Timeline for aircraft carrier service

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HMS Furious in 1918 – Note forward flying off deck, and original cruiser superstructure.
HMS Argus in 1918 – the world's first full-flight-deck aircraft carrier.
USS Ronald Reagan in 2005.
In less than 100 years aircraft carriers have developed into a powerful tool for the projection of power in pursuit of national interests.

Aircraft carriers have their origins during the days of World War I. The earliest experiments constisted of fitting temporary "flying off" platforms to the gun turrets of the warships of several nations, notably the United States and the United Kingdom. The first ship to be modified with a permanent flight deck was the battlecruiser HMS Furious which initially had a single flying off deck forward of the original superstructure. Subsequently, she was modified with a separate "landing on" deck aft and later with a full flush deck. Other ships, often liners, were modified to have full flush flight decks, HMS Argus being the first to have such modification begun. Those first faltering steps gave little indication of just how important the aircraft carrier was to prove to be. During the inter-war years (between the World Wars), Japan, the United Kingdom and the United States built up significant carrier fleets so that by the beginning of World War II, they had 18 carriers between them. The 1940 Battle of Taranto and the 1941 Attack on Pearl Harbor in retrospect showed the world that the aircraft carrier was to be the most important ship in the modern fleet. Today, aircraft carriers are the capital ships of the navies they serve in, and in the case of modern US "supercarriers", they embark an airgroup that is effectively a small air force.

This timeline is an attempt to provide a unified chronology of key dates[I] in carrier service. Aircraft carriers[II] often serve their navies for many decades and this chronology[III] enables the reader to track the progress of the carrier as it has developed alongside the evolution of aircraft for nearly a hundred years.

Pre-carrier history[edit]

Civilian pilot Eugene Ely takes off in a Curtiss Model D biplane from USS Birmingham

1907

  • The British Admiralty, according to legend, politely refused the Wright brothers' offer to sell them one or more aircraft, by saying that they could see no place for aviation in naval circles.[1][IV]

1910

1911

  • 18 January — First deck landing, using a temporary wooden platform on the at anchor USS Pennsylvania; first use of a tailhook-arrested landing system.[1]

1912

  • 10 January — First launch of an aircraft from a British ship, Charles Samson flies off a platform fixed to the front of the stationary battleship HMS Africa.[3]
  • 2 May — First recorded flight from a moving ship, Samson flies off HMS Hibernia, steaming at 10.5 knots.[4] Then in June, Samson flies off HMS London.

World War I[edit]

2 August 1917, Sqn Cdr E. H. Dunning makes the first aircraft landing on a moving ship, HMS Furious

1914

1915

1916

1917

1918

  • 15 January — HMS Hermes laid down;[11] Hermes was the first ship specifically designed to be built as an aircraft carrier and the first carrier to feature an island superstructure.[4][12]
  • 28 February — Incomplete Chilean battleship Almirante Cochrane purchased by the Royal Navy to be completed as the carrier HMS Eagle.[13]
  • 8 June — HMS Eagle launched.[13]
  • 9 July — First strike by aircraft launched from a carrier, the Tondern raid, an attack by British aircraft from Furious against a German airship base in northern Germany.[8]
  • 14 September — HMS Argus commissioned.[4]
  • 11 November — Armistice signed, signalling the end of WWI.

Between the wars[edit]

1919

1920

  • 24 March — USS Jupiter decommissioned for conversion to a carrier.[14]
  • 21 April — USS Jupiter renamed USS Langley.[14]
  • 1 November — U.S. Navy sinks USS Indiana during an exercise testing aerial bombardment.[14]
  • 6 December — Akagi laid down as battlecruiser.[16]

1921

  • 13 November — Hōshō launched.[15]

1922

1923

1924

  • 26 February — HMS Eagle commissioned.[13]
  • June — Light cruiser HMS Courageous carrier conversion started.[19]

