Time Person of the Year
Person of the Year (called Man of the Year until 1999) is an annual issue of the United States news magazine Time that features and profiles a person, group, idea or object that "for better or for worse...has done the most to influence the events of the year".
The tradition of selecting a "Man of the Year" began in 1927, with Time editors contemplating news makers of the year. The idea was also an attempt to remedy the editorial embarrassment earlier that year of not having aviator Charles Lindbergh on its cover following his historic trans-Atlantic flight. By the end of the year, it was decided that a cover story featuring Lindbergh as the Man of the Year would serve both purposes.
Since then, individual people, classes of people, the computer ("Machine of the Year" in 1982), and "Endangered Earth" ("Planet of the Year" in 1988) have all been selected for the special year-end issue. Despite the magazine's frequent statements to the contrary, the designation is often regarded as an honor, and spoken of as an award or prize, simply based on many previous selections of admirable people. However, Time magazine points out that controversial figures such as Adolf Hitler (1938), Joseph Stalin (1939 and 1942), Nikita Khrushchev (1957) and Ayatollah Khomeini (1979) have also been granted the title for their impacts.
In 1999, the title was changed to Person of the Year. Women who have been selected for recognition after the renaming include "The Whistleblowers" (Cynthia Cooper, Coleen Rowley and Sherron Watkins in 2002), Melinda Gates (jointly with Bill Gates and Bono, in 2005), and Angela Merkel in 2015. Prior to 1999, four women were granted the title as individuals, as "Woman of the Year"—Wallis Simpson (1936), Soong Mei-ling (1937), Queen Elizabeth II (1952) and Corazon Aquino (1986). "American Women" were recognized as a group in 1975. Other classes of people recognized comprise both men and women, such as "Hungarian Freedom Fighters" (1956), "U.S. Scientists" (1960), "The Inheritors" (1966), "The Middle Americans" (1969), "The American Soldier" (2003), "You" (2006), "The Protester" (2011) represented on the cover by a woman, and "Ebola fighters" (2014).
Since the list began, every serving President of the United States has been a Person of the Year at least once with the exceptions of Calvin Coolidge, in office at time of the first issue, Herbert Hoover, the next U.S. president, and Gerald Ford. Most were named Person of the Year either the year they were elected or while they were in office; the only one to be given the title before being elected is Dwight D. Eisenhower, in 1944 as Supreme Commander of the Allied Invasion Force, eight years before his election. He subsequently received the title again in 1959, while in office. Franklin D. Roosevelt is the only person to have received the title three times, first as President-elect (1932) and later as the incumbent President (1934 and 1941).
The last issue of 1989 named Mikhail Gorbachev as "Man of the Decade". The December 31, 1999 issue of Time named Albert Einstein the "Person of the Century". Franklin D. Roosevelt and Mahatma Gandhi were chosen as runners-up.
As a result of the public backlash it received from the United States for naming the Khomeini as Man of the Year in 1979, Time has shied away from using figures who are controversial in the United States due to commercial reasons.[volume & issue needed] Time's Person of the Year 2001, immediately following the September 11, 2001 attacks, was New York City mayor Rudolph Giuliani, although the stated rules of selection, the individual or group of individuals who have had the biggest effect on the year's news, made Osama bin Laden a more likely choice. The issue that declared Giuliani the Person of the Year included an article that mentioned Time's earlier decision to select the Ayatollah Khomeini and the 1999 rejection of Hitler as "Person of the Century". The article seemed to imply that Osama bin Laden was a stronger candidate than Giuliani, as Adolf Hitler was a stronger candidate than Albert Einstein. The selections were ultimately based on what the magazine describes as who they believed had a stronger influence on history and who represented either the year or the century the most. According to Time, Rudolph Giuliani was selected for symbolizing the American response to the September 11th attacks, and Albert Einstein selected for representing a century of scientific exploration and wonder.
