Gurage · Harari · Oromo · Saho · Somali · Tigre · Tigrinyas[9]

Tigrayans (Tigrinya: ተጋሩ?, Tägaru; Amharic: ትግሬ?, Tɘgre) are an ethnolinguistic group who speak the Tigrinya language. They occupy most parts of the Tigray region of Ethiopia. Most are followers of the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church.[10] They make up roughly 6.1% of Ethiopia's population[11] numbering a little over 6.3 million of which approximately 96.6% are native to the Tigray Region.[1][12]

Ethnolinguistically, Tigrayans are related to the Tigrinyas of Eritrea, both of whom speak Tigrinya, an Ethiopian Semitic language belonging to the Afroasiatic family.[13] They are not to be confused with the Tigre people who speak Tigre, a closely related Afro-Asiatic language.

Name[edit]

Landscape in Mekele

The Tigrayans in Ethiopia, they are referred to as simply Tägaru in Tigrinya, and Tɘgre in Amharic. Tigray-Tigrinyas of Muslim faith are commonly referred to as Jeberti. Historically, the people who live in the highlands found between Red Sea and Tekezé River were referred as Tigré people by foreign scholars who traveled in the region like James Bruce and Henry Salt (Egyptologist).[14][15][16]

Demographics[edit]

A woman from Tigray, Ethiopia

Ethiopian Tigrayans are from the province (or ethnic kilil) of Tigray in Ethiopia. They constitute approximately 6.1% of the population of Ethiopia and about 96% of the Northern region of Tigray. Like the Biher-Tigrinya of Eritrea, they are also largely small holding farmers largely inhabiting small communal villages. They are also largely Christian and members of the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church (approximately 96%), with a small minority of Muslims, Catholics and Protestants.

The predominantly Tigrayan populated urban centers in Ethiopia are found within the Tigray Region in towns including Mek'ele, Adwa, Axum, Adigrat and Shire. Large populations of Tigrayans are also found in other large Ethiopian cities such as the capital Addis Ababa and Gondar.

History[edit]

Tigrayan leader Ras Mangasha.

The Tigrayans and Tigrinyas are descendants of early Semitic-speaking peoples whose presence in the region dates back to at least 2000 BC, based on linguistic evidence (and known from the 9th century BC from inscriptions).[17] According to Ethiopian traditions, the Tigrayan nobility; i.e. that of the Tigray province of Ethiopia, trace their ancestry to the legendary king Menelik I, the child born of the queen of Sheba and King Solomon as do the priests of the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church (Ge'ez ካህን kāhin). Menelik I would become the first king of the Solomonic line of rulers of Ethiopia that ended only with the deposing of Emperor Haile Selassie in 1974, in this long line of emperors however, only a very few were Tigrayans.

The first possible mention of the group dates from around the 8th to 10th centuries, in which period manuscripts preserving the inscriptions of Cosmas Indicopleustes (fl. 6th century) contain notes on his writings including the mention of a tribe called Tigretes.[18]

The stele to Axum, in the distance the Church of Our Lady Mary of Zion

A Portuguese Map in the 1660 shows Medri Bahri consisting of the three highland provinces of Eritrea and distinct from Ethiopia.[19]

The Scottish traveler James Bruce reported in 1770 that Medri Bahri was a distinct political entity from Abyssinia, noting that the two territories were frequently in conflict. The Bahre-Nagassi ("Kings of the Sea") alternately fought with or against the Abyssinians and the neighbouring Muslim Adal Sultanate depending on the geopolitical circumstances. Medri Bahri was thus part of the Christian resistance against Imam Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi of Adal's forces, but later joined the Adalite states and the Ottoman Empire front against Abyssinia in 1572. That 16th century also marked the arrival of the Ottomans, who began making inroads in the Red Sea area.[20][repetition]

James Bruce in his book published in 1805 reported Hadawi, the seat of Baharanagash, was part of the Tigré province of Abyssinia which was ruled by Ras Mikael Sehul at the time of his travel. The officer in Hadawi watches over the Naybe of Masawa (province of Turk's Habesh Eyalet), and starve him into obedience by intercepting his provisions, whenever the governor of Tigré and the officer in Hadawi find it necessary. Bruce also located Tigré between Red Sea and the river Tekezé and stated many large governments, such as Enderta and Antalow, and the great part of Baharhagash were part of Tigré province.[14][21][22][dubious ]