1925

HMS Furious after flush deck conversion
  • Light cruiser HMS Glorious carrier conversion started.[19]
  • 7 April — USS Saratoga launched.[14]
  • 22 April — Akagi launched.[16]
  • 1 July — First night deck landing made by F/Lt Boyce flying a Blackburn Dart onto HMS Furious[8]
  • September — HMS Furious re-enters service with flush flight deck.[10]
  • 3 October — USS Lexington launched.[14]

1926

1927

  • 25 March — Akagi commissioned[16]
  • May — Béarn commissioned.[17]
  • 16 November — USS Saratoga commissioned.[14]
  • 14 December — USS Lexington commissioned.[14]

1928

  • 5 May — HMS Courageous commissioned as a carrier;[19] first carrier to be fitted with transverse arrestor gear (friction-based).[21]
  • 31 March — Kaga commissioned.[18]

1929

1930

  • 10 March — HMS Glorious recommissioned as an aircraft carrier.[19]
  • March — HMS Argus placed in reserve.[23]

1931

  • 2 January — First carrier fitted with hydraulic arresting gear, HMS Courageous.[4]
  • 2 April — Ryūjō launched.[22]
  • 26 September – USS Ranger laid down.[24]

1933

Japanese carrier Ryūjō
  • 25 February — USS Ranger launched.[24]
  • 9 May — Ryūjō commissioned.[22]

1934

1935

  • 9 September – First landing of a rotary winged aircraft aboard a carrier – a Cierva autogyro onto HMS Furious[8]
  • 16 September — HMS Ark Royal laid down.[27]
  • 21 December — Sōryū launched.[26]

1936

  • 15 January — Japan exits the Washington Naval Treaty.
  • 1 April — USS Wasp laid down.[14]
  • 4 April — USS Yorktown launched.[14]
  • 8 July — Hiryū laid down.[26]
  • 3 October — USS Enterprise launched.[14]
  • 25 October — USS Langley taken in hand for conversion to a seaplane tender.[14]
  • 28 December — Flugzeugträger A (Graf Zeppelin) laid down.[28]

1937

1938

The only German aircraft carrier ever launched, Graf Zeppelin, was never completed

1939

Japanese carrier Shōkaku
  • 21 February — HMS Implacable laid down.[33]
  • 4 April — USS Wasp launched.[14]
  • 5 April — HMS Illustrious launched.[29]
  • 1 June — Shōkaku launched.[30]
  • 26 June — HMS Unicorn laid down.[34]
  • 5 July — Hiryū commissioned.[26]
  • 17 August — HMS Formidable launched.[29]

World War II[edit]

1939

1940

  • Conversion of Izumo Maru to carrier started, renamed Hiyō.[35]
  • Kashiwara Maru carrier conversion started, renamed Jun'yō.[35]
  • HMS Argus recommissioned as training and transport carrier.[9]
  • 28 February — German Flugzeugträger B cancelled while under construction.[32]
  • 26 March — HMS Indomitable launched.[29]
  • 25 April — USS Wasp commissioned.[14]
  • May — Graf Zeppelin construction temporarily suspended.[28]
  • 25 May — HMS Illustrious commissioned;[29] first fully armoured carrier.[4]
  • June — Béarn interned at Martinique.[17]
  • 18 June — HMS Glorious sunk in action.[19]
  • 21 June — Attack on Scharnhorst, first ever torpedo attack by aircraft on a capital ship at sea.[36]
  • 25 June — France falls to Germany.
  • 11 November — Battle of Taranto is the first carrier-based torpedo-bomber attack.[4]
  • 24 November — HMS Formidable commissioned.[29]
  • 14 December — USS Hornet launched.[14]
  • 27 December — conversion of Takasaki completed, commissioned as Zuihō.[31]

