|Native to||United States|
Tillamook is an extinct Salishan language, formerly spoken by the Tillamook people in northwestern Oregon, United States. The last fluent speaker is believed to have died in the 1970s; between 1965 and 1972, in an effort to prevent the language from being lost, a group of researchers from the University of Hawaii interviewed the few remaining Tillamook-speakers and created a 120-page dictionary.
The so-called "rounded" consonants (traditionally marked with the diacritic 〈ʷ〉, but here indicated with 〈ᵓ〉), including rounded vowels and 〈w〉 (/ɰᵓ/), are not actually labialized. The acoustic effect of labialization is created entirely inside the mouth by cupping the tongue. Uvulars with this distinctive internal rounding have "a kind of ɔ timbre" while "rounded" front velars have ɯ coloring. These contrast and oppose otherwise very similar segments having ɛ or ɪ coloring—the "unrounded" consonants.
/w/ is also formed with this internal rounding instead of true labialization, making it akin to [ɰ]. So are vowel sounds formerly written as /o/ or /u/, which are best characterized as the diphthong /əɰ/ with increasing internal rounding.
- Tillamook at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
- Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Tillamook". Glottolog. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.
- Official site of Clatsop-Nehalem Confederated Tribes
- Thompson & Thompson (1966), p. 316
- Thompson, Lawrence C.; M. Terry Thompson (1966). "A Fresh Look at Tillamook Phonology". International Journal of American Linguistics 32 (4): 313–319. doi:10.1086/464920.
- Edel, May M (1939). The Tillamook language. New York: J.J. Augustin. Retrieved 2013-09-22.
- "May M. Edel papers". Special Collections, University of Washington Libraries. Retrieved 2013-09-22.
- University of Oregon: The Tillamook
- Tillamook Language
- "Tillamook Vocabulary". California Language Archive. Retrieved 2013-09-22.
- OLAC resources in and about the Tillamook language