2:30 a.m.: CBS reports that a car packed with explosives has been stopped on the George Washington Bridge. The New Jersey police claim there were enough explosives to destroy the entire bridge. Apparently the FBI has denied the report. According to a later report, three men have been arrested, but there were no explosives involved. They were arrested because they had been seen celebrating the attack.
Before 3:15 a.m.: The Boston Herald reports that at least five Arab men have been identified as suspects. Two of them were brothers, and one a trained pilot. Their passports have been traced to the United Arab Emirates. A car, rented in Portland, Maine, has been seized from the Logan International Airport garage, containing flight training manuals in Arabic. According to CNN, FBI can neither confirm nor deny this. The men had been in a fight with a man shortly before take-off; this man later recalled the incident and called the police.
4:35 a.m.: CNN reports that search warrants have been issued in south Florida because of information from the passenger lists of the hijacked planes.
After 7:00 a.m.: PAPD Officer John McLoughlin, who was in an underground corridor between the two towers when the South Tower collapsed, is pulled alive from the rubble of the World Trade Center.
10:00 a.m.: Congress reconvenes.
10:53 a.m.: President George W. Bush holds a cabinet meeting, saying that the attacks "were more than acts of terror. They were acts of war." Bush later that day tours the Pentagon to oversee the rescue and recovery efforts.
12:30 p.m. (approximately), Genelle Guzman-McMillan is pulled from the rubble of the North Tower of the World Trade Center, and is the last person recovered alive from the buildings' collapse zones.
1:10 p.m.: FBI agents storm the Westin Hotel in Boston to investigate a room rented by a passenger on one plane. They encounter and detain three people in the room and call in a bomb squad to investigate a suspicious package.
3:58 p.m.: FBI announces they have evidence showing the White House and Air Force One were intended targets of the attacks. Later this is recanted, and blamed on administration staffers misunderstanding the security information they received.
5:00 p.m.: Attorney General John Ashcroft announces that some of the hijackers were pilots trained in the US.
A few commercial airliners return to the skies and some airports reopen slowly with strict security measures from the FAA.
Before 1:00 a.m.: German police raid an apartment in Hamburg, apparently at the behest of the FBI, believed to have been used by suspect passengers on the airline flight list. It is believed to be the first police action outside the U.S. connected with the attack. Two people are taken into provisional custody, one is an airport worker. Both were later released, but re-arrested in late 2002.
The data recorder from United Airlines flight 93 is recovered.
Between 4:15 p.m. and 5:00 p.m.: 10 people were detained at New York airports, reportedly including people who had boarded planes under false pretenses, people who had been trained to fly aircraft at the same schools as the previous terrorists, and people who had attempted to bring knives and other weapons past airport security. Some of these people had already been identified by the FBI as potential suspects. Three were removed from planes ready for departure by police SWAT teams, one resisted arrest. It was later found that none of them was planning a hijacking.
At the orders of Vladimir Putin, Russia observes a moment's silence at noontime (Moscow time) with flags placed at half-staff throughout Russia "in memory of terrorist acts' victims" .
At 8:00 p.m., the World Wrestling Federation holds a special live broadcast of SmackDown! in Houston, Texas dedicated to the victims and heroes of the attacks. All storylines are put on hold for this tribute show, as various wrestlers and other individuals give their best wishes to the families of the victims and congratulate all of the workers and firefighters in New York. This is the first major assemblage for an American sporting event following the attacks.
Church and memorial services held throughout the world. These include a special service held in London, which was attended by a black-clad Queen and 1,500 mourners. A three-minute silence at noon Paris time was observed throughout Europe. "The Star-Spangled Banner" is performed or sung in front of the Brandenburg Gate and at mass gatherings in Edinburgh, Paris, and Ottawa. National days of mourning are observed in Ireland and South Korea. Ireland was brought to a standstill on the day, because the government had ordered schools, offices, and stores across the country closed because a public holiday as part of the national day of mourning had been declared.
