Tiksi

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Tiksi (English)
Тикси (Russian)
Тиксии (Sakha)
-  Urban-type settlement[1]  -
Tiksi.jpg
View of Tiksi
Map of Russia - Sakha (Yakutia) Republic (2008-03).svg
Location of the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic in Russia
Tiksi is located in Sakha Republic
Tiksi
Tiksi
Location of Tiksi in the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic
Coordinates: 71°39′N 128°52′E / 71.650°N 128.867°E / 71.650; 128.867Coordinates: 71°39′N 128°52′E / 71.650°N 128.867°E / 71.650; 128.867
Administrative status (as of June 2009)
Country Russia
Federal subject Sakha Republic[2]
Administrative district Bulunsky District[2]
Settlement Settlement of Tiksi[2]
Administrative center of Bulunsky District,[2] Settlement of Tiksi[2]
Municipal status (as of April 2012)
Municipal district Bulunsky Municipal District[3]
Urban settlement Tiksi Urban Settlement[3]
Administrative center of Bulunsky Municipal District,[4] Tiksi Urban Settlement[3]
Statistics
Population (2010 Census) 5,063 inhabitants[5]
Time zone YAKT (UTC+09:00)[6]
Founded 1933[citation needed]
Urban-type settlement status since 1939[2]
Postal code(s)[7] 678400, 678403, 678409
Dialing code(s) +7 41167[citation needed]
Tiksi on Wikimedia Commons
Tiksi population
2010 Census 5,063[5]
2002 Census 5,873[8]
1989 Census 11,649[9]
1979 Census 9,505[10]

Tiksi (Russian: Ти́кси; Yakut: Тиксии, lit. a moorage place) is an urban locality (an urban-type settlement) and the administrative center of Bulunsky District in the Sakha Republic, Russia, located on the shore of the Buor-Khaya Gulf of the Laptev Sea, south of the delta of the Lena River. As of the 2010 Census, its population was 5,063.[5]

History[edit]

In August 1901, Russian Arctic ship Zarya headed across the Laptev Sea, searching for the legendary Sannikov Land but was soon blocked by floating drift ice in the New Siberian Islands. During 1902, the attempts to reach Sannikov Land continued while Zarya was trapped in fast ice. Leaving the ship, Russian Arctic explorer Baron Eduard Toll and three companions vanished forever in November 1902 while traveling away from Bennett Island towards the south on loose ice floes. Zarya was finally moored close to Brusneva Island in the Tiksi Bay, never to leave the place again. The remaining members of the expedition returned to St. Petersburg, while Captain Fyodor Matisen went to Yakutsk.

Modern Tiksi was founded in 1933;[citation needed] urban-type settlement status was granted to it in 1939.[2] During the Cold War, Tiksi saw military construction projects at Tiksi North and Tiksi West airfields. Since the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Tiksi's population has declined markedly and many of its apartment blocks have been abandoned. Despite its rapid population decline, it remains the most northerly settlement with a population of over 5,000.

Administrative and municipal status[edit]

Within the framework of administrative divisions, the urban-type settlement of Tiksi[1] serves as the administrative center of Bulunsky District.[2] As an administrative division, it is incorporated within Bulunsky District as the Settlement of Tiksi.[2] As a municipal division, the Settlement of Tiksi is incorporated within Bulunsky Municipal District as Tiksi Urban Settlement.[3]

Economy[edit]

Transportation[edit]

Tiksi serves as one of the principal ports for accessing the Laptev Sea. It is served by the Tiksi Airport, which was shut down by the Defense Ministry on October 1, 2012 except for helicopters.[11] Tiksi was connected only by helicopter flights and winter roads. The closure was harshly criticized by Russian Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev. Following an agreement between the Defense Ministry and the Government of the Sakha Republic in April 2013, the airfield re-opened to passenger traffic in June 2013. In December 2013, President Vladimir Putin announced that the Tiksi airport would be "rehabilitated" along with others beyond the Arctic Circle.[12]

The Lena River is navigable in the summer months. There is infrequent passenger navigation from Yakutsk.

Climate[edit]

Tiksi has a polar climate (Köppen ET). Winters are brutally cold, though no colder than the inland subarctic regions, and have frequent and occasionally heavy snowfalls. The very short summers are generally mild (although in 1991 a temperature as high as +34 °C (93 °F) was reported) and quite damp with rainfall on most days. The "midnight sun" is above the horizon from May 11 to August 3, and the period with continuous daylight lasts a bit longer, polar night from November 19 to January 24.