Filmmaker Michael Moore claims that director Mel Gibson cost him the opportunity to be Person of the Year alongside Gibson in 2004. Moore's controversial political documentary Fahrenheit 9/11 became the highest-grossing documentary of all time the same year Gibson's The Passion of the Christ became a box-office success and also caused significant controversy. Moore said in an interview "I got a call right after the '04 election from an editor from Time Magazine. He said,' Time Magazine has picked you and Mel Gibson to be Time's Person of the Year to put on the cover, Right and Left, Mel and Mike. The only thing you have to do is pose for a picture with each other. And do an interview together.' I said 'OK.' They call Mel up, he agrees. They set the date and time in LA. I'm to fly there. He's flying from Australia. Something happens when he gets home... Next thing, Mel calls up and says, 'I'm not doing it. I've thought it over and it is not the right thing to do.' So they put Bush on the cover."
Another controversial choice was the 2006 selection of "You", representing most if not all people for advancing the information age by using the Internet (via e.g. blogs, YouTube, MySpace and Wikipedia).
Time magazine also holds online poll for the readers to vote for who they believe to be the Person of the Year. While many mistakenly believe the winner of the poll to be the Person of the Year, the title, as mentioned above, is decided by the editors of Time. In the first online poll held in 1998, wrestler and activist Mick Foley won with over 50% of votes. Foley was removed from the poll, and the title was given to Clinton and Starr, which led to the outrage from the fans of Foley who mistakenly believed the winner of the poll would be the winner of the title. In 2006, the poll winner by a wide margin was Hugo Chávez, with 35% of the votes. The president of Iran, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad came in second. Time again ignored those results, not mentioning them in the announcement of the Person of the Year. Time continues to annually run an online poll for the "People's Choice", but stresses the decision on who the magazine recognizes is made independently of this poll by the magazine's editors.
Persons of the Year
|1927||Charles Lindbergh||United States||1902–1974||In 1927, Lindbergh became the first person to fly a plane solo non-stop across the Atlantic, from New York to Paris.|
|1928||Walter Chrysler||United States||1875–1940||In 1928, Chrysler oversaw a merger of his Chrysler Corporation with Dodge before beginning work on the Chrysler Building.|
|1929||Owen D. Young||United States||1874–1962||Young chaired a committee which authored 1929's Young Plan, a program for settlement of German reparations after World War I.|
|1930||Mahatma Gandhi||India||1869–1948||Gandhi was the leader of the Indian independence movement. In 1930, he led the Salt Satyagraha, a 240-mile march to protest the imposition of taxes on salt by the British Raj.|
|1931||Pierre Laval||France||1883–1945||Laval was first elected Prime Minister of France in 1931. Blocked internationally backed loan package to Creditanstalt, leading to its failure.|
|1932||Franklin D. Roosevelt||United States||1882–1945||Roosevelt won the 1932 US Presidential election by a landslide, defeating the incumbent, Herbert Hoover.|
|1933||Hugh S. Johnson||United States||1882–1942||In 1933, Johnson was appointed director of the National Recovery Administration, tasked by US President Franklin D. Roosevelt to bring industry, labor and government together to create codes of "fair practices" and set prices.|
|1934||Franklin D. Roosevelt||United States||1882–1945||Roosevelt was President of the United States from 1933 to 1945.|
|1935||Haile Selassie I||Ethiopia||1892–1975||Selassie was Emperor of Ethiopia in 1935, when Italian forces invaded Ethiopia, starting the Second Italo-Abyssinian War.|
|1936||Wallis Simpson||United States||1896–1986||In 1936, Simpson's relationship with King Edward VIII led the king to abdicate his thrones in order to marry her.|
|1937||Chiang Kai-shek||China||1887–1975||Chiang was Premier of the Republic of China at the outbreak of the Second Sino-Japanese War in 1937.|
|Soong Mei-ling||China||1898–2003||Soong was wife of Chiang Kai-shek from 1927 until his death in 1975.|
|1938||Adolf Hitler||Germany||1889–1945||As German Chancellor, Hitler oversaw the unification of Germany with Austria and the Sudetenland in 1938, after the Anschluss and Munich Agreement respectively.|
|1939||Joseph Stalin||Soviet Union||1878–1953||In 1939, Stalin was General Secretary of the Communist Party and de facto leader of the Soviet Union. He oversaw the signing of a non-aggression pact with Nazi Germany before invading eastern Poland.|
|1940||Winston Churchill||United Kingdom||1874–1965||Churchill was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom during the 1940 Dunkirk evacuation and the Battle of Britain.|
