Time perception is a field of study within psychology and neuroscience that refers to the subjective experience of time, which is measured by someone's own perception of the duration of the indefinite and continuous unfolding of events. The perceived time interval between two successive events is referred to as perceived duration. Another person's perception of time cannot be directly experienced or understood, but it can be objectively studied and inferred through a number of scientific experiments. Time perception is a construction of the brain that is manipulable and distortable under certain circumstances. These temporal illusions help to expose the underlying neural mechanisms of time perception.
Pioneering work, emphasizing species-specific differences, was conducted by Karl Ernst von Baer. Experimental work began under the influence of the psycho-physical notions of Gustav Theodor Fechner with studies of the relationship between perceived and measured time.
- 1 Theories
- 2 Associated brain regions
- 3 Types of temporal illusions
- 4 See also
- 5 References
- 6 Further reading
- 7 External links
- The strength model of time memory. This posits a memory trace that persists over time, by which one might judge the age of a memory (and therefore how long ago the event remembered occurred) from the strength of the trace. This conflicts with the fact that memories of recent events may fade more quickly than more distant memories.
- The inference model suggests the time of an event is inferred from information about relations between the event in question and other events whose date or time is known.
Another theory involves the brain's subconscious tallying of "pulses" during a specific interval, forming a biological stopwatch. This theory alleges that the brain can run multiple biological stopwatches at one time depending on the type of task one is involved in. The location of these pulses and what these pulses actually consist of is unclear. This model is only a metaphor and does not stand up in terms of brain physiology or anatomy.
Associated brain regions
Although the perception of time is not associated with a specific sensory system, psychologists and neuroscientists suggest that humans do have a system governing the perception of time. It is composed of a highly distributed system involving the cerebral cortex, cerebellum and basal ganglia. One particular component, the suprachiasmatic nucleus, is responsible for the circadian (or daily) rhythm, while other cell clusters appear to be capable of shorter-range (ultradian) timekeeping.
Professor Warren Meck devised a physiological model for measuring the passage of time. He found the representation of time to be generated by the oscillatory activity of cells in the upper cortex. The frequency of these cells' activity is detected by cells in the dorsal striatum at the base of the forebrain. His model separated explicit timing and implicit timing. Explicit timing is used in estimating the duration of a stimulus. Implicit timing is used to gauge the amount of time separating one from an impending event that is expected to occur in the near future. These two estimations of time do not involve the same neuroanatomical areas. For example, implicit timing often occurs to achieve a motor task, involving the cerebellum, left parietal cortex, and left premotor cortex. Explicit timing often involves the supplementary motor area and the right prefrontal cortex.
Two visual stimuli, inside someone's field of view, can be successfully regarded as simultaneous down to five milliseconds. One's visual temporal order judgement can be accurately assessed down to twenty-millisecond resolutions.
According to David Eagleman, different types of sensory information (auditory, tactile, visual, etc.) are processed at different speeds by different neural architectures. The brain must learn how to overcome these speed disparities if it is to create a temporally unified representation of the external world. This characteristic of the brain is referred to as temporal binding. Not only does the brain temporally coordinate among different senses, but also among different sensory modalities. For example, for vision, this would include a coordination between an objects' edges, motion, angles, color, etc.
In the popular essay "Brain Time", by David Eagleman, he suggests that "if the visual brain wants to get events correct timewise, it may have only one choice: wait for the slowest information to arrive. To accomplish this, it must wait about a tenth of a second. In the early days of television broadcasting, engineers worried about the problem of keeping audio and video signals synchronized. Then they accidentally discovered that they had around a hundred milliseconds of slop: As long as the signals arrived within this window, viewers' brains would automatically resynchronize the signals". He goes on to say that "This brief waiting period allows the visual system to discount the various delays imposed by the early stages; however, it has the disadvantage of pushing perception into the past. There is a distinct survival advantage to operating as close to the present as possible; an animal does not want to live too far in the past. Therefore, the tenth-of- a-second window may be the smallest delay that allows higher areas of the brain to account for the delays created in the first stages of the system while still operating near the border of the present. This window of delay means that awareness is postdictive, incorporating data from a window of time after an event and delivering a retrospective interpretation of what happened."
The human brains' visual cortex is more active when an individual attempts to estimate the duration of a visual stimulus. The primary motor cortex is more active when an individual attempts to estimate the duration needed to complete a specific action, the auditory cortex is more active when an individual attempts to estimate the duration of a given sound stimulus, and so on.
Experiments have shown that rats can successfully estimate a time interval of approximately 40 seconds, despite having their cortex entirely removed. This suggests that time estimation may be a low level (subcortical) process.