AM, The United States Department of Defense (DoD) releases a revised estimate and the names of unaccounted. 125 people are missing: 74 Army, 42 Navy, 9 Defense agency. The original estimate for Defense Agencies was 10, which inadvertently included one DoD employee on American Airlines Flight 77, Mr. Bryan C. Jack.
AM, Resumption of package deliveries from national carriers such as UPS and Federal Express.
AM, Nine of the ten detained at New York airports were released. One is still being questioned about immigration status. Authorities suspected one of them was holding a false pilot certificate, but he was a pilot. He was carrying papers, including a visa, which were owned by his brother in Boston, who happened to live in the same building as three of the people suspected of involvement in the hijackings. There was no hijacking attempts at either airport on the 13th, only suspicious circumstances.
AM, The Pentagon reports recovering both black boxes from flight AA 77 which crashed into the Pentagon.
AM, Arrests are made in the Netherlands and Belgium and apartments searched in the Philippines and on a Carnival cruise ship in Florida. The connection to the Sept. 11th attack is not immediately clear.
The Department of Defense releases a casualty update: Aerographer's Mate First Class Edward Thomas Earhart, 26, Salt Lick, Kentucky, is confirmed dead. Herbert W. Homer, a civilian employee of the Defense Contract Management Agency, was previously listed in error as unaccounted for at the Pentagon; he was among the passengers aboard United Airlines Flight 175.
Before 2:30 PM, Iran announces that it has closed its border with Afghanistan.
Before 2:30 PM, the official New York City missing count has risen to 4972. Over 150 bodies have been found, 92 positively identified.
Before 2:30 PM, the official death count at the Pentagon has risen to 189, including the 64 in the plane.
3:00 PM approx., a funeral mass is held for the Rev. Mychal Judge.
3:00 PM approx., a funeral is held for fire chief Peter J. Ganci, Jr. in New Jersey. Afterwards mayor Rudy Giuliani breaks his policy of never making public comments after the funeral, saying "All eyes are on New York City."
Before 3:00 PM, The New York Stock Exchange is successfully tested for its morning open at 9:30 AM EDT.
Before 3:00 PM, Colin Powell says both Pakistan and Iran have closed their borders with Afghanistan. After intensive pressure from the Bush administration, Pakistan has agreed to act as a staging area for American air strikes or forces.
Afternoon: Four gunmen, including Francisco Roque, 42, go on a shooting rampage, they drove up in two pick-up trucks to a Chevron station in Mesa, Arizona, owned by Balbir Singh Sodhi, a 52-year-old Sikh from Punjab, India, and shot him dead, possibly mistaking him for an Arab because of his turban. They don't kill anyone else, but hit another gas station and a home. In October 2003, Roque is sentenced by an Arizona jury to death by lethal injection.
Afternoon: An Egyptian-born Coptic Christian, Adel Karas, 48, was shot dead by two white males inside his International Market grocery store in San Gabriel, California.
11:05 PM, a Pakistani immigrant and businessman, Waqar Hasan, 46, was shot dead in his store, Mom's Grocery, in downtown Dallas, Texas — again, possibly because of his turban. Congress subsequently passed a private bill granting his family permanent residence.
Day of mourning in Australia for victims of September 11. This had been proclaimed by Australian Prime Minister John Howard earlier that week. He had been in Washington at the time of the attacks.
The Department of Defense releases a casualty update: Cmdr. Dan Frederic Shanower, 40, of Naperville, Ill. is confirmed dead. The number of dead or unaccounted at the Pentagon remains 124, not including the 64 passengers on American Airlines flight 77. 88 remains have been recovered from the Pentagon and transported to Dover Air Force Base, Del. for identification.
Lower Manhattan east of Broadway is opened to pedestrians.