|1941||Franklin D. Roosevelt||United States||1882–1945||Roosevelt was President of the United States in 1941 during the attack on Pearl Harbor, declaration of war against Japan and resulting entry of the United States into World War II. The editors had already chosen Dumbo as their "Mammal of the Year" before the Pearl Harbor attack, but quickly changed it to Roosevelt afterward (and before it was published).".|
|1942||Joseph Stalin||Soviet Union||1878–1953||By 1942, Stalin was Premier of the Soviet Union, overseeing the Battle of Stalingrad (1942–1943).|
|1943||George Marshall||United States||1880–1959||As United States Army Chief of Staff in 1943, General Marshall was instrumental in organizing US actions in World War II.|
|1944||Dwight D. Eisenhower||United States||1890–1969||General Eisenhower was Supreme Allied Commander in Europe during 1944's Operation Overlord.|
|1945||Harry S. Truman||United States||1884–1972||Truman became President of the United States after the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1945, authorizing the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.|
|1946||James F. Byrnes||United States||1879–1972||In 1946, Byrnes was United States Secretary of State during the Iran crisis of 1946, taking an increasingly hardline position in opposition to Stalin. His speech, "Restatement of Policy on Germany", set the tone of future US policy, repudiating the Morgenthau Plan economic policies and giving Germans hope for the future.|
|1947||George Marshall||United States||1880–1959||Appointed United States Secretary of State in 1947, Marshall was the architect of the Marshall Plan.|
|1948||Harry S. Truman||United States||1884–1972||Truman was elected in his own right as President of the United States in 1948, considered to be the greatest election upset in American history.|
|1949||Winston Churchill||United Kingdom||1874–1965||Proclaimed as the "Man of the half-century", by 1949 Churchill was Leader of the Opposition.|
|1950||The American fighting-man||United States||Representing U.S. troops involved in the Korean War (1950–1953).|
|1951||Mohammad Mossadegh||Iran||1882–1967||In 1951, Mossadegh was elected as Prime Minister of Iran, responsible for the Abadan Crisis|
|1952||Elizabeth II||Commonwealth realms[n 1]||1926–||In 1952, Elizabeth acceded to the thrones of United Kingdom, Australia, Canada, Ceylon, New Zealand, Pakistan and South Africa following the death of her father, King George VI|
|1953||Konrad Adenauer||West Germany||1876–1967||In 1953, Adenauer was re-elected as Chancellor of Germany.|
|1954||John Foster Dulles||United States||1888–1959||As United States Secretary of State in 1954, Dulles was architect of the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization.|
|1955||Harlow Curtice||United States||1893–1962||Curtice was President of General Motors (GM) from 1953 to 1958. In 1955, GM sold five million vehicles and became the first corporation to earn US$1 billion in a single year.|
|1956||The Hungarian freedom fighter||Hungary||Representing Hungarian revolutionaries involved in the failed 1956 uprising.|
|1957||Nikita Khrushchev||Soviet Union||1894–1971||In 1957, Krushchev consolidated his leadership of the Soviet Union, surviving a plot to dismiss him by members of the Presidium, and leading the Soviet Union into the Space Race with the launch of Sputnik 1.|
|1958||Charles de Gaulle||France||1890–1970||De Gaulle was appointed Prime Minister of France in May 1958 and, following the collapse of the Fourth Republic and establishment of the Fifth Republic, was then elected President of France in December.|
|1959||Dwight D. Eisenhower||United States||1890–1969||Eisenhower was President of the United States from 1953 to 1961.|
|1960||U.S. Scientists||United States||Represented by George Beadle, Charles Draper, John Enders, Donald A. Glaser, Joshua Lederberg, Willard Libby, Linus Pauling, Edward Purcell, Isidor Rabi, Emilio Segrè, William Shockley, Edward Teller, Charles Townes, James Van Allen and Robert Woodward.|
|1961||John F. Kennedy||United States||1917–1963||Kennedy was inaugurated as President of the United States in 1961, ordering the failed invasion of Cuba by U.S.-trained Cuban exiles.|
|1962||Pope John XXIII|| Vatican City
|1881–1963||John XXIII was head of the Roman Catholic Church from 1958 to 1963. In 1962, he volunteered as a mediator in the Cuban Missile Crisis, gaining praise from both sides.|
|1963||Martin Luther King, Jr.||United States||1929–1968||An African-American civil rights leader, King delivered his famous "I Have a Dream" speech in 1963.|
|1964||Lyndon B. Johnson||United States||1908–1973||Johnson was elected in his own right as President of the United States in 1964, before securing the passage of the Civil Rights Act, declaring a War on Poverty and escalating U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War.|