Abreha and Atsbeha Church

By the beginning of the 19th century Henry Salt (Egyptologist), who travelled in the interior of Abyssinia, divided the nation into three distinct and independent states.[16][23] These three great divisions are Tigré, Amhara, and the province of Shoa.[16] Henry considers Tigré as the more powerful state of the three; a circumstance arising from the natural strength of the country, the warlike disposition of its inhabitants, and its vicinity to the sea coast; an advantage that has secured to it the monopoly of all the musquets imported into the country.[24] He divided the Tigré kingdom into several provinces as the centre where it was considered the seat of the state being referred as Tigré proper. Provinces of this kingdom includes Enderta, Agame, Wojjerat, Temben, Shiré and Baharanegash.[24] Hamasien, a district of Baharanegash, is the furthest north and narrowest part of Tigré, and Henry places Bejas or Bojas as the people who live north of Tigré state.[15][25] By the time Henry made his travel to Abyssinia the seat of the empire, Gondar, was ruled by the Yejju dynasty under Ras Gugsa, a Oromo commander who ruled from 1798 up to 1825 as Enderase to the powerless emperors with Solomonic dynasty.[26][27][dubious ]

Culture[edit]

Language[edit]

Tigrayan politician Meles Zenawi, the former Prime Minister of Ethiopia.

Tigrayans and Biher-Tigrinya speak the Tigrinya language as a mother tongue.[repetition] It belongs to the Ethiopian Semitic subgroup of the Afro-Asiatic family.[28] Tigrinya is descended from an ancient Semitic language called Ge'ez, which the modern Ethiopian Orthodox and Eritrean Orthodox Churches officially use as a liturgical language. The Tigrinya language is the direct descendant of Ge'ez, unlike Amharic (thought to be descended from a specific dialect or cluster of dialects of Ge'ez) and other southern Ethiopian Semitic languages, though Tigre may share this distinction with Tigrinya (its status is uncertain). Tigrinya is closely related to the Tigre language, another Afro-Asiatic language spoken by the Tigre people as well as many Beja. Tigrinya and Tigre although close are not mutually intelligible, and while Tigrinya has traditionally been written using the same Ge'ez script (fidel) as Amharic, Tigre has been transcribed mainly using the Arabic script. Attempts by the Eritrean government to have Tigre written using the Ge'ez script has met with some resistance from the predominantly Muslim Tigre people who associate Ge'ez with the Orthodox Church and would prefer the Arabic or the more neutral Latin alphabet. It has also met with the linguistic difficulty of the Ge'ez script being a syllabic system which does not distinguish long vowels from short ones. While this works well for writing Tigrinya or Amharic, which do not rely on vowel length in words, it does complicate writing Tigre, where vowel length sometimes distinguishes one word and its meaning from another. The Ge'ez script evolved from the Epigraphic South Arabian script, whose first inscriptions are from the 8th century BC in Eritrea, Ethiopia and Yemen.

In Ethiopia, Tigrinya is the third most spoken language. The Tigray constitute the fourth largest ethnic group in the country after the Oromo, Amhara and Somali, who also speak Afro-Asiatic languages.[29] In Eritrea, Tigrinya is by far the most spoken language, where it is used by around 55% of the population. Tigre is used by around 30% of residents.

Tigrinya dialects differ phonetically, lexically, and grammatically.[30] No dialect appears to be accepted as a standard.

Cuisine[edit]

T'ihlo dish

Tigrayan food characteristically consists of vegetable and often very spicy meat dishes, usually in the form of tsebhi (Tigrinya: ፀብሒ?), a thick stew, served atop injera, a large sourdough flatbread.[18] As the vast majority of Tigrayans belong to the Ethiopian Orthodox Church (and the minority Muslims), pork is not consumed because of religious beliefs. Meat and dairy products are not consumed on Wednesdays and Fridays, and also during the 7 compulsory fasts. Because of this reason, many vegan meals are present.

