The Tiller Girls were among the most popular dance troupes of the 1890s, first formed by John Tiller in Manchester, England, in 1889. In theatre Tiller had noticed the overall effect of a chorus of dancers was often spoiled by lack of discipline. Tiller found that by linking arms the dancers could dance as one; he is credited with inventing precision dance. Possibly most famous for their high-kicking routines, the Tiller Girls were highly trained and precise.
John Tiller's first dancers performed as 'Les Jolies Petites'. He originally formed the group for the pantomime 'Robinson Crusoe', subtitled 'The Good Friday That Came on a Saturday', in 1890 at the Prince of Wales Theatre, Liverpool. From this were founded the Tiller School of Dancing and the Tiller Girl troupes. The number of troupes grew to dozens, and their fame spread around the world.
The troupes were all slightly different, but within each troupe the girls were matched very precisely by height and weight. Individuality within the troupes was discouraged in favour of a strong group ethic. The Tillers performed as resident dancers at the Folies Bergère in Paris, the London Palladium, the Palace Theatres in Manchester and in London (as the Palace Girls or Sunshine Girls), the Blackpool Winter Gardens, on New York's Broadway, where Tiller had a dance school, and at hundreds of other theatres throughout Europe and the United States.
Tiller routines and line-ups
The Tiller Girls performed a 'Tap and Kick' routine, which was originally called 'Fancy-Dancing' but today is known as 'Precision Dancing'. The routines may consist of straight lines or geometric figures. Every tap-and-kick troupe has tried to steer away from Tiller's arrangements, but sooner or later conforms to Tiller's methods.
Siegfried Kracauer stated in 1923, "These 76 energetic women dance about in geometric shapes: the regularity of their patterns is cheered by the masses, themselves arranged by the stands in tier upon ordered tier."
In certain shows a Tiller line-up could be as many as 32 girls who were selected for uniform height and weight. In 1923 the stage play Nifties of 1923 featured twelve Tiller Girls.
After John Tiller
After John Tiller's death in 1925, the Tiller schools in the U.K. were kept alive first by his wife Jennie Tiller, then by some of the head girls. The U.S. Tiller school in New York City was continued under the leadership of Mary Read until 1935. By the 1940s The John Tiller Schools of Dancing were managed by its 3 directors. Mr John Smith, Miss Doris Alloway and Miss Barbara Aitken (also choreographer and a former Tiller Girl). During the 1940s the Tiller Girls were popular, appearing in summer seasons, pantomimes, variety tours, London West End shows, and cabaret.
During the 50s, as travel became easier after World War II, Tiller Troupes began to work abroad again. The Tiller Girls' popularity continued to increase. They were invited to make several appearances at the Royal Variety Performance, notably in 1953 at the London Coliseum when there were 40 girls in the line-up. As far as is known, neither before or since, has there been a longer line of girls performing a kicking routine (the Rockettes have 36).
On Sept 24th 1955 a Tiller Troupe appeared in the first Saturday night variety show transmitted on the new ITV channel which had been launched 2 days earlier. During the remainder of the 1950s and during the 1960s the Tiller Girls established themselves as the premier dance troupe on British commercial television, being associated particularly with the iconic Sunday Night at the London Palladium.
During the 1970s, management of the troupes was taken over by the impresario Robert Luff and also around that time dance troupes with different styles were emerging. For the first time since their inception the popularity of Tillers went into decline until the formation of the Sixties Tiller Girls.
The 60s Tiller Girls
Towards the end of 1988 a former Tiller Girl, Sandy Jones, received a surprise call from a friend, George May, who was working on a production named Joy to the World, to be staged at the Albert Hall in London. He wanted the Tiller Girls to take part in "The Twelve Days of Christmas" song as the "nine ladies dancing." Sandy made eight phone calls to original Tiller Girls from the 50s and 60s, and all eight immediately agreed, with her making the nine needed. The ladies truly enjoyed the experience, made especially poignant as none expected to be Tiller Girls again after so many years. Then, in later 1988, there was a news bulletin on the actor Terry-Thomas who was suffering with Parkinson's. Jack Douglas, the Carry On comedian was putting on a charity show at the Drury Lane Theatre to aid both Terry and Parkinson's UK, a research and support charity.
Bruce Vincent, husband of June Vincent (née Labbett), herself a former Tiller girl from 1958 to 1969, phoned Jack Douglas and asked if he would like a troupe of Tiller Girls in the show, to which the answer was a resounding "Yes". From there on in, a busy four months started to get a full troupe of sixteen girls together (all bona fide former Tiller Girls), together with full costumes, music and of course rehearsals. Wendy Clarke, a former Head Girl[clarification needed] took up the responsibility of the choreography and when the troupe of sixteen girls performed on the stage that night the response from the audience was electric and The 60s Tiller Girls were quite literally born. This original troupe of ladies, ages ranging from early 40s to late 50s, carried on kicking in shows for over a twenty-year period in over 180 shows under Bruce Vincent's stewardship.