|1965||William Westmoreland||United States||1914–2005||General Westmoreland was commander of U.S. forces in South Vietnam during the Vietnam War.|
|1966||The Inheritor||United States||Representing a generation of American men and women, aged 25 and under.|
|1967||Lyndon B. Johnson||United States||1908–1973||Johnson was President of the United States from 1963 to 1969.|
|1968||The Apollo 8 astronauts||United States||In 1968, the crew of Apollo 8 (William Anders, Frank Borman and Jim Lovell) became the first humans to travel beyond low Earth orbit, orbiting the Moon and paving the way for the first manned Moon landings in 1969.|
|1969||The Middle Americans||United States||Also referred to as the silent majority.|
|1970||Willy Brandt||West Germany||1913–1992||As Chancellor of Germany, Brandt was acknowledged for "seeking to bring about a fresh relationship between East and West" through his "bold approach to the Soviet Union and the East Bloc".|
|1971||Richard Nixon||United States||1913–1994||Nixon was President of the United States from 1969 to 1974.|
|1972||Richard Nixon||United States||1913–1994||As President of the United States, Nixon visited China in 1972, the first U.S. President to do so. Nixon later secured the SALT I pact with the Soviet Union before being re-elected in one of the largest landslide election victories in American history|
|Henry Kissinger||United States||1923–||Kissinger, as Nixon's National Security Advisor, travelled with the President to China in 1972.|
|1973||John Sirica||United States||1904–1992||In 1973, as Chief Judge of the United States District Court for the District of Columbia, Sirica ordered President Nixon to turn over Watergate-related recordings of White House conversations.|
|1974||King Faisal||Saudi Arabia||1906–1975||Faisal, King of Saudi Arabia, was acknowledged in the wake of the oil crisis of 1973–1974, caused by Saudi Arabia withdrawing its oil from world markets in protest at Western support for Israel during the 1973 Arab-Israeli War.|
|1975||American women||United States||Represented by Susan Brownmiller, Kathleen Byerly, Alison Cheek, Jill Conway, Betty Ford, Ella Grasso, Carla Hills, Barbara Jordan, Billie Jean King, Carol Sutton, Susie Sharp, and Addie Wyatt.|
|1976||Jimmy Carter||United States||1924–||In 1976, Carter was elected President of the United States.|
|1977||Anwar Sadat||Egypt||1918–1981||Sadat, as President of Egypt, traveled to Israel in 1977—the first Arab leader to do so—to discuss normalization of Egypt-Israel relations.|
|1978||Deng Xiaoping||China||1904–1997||Deng overthrew Hua Guofeng to assume de facto control over China in 1978, as Paramount Leader.|
|1979||Ayatollah Khomeini||Iran||1902–1989||Khomeini led the 1979 Iranian Revolution, establishing himself as Supreme Leader.|
|1980||Ronald Reagan||United States||1911–2004||Reagan was elected President of the United States in 1980.|
|1981||Lech Wałęsa||Poland||1943–||Leader of the Polish Solidarity trade union and architect of the Gdańsk Agreement until his arrest and the imposition of martial law in December 1981.|
|1982||The Computer||Global||Machine of the Year|
|1983||Ronald Reagan||United States||1911–2004||In 1983, as President of the United States, Reagan ordered the Invasion of Grenada and championed the Strategic Defense Initiative.|
|Yuri Andropov||Soviet Union||1914–1984||Andropov, as Soviet leader, was a strong critic of the Strategic Defense Initiative. Andropov was hospitalized in August 1983 and died in 1984.|
|1984||Peter Ueberroth||United States||1937–||Ueberroth orchestrated the organization of the 1984 Summer Olympics, which involved a Soviet-led boycott.|
|1985||Deng Xiaoping||China||1904–1997||As Paramount Leader of China, Deng was acknowledged for "sweeping economic reforms that have challenged Marxist orthodoxies".|
|1986||Corazon C. Aquino||Philippines||1933–2009||Aquino was a prominent figure in 1986's People Power Revolution, being elected President of the Philippines.|
|1987||Mikhail Gorbachev||Soviet Union||1931–||As leader of the Soviet Union, Gorbachev oversaw Perestroika political reforms in 1987.|
|1988||The Endangered Earth||Global||Planet of the Year|
|1989||Mikhail Gorbachev||Soviet Union||1931–||Acknowledged as "Man of the Decade". Gorbachev, as Soviet leader, oversaw 1989's first free Soviet elections before the fragmentation of the Eastern Bloc.|
|1990||George H. W. Bush||United States||1924–||As President of the United States, Bush oversaw U.S. involvement in the Gulf War (1990–1991).|
|1991||Ted Turner||United States||1938–||Founder of CNN.|
|1992||Bill Clinton||United States||1946–||Clinton was elected President of the United States in 1992.|
|1993||The Peacemakers|| State of Palestine
|Represented by Yasser Arafat, F. W. de Klerk, Nelson Mandela and Yitzhak Rabin.