Tens of thousands of Afghan refugees stream toward the closed borders with Iran and Pakistan (there are already two million refugees in each country from the twenty years of Afghani-Soviet War then Afghan Civil War). Food and other aid can no longer get in.
PM, A 20-year-old Saudi Arabian student is stabbed three times in Boston by assailants yelling anti-Arab abuse as he leaves a nightclub.
The U.S. demands that Pakistan close its borders to Afghan refugees. Pakistan immediately complies.
Major League Baseball games recommence kicked off by Jack Buck's poem "For America" and speech where he said "I don't know about you, but as for me, the question has already been answered: Should we be here? Yes!".
The Department of Defense (DoD) releases a casualty update: 9 DoD employees and 2 passengers accounted for, and 124 DoD employees still unaccounted for. To date, 97 remains have been recovered and transported to Dover Air Force Base, Delaware. for identification. Eleven have been identified. Search and rescue operations continue.
6:00 AM Staten Island ferry resumes operation. New Brooklyn ferry also commences service.
8:30 AM approx. The US Federal Reserve cuts the prime interest rate by half a percent to three percent.
9:30 AM The NYSE, Mercantile Exchange, and NASDAQ open for the first time after the longest hiatus in history after two minutes of silence. The markets plummet.
11:08 AM The World Bank and IMF cancel the annual meeting scheduled for September 29 and 30th at Washington D.C.
4:00 PM Dow Jones Industrial Average closes down 684.81 points (7.13%) in heavy trading. NASDAQ was down 6.84%, S&P500 4.93%. Airline stocks were down over 40 percent. Insurance, financial, and travel and leisure stocks were also down heavily. Military contractor, savings and loans, telecom, and pharmaceutical stocks gained.
4:00 PM EDT Rudy Giuliani conference on casualties: 5,422 missing, 201 known dead, 135 identified. For the week to date, crime in New York City has been down 34 percent over the same week last year. 40,000 tons of debris have been removed.
Conference of many Islamic leaders to meet in Afghanistan to determine their response to the U.S. ultimatum.
David Letterman returns to the air on CBS with a heartfelt monologue giving his own personal thoughts and condolensces about the attacks. Letterman is not censored when he asks out loud if the motivation for the attacks "makes any goddamned sense." Jay Leno and Conan O'Brien also return to the air on NBC, and Jon Stewart would return to the air on Comedy Central three nights later.
12:30 PM Rudy Giuliani press briefing: 49,553 tons removed to Fresh Kills Landfill in 3,788 trucks. 218 confirmed dead, 152 identified. 37 uniformed officers, 32 firefighters, 2 E.M.T.'s, 2 Port Authority Police officers and one New Jersey Fire Department firefighter.
2:30 PM Ari Fleischer press briefing. The U.S. intends to go after terrorism whenever it threatens the United States, not all terrorism.
2:50 PM US Attorney General John Ashcroft press briefing: 96,000 tips. There may have been more than four planes targeted for hijacking. INS will have 48 hours (or unlimited time under emergencies) instead of the previous 24 in which to decide whether to charge detained individuals. This will allow them to detain the 75 individuals held in connection with the investigation indefinitely. Permanent anti-terrorism task forces under the US Attorney General and FBI will be established to blur the lines between local and federal law enforcement and the federal intelligence agencies.
In Karachi, Pakistan more than 5,000 radical Islamist students mount the largest demonstration yet against possible US military action against Afghanistan. By the standards of Karachi politics, where rallies of over fifty thousand people are common, this is regarded as unexpectedly small. Hundreds of police and paramilitary troops prevent the protesters from marching on the US consulate. An effigy of George W. Bush is lit.
A mass candle vigil is held in Tehran, Iran to mourn the loss of life in the United States.
The Department of Defense orders over 100 combat aircraft, including fighters, bombers, and support aircraft to military bases in the Persian Gulf. Three aircraft carrier groups will soon be within operational distance of west Asia.