The specious present is the time duration wherein a state of consciousness is experienced as being in the present. The term was first introduced by the philosopher E. R. Clay in 1882 (E. Robert Kelly), and was further developed by William James. James defined the specious present to be "the prototype of all conceived times... the short duration of which we are immediately and incessantly sensible". In "Scientific Thought" (1930), C. D. Broad further elaborated on the concept of the specious present, and considered that the specious present may be considered as the temporal equivalent of a sensory datum. A version of the concept was used by Edmund Husserl in his works and discussed further by Francisco Varela based on the writings of Husserl, Heidegger, and Merleau-Ponty.
Types of temporal illusions
A temporal illusion is a distortion in the perception of time, which occurs when the time interval between two or more events is very narrow (typically less than a second). In such cases, a person may momentarily perceive time as slowing down, stopping, speeding up, or running backwards. Additionally, a person may misperceive the temporal order of these events.
Short list of types of temporal illusions:
- Telescoping effect: People tend to recall recent events as occurring further back in time than they actually did (backward telescoping) and distant events as occurring more recently than they actually did (forward telescoping).
- Vierordt's law: Shorter intervals tend to be overestimated while longer intervals tend to be underestimated
- Time intervals associated with more changes may be perceived as longer than intervals with fewer changes
- Perceived temporal length of a given task may shorten with greater motivation
- Perceived temporal length of a given task may stretch when broken up or interrupted
- Auditory stimuli may appear to last longer than visual stimuli
- Time durations may appear longer with greater stimulus intensity (e.g., auditory loudness or pitch)
- Simultaneity judgments can be manipulated by repeated exposure to non-simultaneous stimuli
The Kappa effect is a form of temporal illusion verifiable by experiment, wherein the temporal duration between a sequence of consecutive stimuli is thought to be relatively longer or shorter than its actual elapsed time, due to the spatial/auditory/tactile separation between each consecutive stimuli. The kappa effect can be displayed when considering a journey made in two parts that take an equal amount of time. Between these two parts, the journey that covers more distance may appear to take longer than the journey covering less distance, even though they take an equal amount of time.
Chronostasis is a type of temporal illusion in which the first impression following the introduction of a new event or task demand to the brain appears to be extended in time. For example, Chronostasis temporarily occurs when fixating on a target stimulus, immediately following a saccade (e.g., quick eye movement). This elicits an overestimation in the temporal duration for which that target stimulus (i.e., postsaccadic stimulus) was perceived. This effect can extend apparent durations by up to 500 ms and is consistent with the idea that the visual system models events prior to perception. The most well-known version of this illusion is known as the stopped-clock illusion, wherein a subject's first impression of the second-hand movement of an analog clock, subsequent to one's directed attention (i.e., saccade) to the clock, is the perception of a slower-than-normal second-hand movement rate (the seconds hand of the clock may seemingly temporarily freeze in place after initially looking at it).
The occurrence of chronostasis extends beyond the visual domain into the auditory and tactile domains. In the auditory domain, chronostasis and duration overestimation occur when observing auditory stimuli. One common example is a frequent occurrence when making telephone calls. If, while listening to the phone's dial tone, research subjects move the phone from one ear to the other, the length of time between rings appears longer. In the tactile domain, chronostasis has persisted in research subjects as they reach for and grasp objects. After grasping a new object, subjects overestimate the time in which their hand has been in contact with this object. In other experiments, subjects turning a light on with a button were conditioned to experience the light before the button press.
The oddball effect
Another temporal illusion, called the "oddball effect", occurs when a person perceives unusual stimuli of a potential threat or mate (See Fight-or-flight response). For example, research suggests that time seems to slow down when a person skydives or bungee jumps, or when a person suddenly and unexpectedly senses the presence of a potential predator or mate. This reported slowing in temporal perception may have been evolutionarily advantageous because it may have enhanced our ability to intelligibly make quick decisions in moments that were of critical importance to our survival. However, even though observers commonly report that time seems to have moved in slow motion during these events, it is unknown whether this is a function of increased time resolution during the event, or instead an illusion of remembering an emotionally salient event.
Research conducted by David Eagleman has suggested that time does not actually run in slow motion for a person during a life-threatening event, but, rather, it is only a retrospective assessment that brings that person to such a conclusion. To bring this into the realm of scientific study, he measured time perception during free-fall by strapping palm-top computers to subjects' wrists and having them perform psychophysical experiments as they fall. By measuring their speed of information intake, they concluded that participants do not obtain increased temporal resolution during the fall, but, instead, because their memories are more densely packed during a frightening situation, the event seems to have taken longer only in retrospect.