1941

Japanese carrier Taiyō
  • 10 July — Taihō laid down.[41]
  • 15 July — USS Cabot laid down.[14]
  • 8 August — Shōkaku commissioned.[30]
  • 2 September — Kasuga Maru carrier conversion completed.[42]
  • 15 September — USS Bunker Hill laid down;[38] Kasuga Maru commissioned as Taiyō[39][43]
  • 25 September — Zuikaku commissioned.[30]
  • 10 October — HMS Indomitable commissioned.[29]
  • 20 October — USS Hornet commissioned.[14]
  • 13 November — HMS Ark Royal sunk in action.[27]

1942

HMS Hermes sinking
  • 8 May — USS Lexington sunk in action;[14] Battle of the Coral Sea ends.
  • 31 May — Yawata Maru carrier conversion completed, commissioned as Unyō.[43]
  • June — Incomplete Yamato-class battleship Shinano carrier conversion started.[42]
  • 1 June — HMS Colossus laid down,[45] and HMS Edgar laid down.[45]
  • 2 June - USS Wilmington re-designated for completion as carrier.[14]
  • 4 June — Battle of Midway commenced, generally considered to be the most important naval battle in the Pacific during World War II; Akagi,[16] Kaga,[18] Sōryū[26] severely damaged in action,[42] with Kaga and Sōryū subsequently scuttled.[42]
  • 5 June — Hiryū sunk in action,[26] Akagi[16] scuttled.
  • 7 June — USS Yorktown sunk in action;[14] Battle of Midway ended.
  • 16 June — USS Cabot renamed USS Lexington.[14]
  • 23 June — USS Wilmington renamed USS Cabot.[14]
Japanese carrier Hiyō
USS Wasp on fire shortly after being torpedoed
Japanese carrier Chūyō
  • 31 December — USS Essex commissioned.[44]

1943

  • 17 June — USS Monterey commissioned.[14]
  • 30 June — Béarn transferred to the Free French forces.[17]
  • 5 July – Ikoma laid down.[46]
  • 24 July — USS Cabot commissioned.[14]
  • 29 July — HMS Magnificent laid down.[12][52]
  • 1 August — USS Bataan launched.[44]
  • 16 August — USS Intrepid commissioned.[14]
  • 17 August — USS Wasp launched.[14]
  • 30 August — USS Hornet launched.[14]
  • 31 August — USS Langley commissioned.[14]
  • September – Incomplete carrier Aquila taken over by Germany after Italian surrender, but never completed[37]
  • 13 September — USS Boxer laid down.[44]
  • 14 September — USS Valley Forge (CV-37) laid down.[14]
  • 25 September — Unryū launched.[46]
  • 26 September — USS San Jacinto launched.[14]
  • 30 September — HMS Colossus launched.[53]
  • 12 October — HMS Hercules laid down.[53]
  • 14 October — USS Franklin launched.[24]
  • 15 October — Amagi launched.[46]
  • 18 October — HMS Leviathan laid down.[45]
  • 27 October — USS Midway laid down.[14]
  • 31 October — Chiyoda carrier conversion completed, recommissioned.[54]
  • 15 November — ex-SS Scharnhorst commissioned as Shinyo;[42] USS San Jacinto commissioned.[14]
  • 17 November — USS Bataan commissioned.[44]
Japanese carrier Kaiyo
  • 23 November — Argentina Maru carrier conversion completed, commissioned as Kaiyo.[55]
  • 24 November — USS Wasp commissioned.[14]
  • 27 November — HMS Glory launched,[45]HMS Powerful laid down.[12][52]
  • 29 November — USS Hornet commissioned.[14]
  • 1 December — USS Coral Sea (CV-42) laid down.[56]
  • 4 December — Chūyō sunk in action.[43]
  • 30 December — HMS Venerable launched.[45]