T'ihlo (Tigrinya: ጥሕሎ?, ṭïḥlo) is a dish originating from the historical Agame province of Tigray (now the Eastern Zone) and the historical Akele Guzai province of Eritrea (now the Southern Region). The dish is unique to these parts of both countries, but is now slowly spreading throughout the entire region. T'ihlo is made using moistened roasted barley flour that is kneaded to a certain consistency. The dough is then broken into small ball shapes and is laid out around a bowl of spicy meat stew. A two-pronged wooden fork is used to spear the ball and dip it into the stew. The dish is usually served with mes, a type of honey wine.[31]

Eating around a shared food basket, mäsob (Tigrinya: መሶብ?) is a custom in the Tigray region and is usually done so with families and guests. The food is eaten using no cutlery, using only the fingers (of the right hand) and sourdough flatbread to grab the contents on the bread.[32][33]

Notable Tigrayans[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Central Statistical Agency (2008). "TABEL [sic] 5: POPULATION SIZE OF REGIONS BY NATIONS/NATIONALITIES (ETHNIC GROUP) AND PLACE OF RESIDENCE: 2007". Census 2007 (PDF). Addis Ababa: Central Statistical Agency. p. 66. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f https://joshuaproject.net/languages/tir
  3. ^ Ebrei Tigrino lingua componente il 15% da Beta Israel; Anbessa Tefera (2007). "Lingua". Comunità Ebraiche nel XIX e XX secolo - Etiopia . Ben-Zvi Institute. p.73 (ebraico)
  4. ^ https://www.Ethnologue.com/lingua/tir
  5. ^ http://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2011/dp-pd/tbt-tt/Rp-eng.cfm?LANG=E&APATH=3&DETAIL=0&DIM=0&FL=A&FREE=0&GC=0&GID=0&GK=0&GRP=1&PID=103001&PRID=10&PTYPE=101955&S=0&SHOWALL=0&SUB=0&Temporal=2011&THEME=90&VID=0&VNAMEE=&VNAMEF=
  6. ^ https://www.ethnologue.com/country/GB
  7. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics 2014, The People of Australia Statistics from the 2011 Census, Cat. no. 2901.0, ABS, <https://www.border.gov.au/ReportsandPublications/Documents/research/people-australia-2013-statistics.pdf>.
  8. ^ Joshua Project. 2016. Language - Amharic :: Joshua Project . [ONLINE] Available at: https://joshuaproject.net/languages/amh?limit=500.
  9. ^ Joireman, Sandra F. (1997). Institutional Change in the Horn of Africa: The Allocation of Property Rights and Implications for Development. Universal-Publishers. p. 1. ISBN 1581120001. 
  10. ^ Tesfagiorgis G., Mussie (2011). Eritrea. Greenwood Publisihing Group. p. 337. ISBN 978-1-59884-231-9. 
  11. ^ "The World Factbook". www.cia.gov. Retrieved 28 April 2016. 
  12. ^ Ethiopia: A Model Nation of Minorities (accessed 22 March 2006)
  13. ^ Irene Thompson (February 7, 2016). "Tigrigna". aboutworldlanguages.com. Retrieved 7 June 2016. 
  14. ^ a b James Bruce Travels through part of Africa, Syria, Egypt .... Published in 1805 pp. 229 & 230 Google Books
  15. ^ a b Henry Salt A Voyage to Abyssinia. Published in 1816 pp. 381 Google Books
  16. ^ a b c Charles Knight The Penny Cyclopaedia of the Society for the Difussion of Useful Knowledge. Published in 1833 pp. 53 Google Books
  17. ^ Stuart Munro-Hay, Aksum: A Civilization of Late Antiquity (Edinburgh: University Press, 1991), pp. 57
  18. ^ a b Munro-Hay, Aksum, pp. 187
  19. ^ https://books.google.com/books?id=NGiDTqf5YYAC&pg=PA36
  20. ^ Okbazghi Yohannes. A Pawn in World Politics: Eritrea. 
  21. ^ James Bruce Travels through part of Africa, Syria, Egypt .... Published in 1805 pp. 171 Google Books
  22. ^ James Bruce Travels through part of Africa, Syria, Egypt .... Published in 1805 pp. 128 Google Books