Effects of emotional states
The perception of another persons' emotions can also change our sense of time. The theory of embodied mind (or cognition), as caused by mirror neurons, helps explain how the perception of other people's emotions have the ability to change one's own sense of time. Embodied cognition hinges on an internal process that mimics or simulates another's emotional state. For example, if person #1 spends time with person #2 who speaks and walks incredibly slow, person #1's internal clock may slow down.
Recent research has found that the feeling of awe has the ability to expand one's perceptions of time availability. Awe can be characterized as an experience of immense perceptual vastness that coincides with an increase in focus. Consequently, it is conceivable that one's temporal perception would slow down when experiencing awe.[unreliable medical source]
Emotions may speed up or slow down our perception of time. In 2011, a study was published regarding the ways in which students' sense of time were affected by changes in the students' emotional state. Students were shown extracts from films known to induce fear (horror movies such as The Blair Witch Project, Scream, The Shining) or sadness (dramas such as City of Angels, Philadelphia, or Dangerous Minds). A third category of footage–this one intended as a "neutral control" category and including clips from weather forecasts and stock market updates–was also shown to the students. Students were then asked to estimate the duration of a visual stimulus. It was found that neither the sadness-inducing clips nor the neutral clips had an effect on time perception, but that the students often overestimated the elapsed time after they watched the fear-inducing clips. Sylvie Droit-Volet, one of the researchers involved in that study, argued that fear prompted a state of arousal in the amygdala, which increased the rate of the students' internal clocks. Droit-Volet further argued that this is the result of a defensive mechanism triggered by a threatening situation, in which one has a short space of time to decide whether to attack or run away and to prepare for whichever act is chosen[unreliable medical source] When exposed to a threat, three-year-old children were observed to exhibit a similar tendency to overestimate elapsed time.[unreliable medical source]
Depression may increase one's ability to perceive time accurately. One study assessed this concept by asking subjects to estimate the amount of time that passed during intervals ranging from 3 seconds to 65 seconds. Results indicated that depressed subjects more accurately estimated the amount of time that had passed than non-depressed patients; non-depressed subjects overestimated the passing of time. This difference was hypothesized to be because depressed subjects focused less on external factors that may skew their judgement of time. The authors termed this hypothesized phenomenon "depressive realism."
Changes with age
Psychologists have found that the subjective perception of the passing of time tends to speed up with increasing age in humans. This often causes people to increasingly underestimate a given interval of time as they age. This fact can likely be attributed to a variety of age-related changes in the aging brain, such as the lowering in dopaminergic levels with older age; however, the details are still being debated. In an experimental study involving a group of subjects aged between 19 and 24 and a group between 60 and 80, the participants' abilities to estimate 3 minutes of time were compared. The study found that an average of 3 minutes and 3 seconds passed when participants in the younger group estimated that 3 minutes had passed, whereas the older group's estimate for when 3 minutes had passed came after an average of 3 minutes and 40 seconds.
Very young children literally "live in time" before gaining an awareness of its passing. A child will first experience the passing of time when he or she can subjectively perceive and reflect on the unfolding of a collection of events. A child's awareness of time develops during childhood when the child's attention and short-term memory capacities form—this developmental process is thought to be dependent on the slow maturation of the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus.
One day to an 11-year-old would be approximately 1/4,000 of their life, while one day to a 55-year-old would be approximately 1/20,000 of their life. This helps to explain why a random, ordinary day may therefore appear longer for a young child than an adult. If long-term time perception is based solely on the proportionality of a person's age, then the following four periods in life would appear to be quantitatively equal: age 5 to 10 (1x), age 10 to 20 (2x), age 20 to 40 (4x), age 40 to 80 (8x).
The common explanation is that most external and internal experiences are new for young children, while most experiences are repetitive for adults. Children have to be extremely engaged (i.e. dedicate many neural resources or significant brain power) in the present moment because they must constantly reconfigure their mental models of the world to assimilate it, and properly behave from within. On the contrary, adults may rarely step outside of their mental habits and external routines. When an adult frequently experiences this overstimulation of the same stimuli, their brain renders it "invisible" because the brain has already sufficiently and effectively mapped those stimuli. This phenomenon is known as neural adaptation. Thus, the brain will record fewer densely rich memories during these frequent periods of disengagement from the present moment. Consequently, the subjective perception of time often passes by at a faster rate with age.