1944

  • 1 January — Chitose carrier conversion completed, commissioned.[54]
  • 19 January — Katsuragi launched.[46]
  • 24 January — USS Hancock launched.[14]
  • 31 January — USS Franklin commissioned.[14]
  • 7 February — USS Ticonderoga launched.[14]
  • 21 February — USS Crown Point (CV-32) laid down.[14]
  • 23 February — HMS Vengeance launched.[48]
  • 24 February — USS Shangri-La launched.[14]
  • 26 February — USS Bennington launched.[14]
  • 1 March — USS Tarawa,[14] USS Kearsarge laid down.[38]
  • 7 March — Taihō commissioned.[41]
  • 23 March — HMS Albion laid down.[57][58]
  • 25 March — First deck landing by a twin engined aircraft, a Mosquito on HMS Indefatigable.[4]
  • 26 March — HMS Edgar launched.[45]
  • 15 April — USS Hancock commissioned.[14]
  • 29 April — USS Bon Homme Richard launched.[14]
  • 1 May — USS Oriskany laid down.[14]
Japanese carrier Shinano
  • 8 October — Shinano launched.[61]
  • 9 October — USS Randolph commissioned.[14]
  • 15 October — Katsuragi commissioned.[42]
  • 19 October – Kasagi launched, never completed and broken up after the war.[46]
  • 24 October — USS Princeton sunk in action.[14]
  • 25 October — Chitose,[54] Chiyoda,[54] Zuihō[31] and Zuikaku[30] sunk in action.
  • 1 November – Aso launched, never completed and broken up after the war.[46]
  • 2 November — USS Lake Champlain launched.[14]
  • 16 November — HMS Magnificent launched.[52]
  • 17 November — Ikoma launched, never completed and broken up after the war;[46] Shinyo sunk in action.[55]
  • 18 November — USS Valley Forge (CV-45) launched.
  • 19 November — Shinano commissioned.[42]
  • 21 November — USS Valley Forge (CV-37) renamed USS Princeton.[14]
  • 26 November — USS Bon Homme Richard commissioned.[14]
  • 29 November — Shinano sunk in action.[61]
  • December — HMS Argus designated an accommodation ship.[9]
  • 14 December — USS Boxer launched.[44]
  • 16 December — HMS Colossus commissioned.[45]
  • 19 December — Unryū sunk in action.[46]

1945

  • 15 January — HMS Vengeance commissioned.[48]
  • 28 January — USS Antietam commissioned.[24]
  • 8 February — HMS Mars commissioned as HMS Pioneer.[45]
  • 27 February — HMS Powerful launched (construction suspended at end of WWII).[52]
  • 28 February — HMS Majestic launched.[50]
  • 17 January — HMS Venerable commissioned.[45]
  • March – Ryūhō severely damaged by US air attack.[49]
  • 20 March — USS Midway launched.[14]
  • 2 April — HMS Glory commissioned.[45]
  • 9 April — Escort carrier HMS Biter returned to U.S. Navy, immediately transferred to France, recommissioned as Dixmude.[17]
  • 16 April — USS Boxer commissioned.[44]
  • 20 April — Ryūhō placed in reserve.[42]
  • 25 April — Incomplete Graf Zeppelin scuttled by Germany.[62]
  • 29 April — USS Coral Sea launched.[14]
  • 5 May — USS Kearsarge launched.[14]
  • 7 May — Nazi Germany surrenders.
  • 8 May — USS Crown Point renamed USS Leyte,[14] USS Coral Sea renamed USS Franklin D. Roosevelt.[14]
  • 12 May — USS Tarawa launched.[14]
  • 10 May — HMS Bulwark laid down.[63]
  • 3 June — USS Lake Champlain commissioned.[14]
  • 7 June — HMS Leviathan launched (ship never completed).[53]
  • 8 July — USS Princeton and USS Saipan launched.[14]
  • 24 July — Amagi heavily damaged during air raid.[42]
  • 25 July — Kaiyo, having been damaged in action the previous day, is deliberately grounded and later refloated.[42]
  • 28 July — Kaiyo further damaged in action, settles on bottom with 20-degree list to port.[42]
  • 29 July — Attempts to refloat Kaiyo abandoned.[42]
  • 29 July — Amagi capsized.[42]
  • 6 August — U.S. nuclear strike on Hiroshima.
  • 8 August — HMS Ocean commissioned.[45]
  • 9 August — Last of caretaker crew leave Kaiyo;[42] U.S. nuclear strike on Nagasaki.
  • 12 August — USS Reprisal canceled.[14]
  • 15 August — Japan surrenders; WWII ends.