De Klerk, as State President of South Africa, oversaw Mandela's release from prison in 1990. The pair worked together to end the Apartheid system.
Arafat, as President of the Palestinian National Authority, and Rabin, as Prime Minister of Israel, signed the 1993 Oslo Accord, the first face-to-face agreement between Palestinian and Israeli authorities.
|1994||Pope John Paul II|| Vatican City
|1920–2005||Head of the Roman Catholic Church from 1978 to 2005.|
|1995||Newt Gingrich||United States||1943–||Leader of the "Republican Revolution", a Republican party election landslide, which led to Gingrich being elected Speaker of the House.|
|1996||David Ho|| Taiwan
|1952–||Ho, a scientist, pioneered much AIDS research.|
|1997||Andrew Grove|| Hungary
|1936–||In 1997, Grove was Chairman and CEO of Intel, recognized as a pioneer in the semiconductor industry.|
|1998||Bill Clinton||United States||1946–||As President of the United States, Clinton was impeached in 1998 following the Lewinsky scandal. The Senate acquitted him of the charges.|
|Ken Starr||United States||1946–||Starr, a lawyer investigating various figures within the Clinton administration, published his Starr Report in 1998, opening the door for the impeachment of Bill Clinton.|
|1999||Jeffrey P. Bezos||United States||1964–||Bezos is founder and CEO of Amazon.com.|
|2000||George W. Bush||United States||1946–||In 2000, Bush was elected President of the United States.|
|2001||Rudolph Giuliani||United States||1944–||Giuliani was Mayor of New York City at the time of the September 11 attacks in 2001.|
|2002||The Whistleblowers||United States||Represented by Cynthia Cooper, Coleen Rowley and Sherron Watkins.
In 2001, Watkins uncovered accounting irregularities in the financial reports of Enron, testifying before Congressional committees the following year. In 2002, Cooper exposed a $3.8 billion fraud at WorldCom. At the time, this was the largest incident of accounting fraud in U.S. history. In 2002, Rowley, an FBI agent, gave testimony about the FBI's mishandling of information related to the September 11 attacks of 2001.
|2003||The American soldier||United States||Representing U.S. forces around the world, especially in the Iraq War (2003–2011).|
|2004||George W. Bush||United States||1946–||In 2004, Bush was re-elected President of the United States, overseeing U.S. involvement in the Iraq War.|
|2005||The Good Samaritans|| Ireland
|Represented by Bono, Bill Gates and Melinda Gates.
Bono, philanthropist and member of the rock band U2, helped to organise the 2005 Live 8 concerts. Bill Gates, founder of Microsoft and then-richest person in the world, and his wife Melinda, founded the philanthropic Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
|2006||You||Global||Represented by the individual content creator on the World Wide Web.|
|2007||Vladimir Putin||Russia||1952–||In 2007, Putin was serving as President of Russia.|
|2008||Barack Obama||United States||1961–||In 2008, Obama was elected President of the United States, becoming the first African-American U.S. President in January 2009.|
|2009||Ben Bernanke||United States||1953–||Chairman of the Federal Reserve during the Financial crisis of 2007–08.|
|2010||Mark Zuckerberg||United States||1984–||Founder of social-networking website Facebook.|
|2011||The Protester||Global||Representing many global protest movements — for example, the Arab Spring, the Indignants Movement, Tea Party movement and Occupy Movement — as well as protests in Greece, India, Russia and Chile, among others.|
|2012||Barack Obama||United States||1961–||In 2012, Obama was re-elected President of the United States.|
|2013||Pope Francis|| Vatican City
|1936–||Elected head of the Roman Catholic Church in 2013, following the resignation of Pope Benedict XVI.|
|2014||Ebola fighters||Global||"Ebola fighters" refers to health care workers who helped stop the spread of ebola virus disease during the Ebola virus epidemic in West Africa, including not only to doctors and nurses, but also ambulance attendants, burial parties, etc.
