Tilden Regional Park

Coordinates: 37°53′41″N 122°14′30″W / 37.8946474°N 122.2416352°W / 37.8946474; -122.2416352[1]
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Tilden Regional Park
Eastern entrance at Inspiration Point
Tilden Regional Park is located in Oakland, California
Tilden Regional Park
Tilden Regional Park
Tilden Regional Park is located in California
Tilden Regional Park
Tilden Regional Park
Tilden Regional Park is located in the United States
Tilden Regional Park
Tilden Regional Park
LocationBerkeley Hills
Coordinates37°53′41″N 122°14′30″W / 37.8946474°N 122.2416352°W / 37.8946474; -122.2416352[1]
Area2,079-acre (841 ha)
Created1936
Operated byEast Bay Regional Park District

Charles Lee Tilden Regional Park, also known as Tilden Park or Tilden, [tɪldɨn], is a 2,079-acre (841 ha) regional park in the East Bay, part of the San Francisco Bay Area in California. It is between the Berkeley Hills and San Pablo Ridge. Its main entrance is near Kensington, Berkeley, and Richmond. The park is contiguous with Wildcat Canyon Regional Park.

The park is managed by the East Bay Regional Park District, created from the first land the District purchased in 1936.

Tilden Regional Park was named in honor of Charles Lee Tilden, a Bay Area attorney and businessman who served on the first Board of Directors of the East Bay Regional Park District.

Location[edit]

Map

Selected locations in and near Tilden Regional Park 
  •  Points of interest 
  •  Nearby parks and museums 

1
Tilden Little Farm
2
Tilden Park Merry-Go-Round
3
Inspiration Point
4
Lake Anza
5
Brazilian Room
6
Regional Parks Botanic Garden
7
Tilden Park Golf Course
8
Redwood Valley Railway
9
Blake Garden
10
Indian Rock Park
11
Berkeley Rose Garden
12
Lawrence Hall of Science
13
San Pablo Reservoir

Tilden Park is largely located within unincorporated areas of Contra Costa County, while parts of the park are within the cities of Oakland and Berkeley. Its steep valleys and dense stands of timber offer a rare wilderness experience so close to the city. Its high ridges and peaks give wide views over the San Francisco Bay and inland across other preserved land to Mount Diablo.

The eastern limit of the park is approximately at the crest of the San Pablo Ridge. The western boundary nearly follows the crest of the Berkeley Hills.

Parts of the park land had previously been cleared for agricultural use. In many places, exotic trees such as eucalyptus were planted. There are also some relatively recently planted stands of giant sequoia. However, current conservation efforts are aimed at restoring native vegetation as much as possible, and significant parts of the park are covered in native coastal scrub. The East Bay Regional Parks District uses grazing as a means of vegetation reduction,[2] with a herd of goats grazing each summer in Tilden.

AC Transit bus line 67 from the Berkeley BART station runs into the park on weekends. The bus line stops at the Tilden Nature Area/Little Farm, Lone Oak Road, Lake Anza/Merry-Go-Round, and the Brazilian Room/Botanic Garden before returning to Berkeley.

History[edit]

Prior to being a public park, the lands that are now Tilden Park were ancestral lands of Ohlone Indians. Spanish explorers and Mexican ranchos drove the Ohlone off the land as ranching became the dominant activity in Wildcat Canyon. American ranchers of the late 1800s and early 1900s included the Curran family ranch and the Sweet Briar Dairy. The eucalyptus plantations within the park were planted around 1910 by Frank C. Havens' Eucalyptus, Mahogany, & Land Company.

The first parkland was purchased by the East Bay Regional Park District from the East Bay Municipal Utility District on June 4, 1936.[3] The 2,162 acres purchased included land for Tilden Park (then called Upper Wildcat Canyon), Lake Temescal and Robert Sibley Volcanic Regional Preserve (then known as "Roundtop.")[4]

Upper Wildcat Canyon was officially named "Charles Lee Tilden Regional Park" on July 16, 1936.[5]

New Deal Era[edit]

Stone restrooms at Big Leaf Picnic Area

At the June 4, 1936 board meeting of East Bay Regional Park District, the same meeting that authorized the land purchase, the Board appropriated $63,428 in local funds for park development. In doing so, they met their matching fund obligation in order to qualify for $1 million in federal relief funds for park development.[3]