Post-war 1945–1949[edit]

1945

The first carrier landing and take-off of a jet aircraft: Eric "Winkle" Brown landing on HMS Ocean (R68) in 1945.
  • USS Reprisal (incomplete) launched to clear slipway.[14]
  • 8 July — USS Valley Forge (CV-45) launched.[14]
  • 23 August — USS Leyte launched.[14]
  • 1 September — USS Wright launched.[14]
  • 5 September — USS Philippine Sea launched.[14]
  • 10 September — USS Midway commissioned.[14]
  • 22 September — HMS Hercules launched, laid up for possible future use.[53]
  • 13 October — USS Oriskany launched;[14] Katsuragi assigned to repatriation duty.[42]
  • 19 October — HMS Edgar renamed and commissioned as HMS Perseus.[45]
  • 27 October — USS Franklin D. Roosevelt commissioned.[14]
  • 18 November — USS Princeton commissioned.[14]
  • 20 November — Kaiyo decommissioned.[42]
  • 30 November — Junyō and Ryūhō decommissioned.[42]
  • 3 December — First landing by a jet-powered aircraft on a carrier, HMS Ocean.[64]
  • 8 December — USS Tarawa commissioned.[14]

1946

  • Ryūhō sold for scrap.[49]
  • HMS Unicorn decommissioned and placed in reserve;[34]
  • January — HMS Audacious renamed HMS Eagle.[47]
  • 9 February — HMS Theseus commissioned.[45]
  • March — Graf Zeppelin refloated by the Soviet Union, repaired, and designated "PO-101" (Floating Base Number 101).[32]
  • 2 March — USS Kearsarge commissioned.[14]
  • 14 Mar — HMS Warrior commissioned as HMCS Warrior.[65]
  • 19 March — HMS Eagle launched.[47]
  • April — Katsuragi placed on standby.[42]
  • 2 April — USS Coral Sea launched.[44]
  • 11 April — USS Leyte commissioned.[14]
  • 9 May — HMS Triumph commissioned.[45]
  • 11 May — USS Philippine Sea commissioned.[14]
  • 1 July — USS Independence and USS Saratoga used during a Bikini Atoll atomic test; both ships were damaged, but survived the test.[14]
  • 14 July — USS Saipan commissioned.[14]
  • 21 July — FH Phantom became the first purely jet-powered aircraft to operate from an American aircraft carrier.
  • 25 July — USS Saratoga sunk by an underwater atomic bomb test at Bikini Island.[14]
  • 6 August — HMS Colossus renamed Arromanches and loaned to France.[17]
  • 16 August — Hōshō decommissioned.[15]
  • 28 August — USS Independence decommissioned.[14]
  • September — First helicopter landing aboard a naval escort vessel at sea.[8]
  • 1 September — Hulk of Kaiyo sold for scrap.[42]
  • 18 October — USS Ranger decommissioned.[24]
  • 3 November — USS Valley Forge commissioned.[14]
  • 8 November — USS Bennington decommissioned, placed in reserve.[14]
  • 15 November — Katsuragi decommissioned.[42]
  • December — HMS Indefatigable decommissioned.[12]

[47]

  • December — HMS Argus sold for scrap.[9]
  • 19 December — First Indochina War begins.
  • 22 December — Katsuragi sold for scrap.[42]