Effects of drugs
Psychoactive drugs can alter the judgement of time. These include traditional psychedelics such as LSD, psilocybin, and mescaline as well as the dissociative class of psychedelics such as PCP, ketamine and dextromethorphan. At higher doses time may appear to slow down, speed up or seem out of sequence. In a 2007 study, psilocybin was found to significantly impair the ability to reproduce interval durations longer than 2.5 seconds, significantly impair synchronizing motor actions (taps on a computer keyboard) to regularly occurring tones, and impair the ability to keep tempo when asked to tap on a key at a self-paced but consistent interval.[unreliable medical source] In 1955, British MP Christopher Mayhew took mescaline hydrochloride in an experiment under the guidance of his friend, Dr Humphry Osmond. On the BBC documentary The Beyond Within, he described that half a dozen times during the experiment, he had "a period of time that didn't end for [him]".
Stimulants can lead both humans and rats to overestimate time intervals, while depressants can have the opposite effect. The level of activity in the brain of neurotransmitters such as dopamine and norepinephrine may be the reason for this. Dopamine has a particularly strong connection with one's perception of time. Drugs that activate dopamine receptors speed up one's perception of time, while dopamine antagonists cause one to feel that time is passing slowly.
Effects of meditation
Researchers have increasingly focused on the benefits of meditation in everyday life and performance. Mindfulness in particular improves attention, working memory capacity, and reading comprehension. Given its emphasis on moment-to-moment awareness, they noticed that mindfulness meditation would alter time perception. The Researchers had participants carry out a temporal bisection task, where several probe durations are compared to "short" and "long" standards. Following this, participants either listened to an audiobook or a meditation that focused on the movement of breath in the body. Finally, participants completed the temporal bisection task for a second time. The control group showed no change after the listening task. However, meditation led to a relative overestimation of durations.
Effects of body temperature
Time perception may speed up as body temperature rises, and slow down as body temperature lowers.
Reversal of temporal order judgment
Numerous experimental findings suggest that temporal order judgments of actions preceding effects can be reversed under special circumstances. Experiments have shown that sensory simultaneity judgments can be manipulated by repeated exposure to non-simultaneous stimuli. In an experiment conducted by David Eagleman, a temporal order judgment reversal was induced in subjects by exposing them to delayed motor consequences. In the experiment, subjects played various forms of video games. Unknown to the subjects, the experimenters introduced a fixed delay between the mouse movements and the subsequent sensory feedback. For example, a subject may not see a movement register on the screen until 150 milliseconds after the mouse had moved. Participants playing the game quickly adapted to the delay and felt as though there was less delay between their mouse movement and the sensory feedback. Shortly after the experimenters removed the delay, the subjects commonly felt as though the effect on the screen happened just before they commanded it. This work addresses how the perceived timing of effects is modulated by expectations, and the extent to which such predictions are quickly modifiable. In an experiment conducted by Haggard and colleagues in 2002, participants pressed a button that triggered a flash of light - at a distance - after a slight delay of 100 milliseconds. By repeatedly engaging in this act, participants had adapted to the delay (i.e., they experienced a gradual shortening in the perceived time interval between pressing the button and seeing the flash of light). The experimenters then showed the flash of light instantly after the button was pressed. In response, subjects often thought that the flash (the effect) had occurred before the button was pressed (the cause). Additionally, when the experimenters slightly reduced the delay, and shortened the spatial distance between the button and the flash of light, participants had often claimed again to have experienced the effect before the cause.
Several experiments also suggest that temporal order judgement of a pair of tactile stimuli, delivered in rapid succession, one to each hand, is noticeably impaired (i.e., misreported) by crossing the hands over the midline. However, congenitally blind subjects showed no trace of temporal order judgement reversal after crossing the arms. These results suggest that tactile signals taken in by the congenitally blind are ordered in time without being referred to a visuo-spatial representation. Unlike the congenitally blind subjects, the temporal order judgements of the late-onset blind subjects were impaired when crossing the arms to a similar extent as non-blind subjects. These results suggest that the associations between tactile signals and visuo-spatial representation is maintained once it is accomplished during infancy. Some research studies have also found that the subjects showed reduced deficit in tactile temporal order judgements when the arms were crossed behind their back than when they were crossed in front.
In an experiment, participants were told to stare at an "x" symbol on a computer screen whereby a moving blue doughnut-like ring repeatedly circled the fixed "x" point. Occasionally, the ring would display a white flash - for a split second - that physically overlapped the ring's interior. However, when asked what was perceived, participants responded that they saw the white flash lagging behind the center of the moving ring. In other words, despite the reality that the two retinal images were actually spatially aligned, the flashed object was usually observed to trail a continuously moving object in space - a phenomenon referred to as the flash-lag effect.