From 1935 to 1941 a Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) camp, "Camp Wildcat Canyon" was located in what is now the Tilden Nature Area. In the six years of “Camp Wildcat Canyon”, more than 3,500 men from eighteen states passed through for enrollment terms of 6 months, with the option of extending their service.[6] The CCC crews built much of the park's earlier infrastructure and features including roads, trails, bridges, picnic areas, and golf course. The CCC also did work in the park related to fire and erosion prevention, insect and pest control, and geological work.[7] In 1935, California Congressman John H. Tolan, who represented Alameda County helped get a $1.5 million dollar grant request to the Works Progress Administration (WPA) approved. The grant allowed construction on the Wildcat Canyon Road to commence, which was a 7 mile scenic road connecting Berkeley and Orinda.[8] Works Progress Administration (WPA) crews built the Lake Anza dam and stone buildings including restrooms, the original Lake Anza beach house, and the exterior of the Brazilian Room. The WPA crews also contributed to the reforestation of Tilden Park after the eucalyptus was removed. CCC and WPA workers assisted in the replanting of redwoods in the park that were shipped down the California coast from Fort Bragg.[9] The aesthetic of the park today is directly derived from the original work performed by the CCC and WPA. The Brazilian Room, restroom buildings, stone monuments, and stone road ditches all remain in the park today. The stone that was used to build all the structures in the park were quarried in-park near the Big Springs trailhead on South Park Drive.

Golden Gate International Exposition[edit]

The Golden Gate International Exposition, a two-year long world's fair, held during 1939-40, was a championship cricket games were conducted in the Meadows field in northern Tilden Park. Brazilian hardwood from the Brazilian Pavilion at the World's Fair were used extensively as the interior for Tilden Park's Brazilian Room. The East Bay Regional Park District also purchased used trash cans and benches once the World's Fair had closed. The event attracted a staggering seventeen million visitors from across the globe and was considered to be the first time a World Fair sought inspiration outside of Europe. Along with the championship cricket games, the exposition celebrated the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge and the Golden Gate Bridge, both of which were opened in 1937.[10]

World War II[edit]

In 1942, at the onset of World War II, 72 acres (29 ha) of southern Tilden Park was leased to the United States government to construct the Grizzly Peak VHF Station.[11] Beginning in 1944, the radio site served as headquarters for the San Francisco Control Group (411th Army Air Forces Control Group) that oversaw command and control for air defense radar sites across coastal Northern California. The site was also a VHF station for Hamilton Air Force Base. While the site was named after nearby Grizzly Peak on the border of Tilden Park and Oakland, the actual antennas were located atop Vollmer Peak.

Camp Wildcat Canyon was used for convalescing soldiers during World War II.[12]

On September 7, 1942, the Richmond Shipyards Athletic Association put on a large scale Labor Day company picnic at Tilden Park for the thousands of workers and families of the Kaiser Richmond Shipyards. The event spanned the entire park offering a golf tournament, diving contest, band concerts, and dancing in addition to picnicking and sporting events. The event went from 8am-10pm, allowing all shipyard shifts to attend the picnic. Attendance was 10,000 people, making it the largest event in Tilden Park history.[13]

Nimitz Way, which traverses the park from north to south generally following the ridgeline of the hills, was named in 1955 in honor of Admiral Chester W. Nimitz, former U.S. Pacific Fleet Commander. Originally built as an access road for the World War II and Cold War-era anti-aircraft gun and missile batteries in the area, Nimitz Way is now closed to motor vehicles and has been redeveloped as a multi-use path.[14] Nimitz was known to hike in the area of Inspiration Point, spreading wild flower seeds, during the time he and his wife lived in Oakland at the Claremont Hotel and later at a residence in Berkeley.

Post-War Era[edit]

In 1952, the U.S. Army opened Grizzly Peak AAA Site No. 3 at the site near Vollmer Peak as an anti-aircraft installation. Two locations had a 90mm four-gun battery. The anti-aircraft installation was decommissioned during the Cold War as a result of the opening of the Nike missile base in adjacent Wildcat Canyon Regional Park. The land was returned to the East Bay Regional Park District in 1959. The Army Camp area of the Redwood Valley Railway is the former location of the installation's barracks and mess hall. A large concrete bunker still exists and is used as a Tilden Park maintenance facility.

