|Native to||United States|
|Extinct||1972, with the death of Minnie Scovell|
Tillamook is an extinct Salishan language, formerly spoken by the Tillamook people in northwestern Oregon, United States. The last fluent speaker was Minnie Scovell who died in 1972. In an effort to prevent the language from being lost, a group of researchers from the University of Hawaii interviewed the few remaining Tillamook-speakers and created a 120-page dictionary.
The so-called "rounded" consonants (traditionally marked with the diacritic ⟨ʷ⟩, but here indicated with ⟨ᵓ⟩), including rounded vowels and ⟨w⟩ (/ɰᵓ/), are not actually labialized. The acoustic effect of labialization is created entirely inside the mouth by cupping the tongue. Uvulars with this distinctive internal rounding have "a kind of ɔ timbre" while "rounded" front velars have ɯ coloring. These contrast and oppose otherwise very similar segments having ɛ or ɪ coloring—the "unrounded" consonants.
/w/ is also formed with this internal rounding instead of true labialization, making it akin to [ɰ]. So are vowel sounds formerly written as /o/ or /u/, which are best characterized as the diphthong /əɰ/ with increasing internal rounding.
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Tillamook". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
- Official site of Clatsop-Nehalem Confederated Tribes
- Thompson & Thompson (1966), p. 316
- Thompson, Lawrence C.; M. Terry Thompson (1966). "A Fresh Look at Tillamook Phonology". International Journal of American Linguistics. 32 (4): 313–319. doi:10.1086/464920.
- Edel, May M (1939). The Tillamook language. New York: J.J. Augustin. Retrieved 2013-09-22.
- "May M. Edel papers". Special Collections, University of Washington Libraries. Retrieved 2013-09-22.
- University of Oregon: The Tillamook
- Tillamook Language
- "Tillamook Vocabulary". California Language Archive. Retrieved 2013-09-22.
- OLAC resources in and about the Tillamook language