The first proposed explanation, called the 'motion extrapolation' hypothesis, is that the visual system extrapolates the position of moving objects - but not flashing objects - when accounting for neural delays (i.e., the lag time between the retinal image and the observer's perception of the flashing object). The second proposed explanation by David Eagleman and Sejnowski, called the 'latency difference' hypothesis, is that the visual system processes moving objects at a faster rate than flashed objects. In the attempt to disprove the first hypothesis, David Eagleman conducted an experiment in which the moving ring suddenly reverses directions to spin in the other way as the flashed object briefly appears. If the first hypothesis were correct, we expect that, immediately following reversal, the moving object would be lagging behind the flashed object. However, the experiment reveals the opposite - immediately following reversal, the flashed object was lagging behind the moving object. As a result, the majority are now in support of the 'latency difference' hypothesis.
Effects of clinical disorders
Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been linked to abnormalities in dopamine levels in the brain as well as to noticeable impairments in time perception. Neuropharmacological research indicates that the internal clock, used to time durations in the seconds-to-minutes range, is linked to dopamine function in the basal ganglia. Studies in which children with ADHD are given time estimation tasks shows that time passes very slowly for them. Children with Tourette’s Syndrome, for example, who need to use the pre-frontal cortex just behind the forehead to help them control their tics, are better at estimating intervals of time just over a second than other children.
In his book "Awakenings", Oliver Sacks discusses how patients with Parkinson's disease experience deficits in their awareness of time and tempo. For example, Mr E, when asked to clap his hands steadily and regularly did so for the first few claps before clapping faster and irregularly; culminating in an apparent freezing of motion. When he finished, Mr E asked if his observers were glad he did it correctly to which they replied "no". Mr E was offended by this because to him, his claps were regular and steady. When given L-DOPA, these deficits are lessened or subside entirely depending on the dose. This case not only shows that Parkinson's disease is related to time perception deficits but it also demonstrates how dopamine is involved.
Dopamine is also theorized to play a role in the attention deficits present with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Specifically, dopaminergic systems are involved in working memory and inhibitory processes, both of which are believed central to ADHD pathology. Children with ADHD have also been found to be significantly impaired on time discrimination tasks (telling the difference between two stimuli of different temporal lengths) and respond earlier on time reproduction tasks (duplicating the duration of a presented stimulus) than controls.
Along with other perceptual abnormalities, it has been noted by psychologists that schizophrenia patients have an altered sense of time. This was first described in psychology by Minkowski in 1927. Many schizophrenic patients stop perceiving time as a flow of causally linked events. It has been suggested that there is usually a delay in time perception in schizophrenic patients compared to normal subjects.
These defects in time perception may play a part in the hallucinations and delusions experienced by schizophrenic patients according to some studies. Some researchers suggest that "abnormal timing judgment leads to a deficit in action attribution and action perception."
- Le Poidevin R. "The Experience and Perception of Time". Retrieved 2009-10-22.
- Friedman W (1990). About time: inventing the fourth dimension. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. ISBN 0262061333.
- Friedman WJ (1993). "Memory for the time of past events". Psychological Bulletin 113 (1): 44–66. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.113.1.44.
- Smith A, Taylor E, Rogers JW, Newman S, Rubia K (May 2002). "Evidence for a pure time perception deficit in children with ADHD". J Child Psychol Psychiatry 43 (4): 529–42. doi:10.1111/1469-7610.00043. PMID 12030598.
- Gozlan M (2 Jan 2013). "A stopwatch on the brain's perception of time". theguardian.com. Guardian News and Media Limited. Retrieved 4 January 2014.
- Rao SM, Mayer AR, Harrington DL (Mar 2001). "The evolution of brain activation during temporal processing". Nature Neuroscience 4 (3): 317–323. doi:10.1038/85191. PMID 11224550. Lay summary – UniSci: Daily University Science News (27 February 2001).
- Rao SM, Mayer AR, Harrington DL (2001). "The evolution of brain activation during temporal processing". Nature Neuroscience 4 (3): 317–323. doi:10.1038/85191. Lay summary – Nature Neuroscience.
- Eagleman, David M. (23 June 2009). "Brain Time". Edge. Edge Foundation.
- Macey SL (1994). Encyclopedia of Time (1st ed.). Routledge Publishing. p. 555. ISBN 0815306156.
- Brockman M (2009). What's Next?: Dispatches on the Future of Science. United States: Vintage Books. p. 162. ISBN 978-0-307-38931-2.
- Eagleman DM (2009-06-23). "Brain Time". Edge Foundation.