2:20 PM approx. Rudy Giuliani and George Pataki press briefing: two lanes of Brooklyn Bridge into city to open Thursday. The government is opening up 5.5 million ft2 (511,000 m2) of real estate for business. Individual family grants of up to $14,000 are available from the Dept. of Labor. The State Dept. of Health is giving $60 million to NYC hospitals. The business assistance center at 633 Third Ave. has received 5000 calls and 700 visitors. The city is hoping to get Battery Park North and South open in the next two days. The prayer service Sunday 9/23 at Yankee Stadium will be by ticket for families and the uniformed services (fire, police, etc.), and simulcast at Jumbotrons at Staten Island and Brooklyn baseball stadiums. The city has determined it would be too early for the Central Park memorial service originally planned.
4:00 PM, Dow Jones Industrial Average closes down 144.27 (1.62%) to 8759.13. Other indexes are down similarly. At its lowest point, the Dow Jones was down over 420 points.
Pakistan general/president Musharraf gives speech asking country to go along with government decision to support United States—allowing flights over airspace, supplying intelligence, etc.
40 Senators visit New York City to see the rescue and recovery effort firsthand.
The official number of missing persons at the WTC rises dramatically to 6333, due to reports coming in from foreign countries.
President Bush gives speech to joint session of Congress, with British Prime Minister Tony Blair, Rudy Giuliani, and Governor Pataki in attendance. He thanks the world for its support of the US, and announces that the US is at war with terrorism and demands countries choose to be "with us or with the terrorists." He limits the enemy to terrorist groups with "global reach." Five unconditional demands are imposed on the Taliban, including the immediate closedown of all terrorist training camps and the delivery of all al-Qaeda leaders to US authorities. He creates a new cabinet-level office, Homeland Security and names Pennsylvania Governor Tom Ridge as its head. His speech is interrupted with applause on many occasions.
Conference of Afghan Islamic clerics advise Taliban leader Mohammad Shah to invite Osama bin Laden to leave Afghanistan by his own choice.
New York Philharmonic memorial concert of Brahms'Ein Deutsches Requiem in Avery Fisher Hall. The concert was led off by the national anthem, and on the stage was a flag which appeared on stage during all Philharmonic World War II concerts. All proceeds go to disaster relief. At the request of the Philharmonic director, all applause was held, and the audience filed out in silence.
4 AM EDT: Final version of airline assistance bill is written.
In the morning hours, the Congress approves a bill to prop up the airline industry and establish a federal fund for victims. The cost of the mostly open-ended fund may reach about $15 billion. Victims of earlier terrorist attacks, including those linked to al-Qaida, were not included in the fund.
Afghanistan press conference announces willingness to turn Osama bin Laden forcibly over only with evidence. United States reiterates it will not negotiate on demands. The US never releases the evidence demanded.
Tens of thousands demonstrate in Pakistan against the government's cooperation with United States.
The official number of missing persons at the WTC continues to fluctuate, 6300s to 6500s. They come from over 60 countries.
Stock markets continue dramatic slide. (For the United States, worst week since 1930s).
A two-hour live telethon entitled "America: A Tribute to Heroes", with musical performances and spoken tributes by top American performers, is simultaneously broadcast on nearly every network. Controversy over disbursement of the funds raised will later arise.
Yemeni-American, Mr. Ali M. Al-Mansoob/Mr. Ali Al Mansouri, 44, is fatally shot 12 times in the back in Detroit, allegedly by a man angry about the terrorist attacks.
In the first major sporting event in New York City since the attack, a baseball game at Shea Stadium, the New York Mets' Mike Piazza hits a two-run, game-winning home run in the bottom of the eighth inning against the Atlanta Braves to defeat the Braves, 3-2.
The official count of bodies found at the site of the World Trade Center is 261; 194 have been identified. The official missing count at the World Trade Center is 6,453.
Taliban claim they cannot find Osama bin Laden to deliver request that he leave the country of his own will.