The post-war period saw the addition of pony rides, model airplane field, tennis courts, trout fishing pond, Tilden Park Merry-Go-Round in 1948, and the South Gate & Pacific Railway (precursor to the Redwood Valley Railway) in 1952.[15] With these attractions joining the already existing golf course, Botanic Garden, Brazilian Room, and Lake Anza, Tilden Park became a quintessential East Bay experience for the thousands of families that flocked to the area in the years during and after World War II.

Park features[edit]

In addition to major areas of wilderness, the park includes several developed features, including environmental education areas, extensive botanical garden, swimming lake, golf course, model farm, miniature train, merry-go-round, and event venue.

The Environmental Education Center and the Little Farm are just south of the Tilden Nature Area. The Environmental Education Center hosts educational programs and permanent exhibits about the ecology of the area. The Little Farm is a model farm with a vegetable garden, shorthorn cattle, sheep, goats, rabbits, pigs and poultry. Visitors can feed the animals and learn about the working farm from farm staff.

Lake Anza is located in the central portion of Tilden Regional Park and is open for swimming from April to October.[16] Water testing is done every week while the lake is open. Nearby hiking trails and picnic areas are open year-round.

The Regional Parks Botanic Garden has an extensive collection of California native plants, laid out over 10 acres, and includes many rare and endangered California flora.

The Redwood Valley Railway is a rideable miniature (15 in (381 mm) gauge) train. Established in 1952, its 1.25 mile track offers about a 12-minute ride and carries 160,000 passengers per year.

The Brazilian Room is an event venue and banquet hall of 1.728 square feet with a patio at 1,896 square feet located in the central portion of the park. Peter Bruno, a pioneer rancher originally from Italy, previously leased the land on which the Brazilian Room was constructed to raise cattle. Its name is attributed to the charity of Brazil when they contributed to the Golden Gate International Exposition. The designer of the Brazil Pavilion, Gardiner Dailey, conceptualized both the inside and outside of the building to have massive murals while the exposition was being held.[17]

The Tilden Park Merry-Go-Round is an antique Merry-Go-Round, built in 1912, and listed in the National Register of Historic Places.

The Tilden Park Golf Course is an 18-hole public golf course.[18] It was designed by architect William Park Bell[19] and constructed by WPA workers. It formally opened to the public on November 11, 1937,[20][21][22] although there were preview openings starting on November 6 up to the November 11 opening for various groups including the WPA workers, golfing professionals and local notables.[23][24]

Popular trails[edit]

The park contains numerous trails, providing facilities for hiking, horseback riding and bicycling. While most of the trails are dog-friendly, dogs are not permitted in the Tilden Nature Area to the north of the park. Some of the main trails include:

The Tilden Nature Area is the northern, undeveloped region of the park. It is a 740-acre preserve with 10 miles of hiking trails. These trails include a climb to Wildcat Peak and a trail and wooden boardwalk around Jewel Lake.

Nimitz Way, a four-mile-long (6 km) paved trail (named after Admiral Chester W. Nimitz) that begins at Inspiration Point on the eastern edge of the park and heads north along the ridge of the hills, crossing into Wildcat Canyon Regional Park about two miles (3 km) in and ending at a peak above El Sobrante. Nimitz Way is very popular with hikers, runners and bicyclists, in part because it is paved and not very steep. From Nimitz Way there are excellent views of the San Francisco Bay to the west, EBMUD’s San Pablo & Briones Reservoirs, along with Mt. Diablo to the east. Unknown to most of the folks who travel this trail, the two-mile section that is in Wildcat Canyon Regional Park was a Nike missile base which was decommissioned in the 1970s. Today there are few signs of the missile silos and military housing that used to populate these hills.