Represented on the covers by Dr. Jerry Brown, the medical director at the Eternal Love Winning Africa Hospital in Monrovia, Liberia, Dr. Kent Brantly, a physician with Samaritan's Purse and the first American to be infected in the 2014 outbreak, Ella Watson-Stryker, a health promoter for Doctors Without Borders who is originally from the United States, Foday Gallah, an ambulance supervisor and Ebola survivor from Monrovia, Liberia, and Salome Karmah, a trainee nurse and counselor from Liberia whose parents died of Ebola, as well as others mentioned in the article itself.
|2015||Angela Merkel||Germany||1954–||Chancellor of Germany since 2005, recognized for leadership in the Greek debt crisis and European migrant crisis.|
- Canadian Newsmaker of the Year (Time), the magazine's equivalent for Canadians only
- Forbes list of The World's Most Powerful People
- Eliza Gray. "Person of the Year – TIME". TIME.com. Retrieved 2015-07-25.
- Person of the Year: 75th Anniversary Celebration (Special Collector's ed.). New York: Time Books. 2002. OCLC 52817840.
- Time (2002) p. 1.[volume & issue needed]
- Time (2002) pp. 2, 79.
- "Person of the Year: A Photo History – Notorious Leaders: Controversial Choices". Time. 2006-12-16. Retrieved 2013-09-27.
- The first "Person" of the Year (rather than "Man" of the Year) was Jeff Bezos of Amazon.com.
- Golden, Frederic (January 3, 2000). "Person of the Century: Albert Einstein". Time. Retrieved 2008-02-13.
- Time (2002) p. 79.[volume & issue needed]
- "Michael Moore Defends Cruise, Slags Gibson". Infectious Greed. 16 September 2006. Retrieved 2013-11-29.
- Lev Grossman (13 December 2006). "You — Yes, You — Are TIME's Person of the Year". Time. Retrieved 2012-12-20.
- "Mick Foley Cactus Jack Pro Wrestling Legend". Media Man International. 2012.
- Buechner, M (21 December 1998). "TIME Man of the Year Poll Roils Internet". time.com (TIME Digital). Retrieved 2015-04-15.
- "Chavez wins "Person of the Year" poll ... Time magazine ignores result". Hands Off Venezuela. 18 December 2006. Retrieved 2009-12-05.
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- "Harlow H. Curtice is dead at 69". The New York Times. 4 November 1962. Retrieved 2009-10-06. (fee for article)
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- Von Drehle, David (2008-12-17). "Person of the Year 2008". Time. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
- Grunwald, Michael (16 December 2009). "Person of the Year 2009". Time. Retrieved 2009-12-16.
- Grossman, Lev (15 December 2010). "Person of the Year 2010". Time. Retrieved 2010-12-15.
- Grunwald, Michael (14 December 2011). "Person of the Year 2011". Time. Retrieved 2011-12-14.
- "Person of the Year 2012". Time. 2008-12-19. Retrieved 2012-12-23.
- "Pope Francis, The People’s Pope". Time. 2013-12-11. Retrieved 2013-12-11.
- "The Choice". Time. 10 December 2014. Retrieved 2014-12-10.
- Eliott C. McLaughlin, CNN (10 December 2014). "Ebola fighters are Time's 'Person of the Year'". CNN. Retrieved 2015-07-25.
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- Nancy Gibbs (9 December 2015). "The Choice: Why Angela Merkel is TIME's Person of the Year 2015". TIME.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Time magazine Persons of the Year.|
- TIME's Person of the Year: All 84!—slideshow by Life magazine
- "Time's Person of the Year 1927–2010". Time. 2011.