- Jaldow EJ, Oakley DA, Davey GC (September 1989). "Performance of Decorticated Rats on Fixed Interval and Fixed Time Schedules". Eur. J. Neurosci. 1 (5): 461–470. doi:10.1111/j.1460-9568.1989.tb00352.x. PMID 12106131.
- Mackintosh NJ (1994). Animal learning and cognition. Boston: Academic Press. ISBN 0-12-161953-2.
- James, W. (1893). The principles of psychology. New York: H. Holt and Company. Page 609.
- Anonymous (E. Robert Kelly), The Alternative: A Study in Psychology. London: Macmillan and Co.,1882.
- Andersen, Holly; Grush, Rick (2009). "A brief history of time-consciousness: historical precursors to James and Husserl" (PDF). Journal of the History of Philosophy 47 (2): 277–307. doi:10.1353/hph.0.0118. Retrieved 2008-02-02.
- "The Specious Present: A Neurophenomenology of Time Consciousness." In Petitot, Varela, Pacoud & Roy (eds.), Naturalizing Phenomenology. Stanford University Press.
- "It Seems Like Only Yesterday: The Nature and Consequences of Telescoping Errors in Marketing Research". Journal of Consumer Psychology.
- Wearden JH, Todd NP, Jones LA (Oct 2006). "When do auditory/visual differences in duration judgements occur?". Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 59 (10): 1709–1724. doi:10.1080/17470210500314729. PMID 16945856.
- Goldstone S, Lhamon WT (Aug 1974). "Studies of auditory-visual differences in human time judgment. 1. Sounds are judged longer than lights" (PDF). Perceptual and Motor Skills 39 (1). doi:10.2466/pms.1922.214.171.124. PMID 4415924.
- Penney TB (2003). "Modality differences in interval timing: Attention, clock speed, and memory". In Meck WH. Functional and neural mechanisms of interval timing. Frontiers in Neuroscience. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. pp. 209–233. doi:10.1201/9780203009574.ch8. ISBN 9780849311093.
- Wearden JH, Edwards H, Fakhri M, Percival A (May 1998). "Why "sounds are judged longer than lights": application of a model of the internal clock in humans" (PDF). The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology. B, Comparative and Physiological Psychology 51 (2): 97–120. doi:10.1080/713932672. PMID 9621837.
- Wada Y, Masuda T, Noguchi K, 2005, "Temporal illusion called 'kappa effect' in event perception" Perception 34 ECVP Abstract Supplement
- Yarrow K, Haggard P, Heal R, Brown P, Rothwell JC (November 2001). "Illusory perceptions of space and time preserve cross-saccadic perceptual continuity". Nature 414 (6861): 302–5. doi:10.1038/35104551. PMID 11713528.
- Yarrow K, Whiteley L, Rothwell JC, Haggard P (Feb 2006). "Spatial consequences of bridging the saccadic gap". Vision Research 46 (4): 545–555. doi:10.1016/j.visres.2005.04.019. PMID 16005489.
- Knöll J, Morrone MC, Bremmer F (May 2013). "Spatio-temporal topography of saccadic overestimation of time". Vision Research 83: 56–65. doi:10.1016/j.visres.2013.02.013. PMID 23458677.
- Yarrow K, Rothwell JC (Jul 2003). "Manual chronostasis: tactile perception precedes physical contact". Current Biology 13 (13): 1134–1139. doi:10.1016/S0960-9822(03)00413-5. PMID 12842013.
- Yarrow K, Johnson H, Haggard P, Rothwell JC (Jun 2004). "Consistent chronostasis effects across saccade categories imply a subcortical efferent trigger". Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 16 (5): 839–847. doi:10.1162/089892904970780. PMID 15200711.
- "The mystery of the stopped clock illusion". BBC - Future - Health -. 2012-08-27. Retrieved 2012-12-09.
- Nijhawan R (2010). Space and Time in Perception and Action. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-86318-6.
- Hodinott-Hill I, Thilo KV, Cowey A, Walsh V (Oct 2002). "Auditory chronostasis: hanging on the telephone". Current Biology 12 (20): 1779–1781. doi:10.1016/S0960-9822(02)01219-8. PMID 12401174.
- "David dives in". justRegional publishing. 13 Jul 2013. Retrieved 13 July 2013.
- Stetson C, Fiesta MP, Eagleman DM (2007). "Does time really slow down during a frightening event?". PloS One 2 (12): e1295. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0001295. PMC 2110887. PMID 18074019.
- Rudd M, Vohs KD, Aaker J (Oct 2012). "Awe expands people's perception of time, alters decision making, and enhances well-being" (PDF). Psychological Science 23 (10): 1130–6. doi:10.1177/0956797612438731. PMID 22886132.