Climate data for Tiksi
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) −9
(16)
−5.2
(22.6)
1.6
(34.9)
9.6
(49.3)
23.6
(74.5)
32.8
(91)
34.3
(93.7)
29.8
(85.6)
23.0
(73.4)
6.1
(43)
−1.2
(29.8)
−4.9
(23.2)
34.3
(93.7)
Average high °C (°F) −26.7
(−16.1)
−26.1
(−15)
−22.1
(−7.8)
−13.5
(7.7)
−2.6
(27.3)
7.2
(45)
12.1
(53.8)
11.1
(52)
4.2
(39.6)
−7.9
(17.8)
−20.1
(−4.2)
−25.1
(−13.2)
−9.1
(15.6)
Daily mean °C (°F) −30.2
(−22.4)
−29.6
(−21.3)
−26.3
(−15.3)
−18.3
(−0.9)
−6.1
(21)
3.2
(37.8)
7.6
(45.7)
7.7
(45.9)
1.6
(34.9)
−10.8
(12.6)
−23.4
(−10.1)
−28.4
(−19.1)
−12.8
(9)
Average low °C (°F) −33.8
(−28.8)
−33.3
(−27.9)
−30.8
(−23.4)
−23.7
(−10.7)
−9.7
(14.5)
0.1
(32.2)
3.9
(39)
4.5
(40.1)
−1.2
(29.8)
−14.3
(6.3)
−27.1
(−16.8)
−31.9
(−25.4)
−16.4
(2.5)
Record low °C (°F) −48
(−54)
−50.5
(−58.9)
−47.2
(−53)
−46.9
(−52.4)
−32.2
(−26)
−15.8
(3.6)
−3.9
(25)
−4
(25)
−18.2
(−0.8)
−35
(−31)
−43.9
(−47)
−48.8
(−55.8)
−50.5
(−58.9)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 32
(1.26)
22
(0.87)
16
(0.63)
10
(0.39)
13
(0.51)
27
(1.06)
45
(1.77)
50
(1.97)
27
(1.06)
16
(0.63)
21
(0.83)
42
(1.65)
321
(12.64)
Average rainy days 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1 12 20 20 9 0.1 0.0 0.0 62.1
Average snowy days 23 21 21 19 20 5 0.2 0.3 10 25 23 23 190.5
Mean monthly sunshine hours 0.0 40.0 176.9 276.5 199.0 238.2 246.4 132.6 86.8 52.9 4.0 0.0 1,453.3
Source #1: погода и климат[13]
Source #2: (sunshine only)[14]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b According to Article 7 of the Law #77-I, lower-level administrative divisions with the status of a settlement have their administrative centers in an inhabited locality with the status of an urban-type settlement. According to the Registry of the Administrative-Territorial Divisions of the Sakha Republic, Tiksi is the administrative center of the Settlement of Tiksi.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i Registry of the Administrative-Territorial Divisions of the Sakha Republic
  3. ^ a b c d Law #173-Z #353-III
  4. ^ Law #172-Z #351-III
  5. ^ a b c Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  6. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Федеральный закон №107-ФЗ от 3 июня 2011 г. «Об исчислении времени», в ред. Федерального закона №248-ФЗ от 21 июля 2014 г. «О внесении изменений в Федеральный закон "Об исчислении времени"». Вступил в силу по истечении шестидесяти дней после дня официального опубликования (6 августа 2011 г.). Опубликован: "Российская газета", №120, 6 июня 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Federal Law #107-FZ of June 31, 2011 On Calculating Time, as amended by the Federal Law #248-FZ of July 21, 2014 On Amending Federal Law "On Calculating Time". Effective as of after sixty days following the day of the official publication.).
  7. ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (Russian)
  8. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian). Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  9. ^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  10. ^ "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1979 г. Национальный состав населения по регионам России. (All Union Population Census of 1979. Ethnic composition of the population by regions of Russia.)". Всесоюзная перепись населения 1979 года (All-Union Population Census of 1979) (in Russian). Demoscope Weekly (website of the Institute of Demographics of the State University—Higher School of Economics. 1979. Retrieved 2008-11-25. 
  11. ^ Якутский аэропорт Тикси закрыт для приёма и отправки рейсов до декабря, причины не названы. Газета.ru (in Russian) (Moscow). October 3, 2012. Retrieved October 4, 2012. 
  12. ^ http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-25331156
  13. ^ Погода в Тикси
  14. ^ Weatherbase

Sources[edit]

  • Official website of the Sakha Republic. Registry of the Administrative-Territorial Divisions of the Sakha Republic. Bulunsky District. (Russian)
  • Государственное Собрание (Ил Тумэн) Республики Саха (Якутия). Закон №172-З №351-III от 30 ноября 2004 г. «Об установлении границ и о наделении статусом муниципального района муниципальных образований Республики Саха (Якутия)», в ред. Закона №1535-З №597-V от 27 ноября 2015 г. «О внесении изменений в статьи 1 и 2 Закона Республики Саха (Якутия) "Об установлении границ и о наделении статусом муниципального района муниципальных образований Республики Саха (Якутия)"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Якутия", №245, 31 декабря 2004 г. (State Assembly (Il Tumen) of the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic. Law #172-Z No. 351-III of November 30, 2004 On Establishing the Borders and on Granting the Municipal District Status to the Municipal Formations of the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic, as amended by the Law #1535-Z No. 597-V of November 27, 2015 On Amending Articles 1 and 2 of the Law of the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic "On Establishing the Borders and on Granting the Municipal District Status to the Municipal Formations of the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic". Effective as of the day of the official publication.).
  • Государственное Собрание (Ил Тумэн) Республики Саха (Якутия). Закон №173-З №353-III от 30 ноября 2004 г. «Об установлении границ и о наделении статусом городского и сельского поселений муниципальных образований Республики Саха (Якутия)», в ред. Закона №1058-З №1007-IV от 25 апреля 2012 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Республики Саха (Якутия) "Об установлении границ и о наделении статусом городского и сельского поселений муниципальных образований Республики Саха (Якутия)"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Якутия", №245, 31 декабря 2004 г. (State Assembly (Il Tumen) of the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic. Law #173-Z No. 353-III of November 30, 2004 On Establishing the Borders and on Granting the Urban and Rural Settlement Status to the Municipal Formations of the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic, as amended by the Law #1058-Z No. 1007-IV of April 25, 2012 On Amending the Law of the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic "On Establishing the Borders and on Granting the Urban and Rural Settlement Status to the Municipal Formations of the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic". Effective as of the day of the official publication.).

Further reading[edit]

  • William Barr, Baron Eduard von Toll's Last Expedition: The Russian Polar Expedition, 1900–1903