Meadows Canyon-Curran-Wildcat Canyon loop - A 1.43 miles (2.30 km) steady, but not steep, climb from Lone Oak Road which is just off Central Park Dr. At the top, Meadows Canyon connects with Curran trail which meanders downhill to Wildcat Gorge trail. To the left, it is a short walk to Lake Anza. To the right, the trail returns to take a right on Wildcat Gorge trail, it returns to the Lone Oak parking area. The total distance is a little under 3 miles (4.8 km).[25]

East Bay Skyline Ridge Trail (or Seaview Trail) - This trail provides views of San Francisco Bay to the West and Mt. Diablo to the East. It can be an out-and-back from the parking lot near the Steam Trains off of Grizzly Peak Blvd. accessed via Seaview Trail or from the opposite end off of Wildcat Canyon Road's Quarry parking area via Seaview Trail. It is approximately 2.7 miles (4.3 km) end-to-end.[26]

South Park Drive - The road that runs between Wildcat Canyon Road at the Botanic Gardens to Grizzly Peak Blvd. closes from 1 November to 31 March annually to protect the migration process for a Newt. It is available for hiking.[27]

Picnics and camping[edit]

There are 13 reservable picnic areas and many non-reservable picnic areas within the park. They vary in amenities (potable water, grills, bathrooms) and in capacity (from 35 to 150 for reservable sites). In addition to the official picnic grounds, there are benches on most trails; many have excellent views of San Francisco and the Bay. Tilden Regional Park offers three group campsites: New Woodland with a capacity of 50 people and Gillespie Youth Camp and Wildcat View with a capacity of 75.[28] Es Anderson Equestrian Camp offers equestrian camping.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "GNIS Detail - Charles Lee Tilden Regional Park". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. 19 January 1981. Retrieved 8 April 2010.
  2. ^ "Grazing". www.ebparks.org. Retrieved 2016-07-29.
  3. ^ a b Kent, Jerry. "A Brief History of the East Bay Regional Park District".
  4. ^ McCreery, Laura. Living Landscape. Wilderness Press. Berkeley, California. ISBN 978-0-89997-628-0. 2010. Accessed March 22, 2017.
  5. ^ "Parkit: Tilden Park got its name in 1936".
  6. ^ Langs, Richard (2019). Tilden Regional Park. Charleston, SC: The History Press. p. 62. ISBN 9781467142144.
  7. ^ Langs, Richard (2019). Tilden Regional Park. Charleston, SC: The History Press. p. 63. ISBN 9781467142144.
  8. ^ Langs, Richard (2019). Tilden Regional Park. Charleston, SC: The History Press. p. 68. ISBN 9781467142144.
  9. ^ Langs, Richard (2019). Tilden Regional Park. Charleston, SC: The History Press. p. 69. ISBN 9781467142144.
  10. ^ Langs, Richard (2019). Tilden Regional Park. Charleston, SC: The History Press. pp. 117–119. ISBN 9781467142144.
  11. ^ "Corps of Engineers Histories: Grizzly Peak VHF Station".
  12. ^ "A Modest Majesty: 70 Years of East Bay Parks".
  13. ^ Treadway, Chris. "Richmond shipyards take over Tilden Regional Park on Labor Day in 1942".
  14. ^ "What's the link between a WWII admiral and Berkeley?".
  15. ^ "Tilden's iron horses / Miniature railroad celebrates 50 years in Berkeley".
  16. ^ Langs, Richard (2019). Tilden Regional Park: A History. Charleston, SC: The History Press. ISBN 9781467142144.
  17. ^ Langs, Richard (2019). Tilden Regional Park: A History. Charleston, SC: The History Press. p. 119. ISBN 9781467142144.
  18. ^ Tilden Park Golf Course website
  19. ^ William Bell Society
  20. ^ "Traces of the New Deal in Berkeley, 1933-42", Newsletter, Berkeley Historical Society, Fall 2001, p.6
  21. ^ Berkeley Daily Gazette, November 10, 1937, p.14]
  22. ^ Berkeley Daily Gazette, November 12, 1937, p.14
  23. ^ Berkeley Daily Gazette, November 6, 1937, p.12
  24. ^ Berkeley Daily Gazette, November 8, 1937, p.1
  25. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-11. Retrieved 2011-07-04.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  26. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-11. Retrieved 2011-07-04.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  27. ^ "Tilden's South Park Drive Closed for Newt Migration | East Bay Regional Park District". Archived from the original on 2011-05-05. Retrieved 2011-07-04.
  28. ^ "EBRPD - Tilden".

External links[edit]