  23. ^ Henry Salt A Voyage to Abyssinia. M. Carey (1816)
  24. ^ a b Henry Salt A Voyage to Abyssinia. Published in 1816 pp. 378-382 Google Books
  25. ^ Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge The Penny Cyclopaedia of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge: Bassantin - Bloemaart, Volume 4. Published in 1835 pp. 170 Google Books
  26. ^ Pearce, The Life and Adventures of Nathaniel Pearce, edited by J.J. Halls (London, 1831), vol. 1 p. 70
  27. ^ Bahru Zewde, A History of Modern Ethiopia, 1855-1994, second edition (Oxford: James Currey, 2001), p. 12; Henze, Layers of Time (New York: Palgrave, 2000), p. 122.
  28. ^ "Tigrinya". Ethnologue. Retrieved 4 September 2013. 
  29. ^ "Country Level". 2007 Population and Housing Census of Ethiopia. CSA. 13 July 2010. Retrieved 18 January 2013. 
  30. ^ Leslau, Wolf (1941) Documents Tigrigna (Éthiopien Septentrional): Grammaire et Textes. Paris: Librairie C. Klincksieck.
  31. ^ "Tihlo". Nutrition for the world. 
  32. ^ "Countries and their Cultures- Tigray". Countries and their Cultures. 
  33. ^ "Ethiopian Treasures- Culture". Ethiopian Treasures. 
  34. ^ Hubert Jules Deschamps, (sous la direction). Histoire générale de l'Afrique noire de Madagascar et de ses archipels Tome
     : Des origines à 1800. p. 406-408 P.U.F. Paris (1970)
  35. ^ Herbert Weld Blundell, The Royal chronicle of Abyssinia, 1769-1840, (Cambridge: University Press, 1922), pp. 384-390
  36. ^ Cited in Tellez, The Travels of the Jesuits in Ethiopia, 1710 (LaVergue: Kessinger, 2010), pp. 89f.
  37. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Jenkins, Dr. Orville Boyd. "Tigrinya People Profile". orvillejenkins.com. Retrieved 2016-08-17. 
  38. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o "Pueblo Tigray". www.ikuska.com. Retrieved 2016-08-17. 
  39. ^ "St. Mary's Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church in Los Angeles". www.ethiopianorthodoxchurch.org. Retrieved 2016-08-17. 
  40. ^ "Music". www.st-gebriel.org. Retrieved 2016-08-17. 
  41. ^ E. Bernard, A.J. Drewes, and R. Schneider, Recueil des inscriptions de l'Éthiopie des périodes pré-axoumite et axoumite. Tome I: Les inscriptions. Paris: Diffusion de Boccard, 1991, p. 247.
  42. ^ http://www.dacb.org/stories/ethiopia/kaleb2.html
  43. ^ http://legacy.fordham.edu/halsall/ancient/periplus.asp
  44. ^ https://www.britishmuseum.org/pdf/KingdomOfAksum_StudentsWorksheets.pdf
  45. ^ http://worldcoincatalog.com/AC/C/Aksum/300-310CE-Aphilas/300-310CE-Aphilas.htm
  46. ^ http://www.dacb.org/stories/ethiopia/_ezana.html
  47. ^ http://sussle.org/t/MHDYS
  48. ^ https://books.google.com/books?id=YTGRcVLMg6MC&pg=PA157&lpg=PA157&dq=Ouazebas+axum&source=bl&ots=qd0ji6e1Es&sig=jRzAKemdzj_pFW4v-dVhBWckEi4&hl=it&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwim4dPpi7LNAhXGDBoKHYBoCTs4ChDoAQgqMAI#v=onepage&q=Ouazebas%20axum&f=false
  49. ^ a b Siegbert Uhlig (ed.) (2016). Encyclopaedia Aethiopica: D-Ha, Volume 2. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. p. 211. ISBN 3447052384. 
  50. ^ S. C. Munro-Hay, Aksum: An African Civilization of Late Antiquity (Edinburgh: University Press, 1991), p. 91.
  51. ^ A letter to Antoine d'Abbadie, dated 8 January 1869, mentions a coin of this ruler. Sven Rubenson, Acta Aethiopica, vol 3: Internal Rivalries and Foreign Threats, 1869-1879 (Addis Ababa: University Press, 2000), p. 3
  52. ^ See the article on Ellä Säham by Gianfranco Fiaccadori in the Encyclopaedia Aethiopica, vol. 2, Wiesbaden 2016

External links[edit]