- Droit-Volet S, Fayolle SL, Gil S (2011). "Emotion and time perception: effects of film-induced mood". Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience 5: 33. doi:10.3389/fnint.2011.00033. PMC 3152725. PMID 21886610.
- Gil S, Droit-Volet S (Feb 2009). "Time perception, depression and sadness" (PDF). Behavioural Processes 80 (2): 169–76. doi:10.1016/j.beproc.2008.11.012. PMID 19073237.
- Kornbrot DE, Msetfi RM, Grimwood MJ (21 August 2013). "Time perception and depressive realism: judgment type, psychophysical functions and bias". PloS One 8 (8): e71585. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0071585. PMC 3749223. PMID 23990960. Lay summary – Science Daily (22 August 2013).
- Dreher JC, Meyer-Lindenberg A, Kohn P, Berman KF (Sep 2008). "Age-related changes in midbrain dopaminergic regulation of the human reward system". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 105 (39): 15106–11. doi:10.1073/pnas.0802127105. PMC 2567500. PMID 18794529.
- Bäckman L, Nyberg L, Lindenberger U, Li SC, Farde L (2006). "The correlative triad among aging, dopamine, and cognition: current status and future prospects". Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 30 (6): 791–807. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2006.06.005. PMID 16901542.
- Meck WH (Jun 1996). "Neuropharmacology of timing and time perception" (PDF). Brain Research. Cognitive Brain Research 3 (3-4): 227–42. doi:10.1016/0926-6410(96)00009-2. PMID 8806025.
- Holmes B (November 1996). "Why time flies in old age". New Scientist magazine (2057).
- Blakesell S (1998-03-24). "Running Late? Researchers Blame Aging Brain". New York Times.
- Kolb B, Mychasiuk R, Muhammad A, Li Y, Frost DO, Gibb R (Oct 2012). "Experience and the developing prefrontal cortex". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 109 Suppl 2: 17186–93. doi:10.1073/pnas.1121251109. PMC 3477383. PMID 23045653.
- Adler R (1999-12-25). "Look how time flies . . .". New Scientist. Retrieved 2009-10-22.
- Cooper BB (2013-07-02). "The science of time perception: stop it slipping away by doing new things". The Buffer Blog.
- Wittmann M, Carter O, Hasler F, Cahn BR, Grimberg U, Spring P, Hell D, Flohr H, Vollenweider FX (January 2007). "Effects of psilocybin on time perception and temporal control of behaviour in humans". J. Psychopharmacol. (Oxford) 21 (1): 50–64. doi:10.1177/0269881106065859. PMID 16714323.
- Wittmann M, Leland DS, Churan J, Paulus MP (October 2007). "Impaired time perception and motor timing in stimulant-dependent subjects". Drug Alcohol Depend 90 (2–3): 183–92. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2007.03.005. PMC 1997301. PMID 17434690.
- Cheng RK, MacDonald CJ, Meck WH (September 2006). "Differential effects of cocaine and ketamine on time estimation: implications for neurobiological models of interval timing". Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 85 (1): 114–22. doi:10.1016/j.pbb.2006.07.019. PMID 16920182.
- Tinklenberg JR, Roth WT, Kopell BS (September 1976). "Marijuana and ethanol: differential effects on time perception, heart rate, and subjective response". Psychopharmacology (Berl.) 49 (3): 275–9. doi:10.1007/BF00426830. PMID 826945.
- Arzy S, Molnar-Szakacs I, Blanke O (June 2008). "Self in time: imagined self-location influences neural activity related to mental time travel". J. Neurosci. 28 (25): 6502–7. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5712-07.2008. PMID 18562621.
- Kramer RS, Weger UW, Sharma D (June 2013). "The effect of mindfulness meditation on time perception". Conscious Cogn 22 (3): 846–852. doi:10.1016/j.concog.2013.05.008. PMID 23778017.
- Wearden JH, Penton-Voak IS (May 1995). "Feeling the heat: body temperature and the rate of subjective time, revisited". Q J Exp Psychol B 48 (2): 129–41. PMID 7597195.
- Stetson C, Cui X, Montague PR, Eagleman DM (Sep 2006). "Motor-sensory recalibration leads to an illusory reversal of action and sensation" (PDF). Neuron 51 (5): 651–9. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2006.08.006. PMID 16950162.
- Eagleman DM (Apr 2008). "Human time perception and its illusions". Current Opinion in Neurobiology 18 (2): 131–136. doi:10.1016/j.conb.2008.06.002. PMC 2866156. PMID 18639634.