This re-formed troupe were fortunate enough to appear in many different shows, mainly for charity, and ranged from appearances from Sevenoaks School to Buckingham Palace, Westcliff-on-Sea to the West End's London Palladium. The shows at the London Palladium were always the ladies' favourite shows as they considered the Palladium their "spiritual" home. To this day,[when?] some of the original 1960s Tiller Girls do backstage tours at the London Palladium in full costume, as arranged by the Palladium's box office. After many prestigious charitable events all over the UK, including 40 Glorious Years, for H.M. The Queen, and being semi-adopted[clarification needed] by Lily Savage, aka Paul O'Grady, for his shows and videos in the 1990s.
The 1960s Tiller Girls formally announced their retirement and final show in April 2011, a cabaret show in aid of Vera Lynn's Children's Charity. The ladies were then in their late 60s and early 70s, a fantastic achievement for any dancer, and the joy and pride of bearing the Tiller Girl name was thus passed on into its third century, with the baton being firmly and happily passed to the relaunched Tiller Girls.
The Tiller Girl trademark is retained by Bernard Tiller, great grandson of John Tiller. On 16 May 2012, World Dance Management secured exclusive rights to re-launch The Tiller Girls.
World Dance Management is re-launching the world-famous Tiller Girls, having been awarded worldwide rights and an exclusive trademark licence agreement by Bernard Tiller, who owns the rights to the name and is the great grandson of John Tiller, founder of the original troupe.
Marina Blore, director of World Dance Management said: "As an ex dancer and choreographer, I remember The Tiller Girls of the late 60s and 70s and professional dancers everywhere held them in very high regard. Being a Tiller always commanded respect. It is a huge honour to be handed the reigns to re-launch The Tiller Girls and whilst we plan to make the look and choreography relevant to today’s audience, the original traditions and disciplines of precision dance will be an integral part of the new look Tiller Girls."
World Dance Management plan to launch The Tiller Girls and they already have interest from television in following the reformation of the dance troupe and the appointment of a choreographer/artistic director, costume designer and nationwide auditions of the dancers.
Bernard Tiller explains: "For a number of years I have been looking for a partner who can revive the Tiller Girls. World Dance Management is without doubt the best company to take the Tiller Girl name forward. This is something that I have been working on and dreaming for over thirty years and hope this will again see 'The Tiller Girls' name up in lights and the tradition of the past dancers carried forward to a new generation."
The Radio City Rockettes connection
Russell Markert, founder of The Rockettes, reminisced: "I had seen the Tiller girls in the Ziegfeld Follies of 1922. If I ever got a chance to get a group of American girls who would be taller and have longer legs and could do really complicated tap routines and eye-high kicks, they'd knock your socks off!"
The Rockettes first came to life in 1925 as the "Missouri Rockets" and made their show business debut in St. Louis, the realisation of a long-time dream of their creator, Russell Markert.
Some of the Tiller Girls and American girls who trained with Mary Read also danced in the Rockettes. Lily Smart who trained with the Tiller School of Dance in Manchester and was with the 1922 troupe in the Ziegfeld Follies, settled in America and joined the Rockettes after leaving the Tiller Girls, performing with them for many years. She was then involved with the training of new dancers, Lily was in constant contact with Bernard Tiller until her death in 2010, aged 106. Lily explained how Russell Markert added his own style to the Precision Dance routines; this found its way back to the Tiller girls in the United Kingdom.
Girls who had visited the United States during the late 1930s and 1940s danced for the troops and liked the American style of dancing and the costumes with headdresses that they saw. American films also featured showgirls and had a big impact on the British audience. From the late 1940s through the 1970s the Tiller girls adopted a lot of American showgirl styles that could trace their roots back to the Folies Bergère in the late 1890s.
Former Tiller Girls
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- Betty Boothroyd, Speaker of the House of Commons (1992–2000)
- Wendy Clarke (half of the famous 1950s Blackpool Belles photo by Bert Hardy)
- Gretchen Franklin, EastEnders actress
- Rosalie Kirkman, Queen Ratling of the Lady Ratlings, 2014
- Avril Owton MBE FIH, Honorary Member of the Leading Women Entrepreneurs of the World
- Gloria Paul, actress/dancer (Darling Lili, The Intelligence Men)
- Sunny Rogers, pianist who accompanied the comedian Frankie Howerd
- Doremy Vernon, actress (Are You Being Served?) and author
- Diana Vreeland, former editor-in-chief of Vogue
- John Tiller
- Siegfried Kracauer, "The Mass Ornament," The Mass Ornament: Weimar Essays, trans. Thomas Y. Levin (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2005), 74-75.
- Boltz family archives
- Bernard Tiller http://www.worlddancemanagement.com/the-tiller-girls/
- http://www.tillergirls.com/Tiller_Page_3.htm Lily Smart and Joan Johannes
- Avril Owton MBE FIH
- Tiller's Girls. Hobson Books. 1988.
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