NFL games recommence.
Interfaith memorial service, known as "Prayer for America," is held at Yankee Stadium.
NASCAR's MBNA Cal Ripken, Jr. 400 was hosted at Dover International Speedway, most drivers having special paint jobs with American flags for honor of the attacks. During God Bless the USA, composed and performed at the race by Lee Greenwood, the aftermath of the World Trade Center was aired. For the first time ever, security measures prevent anyone who was not a track employee from working the race, with a nearby military base handling logistics. Dale Earnhardt, Jr. won the event and celebrated by driving around the track with an American flag out the window.
United Nations warns of humanitarian disaster if 1.5 million expected Afghan refugees have nowhere to go, or in any case in two-three weeks when food relief supplies run out. All borders have been closed, Pakistan may accept more refugees although there are already 2 million from the previous 23 years of war.
Jesse Jackson reports receiving an invitation from the Taliban to come to Afghanistan as part of a peace delegation. They deny making the invitation, but welcome him to come. The United States government frowns on it, but will not stand in the way.
Significant fighting is going on between the Northern Alliance and the Taliban. Russia pledges to increase aid to the Northern Alliance.
United States reveals that special forces are now, and/or have been recently, operating in Afghanistan already or in recent days.
The official count of bodies found at the site of the World Trade Center is 306; no new identifications are made. The official missing count at the World Trade Center remains 5,960.
FBI Press Conference release of an untranslated handwritten 4-page hijackers' letter written in Arabic and found in three separate copies at Dulles, the Pennsylvania crash site, and in Mohamed Atta's suitcase. It includes Islamic prayers, instructions for a last night of life, and a practical checklist of final reminders for the mission.
The Taliban ambassador to Pakistan, Mullah Abdul Salam Zaeef, admits that the Taliban regime is protecting Osama bin Laden in an unknown location in Afghanistan, that he had been given the ulema recommendation that he leave the country voluntarily which he has turned down, and that the Taliban would be open to negotiations with the US given evidence of bin Laden's culpability in the 9/11 attacks. John Ashcroft expresses skepticism as well as anger at the Taliban's refusal to accept conditions.
^FBI Releases Copy of 4 Page Letter Linked to HijackersFBI, Press Conference national Press Release, September 28, 2001
Translated: Instructions for the Last Night, PBS Frontline, "Inside the Terror Network, tracking their personal stories." The British newspaper The Observer published this translation, provided for The New York Times by Capital Communications Group, a Washington-based international consulting firm, and by Imad Musa, a translator. Some notable excerpts: ..."Make an oath to die and renew your intentions..."... "Check your weapon before you leave and long before you leave. (You must make your knife sharp and must not discomfort your animal during the slaughter). " ... "All of their equipment and gates and technology will not prevent, nor harm, except by God's will. The believers do not fear such things. ..." ... "When the confrontation begins, strike like champions who do not want to go back to this world. Shout, 'Allahu Akbar,' because this strikes fear in the hearts of the non-believers. God said: 'Strike above the neck, and strike at all of their extremities.' Know that the gardens of paradise are waiting for you in all their beauty, and the women of paradise are waiting, calling out, 'Come hither, friend of God.' They have dressed in their most beautiful clothing..." ... "If you slaughter, do not cause the discomfort of those you are killing, because this is one of the practices of the prophet, peace be upon him..." ... "Do not seek revenge for yourself. Strike for God's sake..." ... "Then implement the way of the prophet in taking prisoners. Take prisoners and kill them. As Almighty God said: 'No prophet should have prisoners until he has soaked the land with blood... " ... "How beautiful it is for one to read God's words, such as: 'And those who prefer the afterlife over this world should fight for the sake of God.' And His words: 'Do not suppose that those who are killed for the sake of God are dead; they are alive ... '." ... "Either end your life while praying, seconds before the target, or make your last words: 'There is no God but God, Muhammad is His messenger'."