- Yamamoto S, Kitazawa S (Jul 2001). "Reversal of subjective temporal order due to arm crossing" (PDF). Nature Neuroscience 4 (7): 759–65. doi:10.1038/89559. PMID 11426234.
- Sambo CF, Torta DM, Gallace A, Liang M, Moseley GL, Iannetti GD (Feb 2013). "The temporal order judgement of tactile and nociceptive stimuli is impaired by crossing the hands over the body midline" (PDF). Pain 154 (2): 242–7. doi:10.1016/j.pain.2012.10.010. PMID 23200703.
- Takahashi T, Kansaku K, Wada M, Shibuya S, Kitazawa S (Aug 2013). "Neural correlates of tactile temporal-order judgment in humans: an fMRI study". Cerebral Cortex 23 (8): 1952–64. doi:10.1093/cercor/bhs179. PMID 22761307.
- Kotler S (12 April 2010). "When Life Flashes Before Your Eyes: A 15-Story Drop to Study the Brain's Internal Timewarp". Popular Science. Bonnier Corporation.
- Eagleman DM, Sejnowski TJ (2007). "Flash-Lag Effect". Eagleman Laboratory for Perception and Action.
- Patel SS, Ogmen H, Bedell HE, Sampath V, Eagleman DM, Sejnowski TJ (10 November 2000). "Flash-Lag Effect: Differential Latency, Not Postdiction" (PDF). Science 290: 1051a. doi:10.1126/science.290.5494.1051a.
- Pastor MA, Artieda J, Jahanshahi M, Obeso JA (February 1992). "Time estimation and reproduction is abnormal in Parkinson's disease". Brain 115 (1): 211–25. doi:10.1093/brain/115.1.211. PMID 1559155.
- Davalos DB, Kisley MA, Ross RG (November 2002). "Deficits in auditory and visual temporal perception in schizophrenia". Cogn Neuropsychiatry 7 (4): 273–82. doi:10.1080/13546800143000230. PMID 16571542.
- Levy F, Swanson JM (August 2001). "Timing, space and ADHD: the dopamine theory revisited". Aust N Z J Psychiatry 35 (4): 504–11. doi:10.1046/j.1440-1614.2001.00923.x. PMID 11531733.
- Sacks OW (1999). Awakenings. New York: Vintage Books. ISBN 0-375-70405-1.
- Franck N, Posada A, Pichon S, Haggard P (May 2005). "Altered subjective time of events in schizophrenia". J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 193 (5): 350–3. doi:10.1097/01.nmd.0000161699.76032.09. PMID 15870620.
- Le Poidevin, Robin, "The Experience and Perception of Time", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Winter 2004 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.)
- Hodder, A. (1901). The adversaries of the sceptic; or, The specious present, a new inquiry into human knowledge. Chapter II, The Specious Present. London: S. Sonnenschein &. Pages 36 – 56.
- Underwood G, Swain RA (1973). "Selectivity of attention and the perception of duration". Perception 2 (1): 101–5. doi:10.1068/p020101. PMID 4777562.
- Brown SW, Stubbs DA (1992). "Attention and interference in prospective and retrospective timing". Perception 21 (4): 545–57. doi:10.1068/p210545. PMID 1437469.
- Eagleman DM, Tse PU, Buonomano D, Janssen P, Nobre AC, Holcombe AO (Nov 2005). "Time and the brain: how subjective time relates to neural time". The Journal of Neuroscience 25 (45): 10369–71. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3487-05.2005. PMID 16280574.
- Slanger TG (1988). "Evidence for a Short-Period Internal Clock in Humans" (PDF). Journal of Scientific Exploration 2 (2): 203–216. Retrieved 2011-10-02.
- Le Poidevin R (2007). The images of time: an essay on temporal representation. Oxford [Oxfordshire]: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-926589-5.
|Wikibooks has more on the topic of: Time perception|
- The Logarithmic Time Perception Hypothesis
- NeuroQuantology Special Issue: Time, Timing, and the Brain
- Time perception research at the University of Manchester
- Time Sense: Polychronicity and Monochronicity
- "A Cognitive Model of Retrospective Duration Estimations", Hee-Kyung Ahn, et al., March 7, 2006.
- "Time, Force, Motion, and the Semantics of Natural Languages", Wolfgang Wildgen, Antwerp Papers in Linguistics, 2003/2004.
- Can Time Slow Down?
- "Interactions emerge between biological clocks", The Pharmaceutical Journal, Vol 275 No 7376 p644, 19 November 2005 Registration required.
- Picture Space Time helps to add Time Perception to Photographs using sound