1947

  • HMS Indomitable[12] and HMS Formidable[29] placed in reserve.
  • HMS Majestic and HMS Terrible purchased by Australia.[66]
  • Junyō sold for scrap.[35]
  • 9 January — USS Essex,[24] USS Yorktown,[14] USS Bon Homme Richard,[14] USS Bunker Hill,[14] and USS Ticonderoga[14] decommissioned, placed in reserve.
  • 13 January — USS Belleau Wood and USS Cowpens decommissioned, placed in reserve.[14]
  • 15 January — USS Hornet decommissioned, placed in reserve.[14]
  • 28 January — USS Ranger sold for scrap.[24]
  • 9 February — USS Wright commissioned.[14]
  • 11 February — USS Cabot, USS Monterey,[14] USS Langley, and USS Bataan decommissioned, placed in reserve.[24]
  • 17 February — USS Lake Champlain,[14] USS Enterprise,[14] USS Franklin,[24] and USS Wasp[14] decommissioned, placed in reserve.
  • 1 March — USS San Jacinto decommissioned, placed in reserve.[14]
  • 22 March — USS Intrepid decommissioned, placed in reserve.[14]
  • April — HMS Venerable decommissioned, placed in reserve.[67]
  • 22 April – HMS Centaur launched.[57]
  • 23 April — USS Lexington decommissioned, placed in reserve.[14]
  • 30 April — Hōshō sold for scrap.[15]
  • 6 May — HMS Albion launched.[57][58]
  • 9 May — USS Hancock decommissioned, placed in reserve.[14]
  • 16 August — Graf Zeppelin sunk in target practice by the Soviet Union.[32]
  • 12 August — USS Oriskany construction suspended.[14]
  • 1 October — USS Coral Sea commissioned.[44]
  • 7 November — USS Shangri-La decommissioned, placed in reserve.[14]

1948

  • January — HMS Furious sold for scrap.[12][59]
  • 25 February — USS Randolph decommissioned, placed in reserve.[14]
  • 21 March — HMS Magnificent loaned to Canada and commissioned as HMCS Magnificent.[52]
  • 23 March — HMS Warrior returned to UK.[52]
  • May — HMS Venerable sold to Netherlands.[68]
  • 28 May — HMS Venerable recommissioned as HNLMS Karel Doorman.[68]
  • 20 June — USS Princeton decommissioned, placed in reserve.[14]
  • 22 June — HMS Bulwark launched.[57]
  • 24 June — Soviet blockade of Berlin increased tensions in what would become the Cold War between NATO-allied nations and the Warsaw Pact.
  • 27 October — USS Cabot recommissioned.[14]
  • November — HMS Warrior recommissioned, fitted with a rubber deck for trials.[45]
  • 16 December — HMS Terrible commissioned as HMAS Sydney.[51]
Dutch carrier HNLMS Karel Doorman (R81) launching a Hawker Sea Fury in the mid-1950s

1949

  • HMS Unicorn recommissioned as transport carrier.[34]
  • Dixmude converted for use as a transport.[14]
  • 18 April — USS United States laid down.[14]
  • 4 April — NATO alliance formed.
  • 23 April — USS United States cancelled.[14]
  • 21 June — USS Antietam decommissioned, placed in reserve.[14]
  • 30 June — USS Tarawa decommissioned, placed in reserve.[24]
  • 2 August — USS Reprisal (incomplete) sold for scrap.[14]

1950–1959[edit]

1950

  • HMS Indomitable recommissioned;[12] HMS Indefatigable recommissioned as a training ship.[33]
  • 3 May — HMS Ark Royal launched.[47]
  • 13 May — USS Bataan recommissioned.[24]
  • June — USS Oriskany construction resumed.[14]
  • 16 June — USS Kearsarge decommissioned, taken in hand for modernisation.[14]
  • 25 June — Korean War begins.
  • 28 August — USS Princeton recommissioned.[14]
  • 15 September — USS Monterey recommissioned.[14]
  • 25 September — USS Oriskany commissioned.[14]

1951

  • Aquila sold for scrap[37]
  • Arromanches purchased by France.[17]
  • January — USS Langley loaned to France.[40]
  • 15 January — USS Bon Homme Richard recommissioned.[14]
  • 16 January — USS Essex recommissioned.[24]
  • 17 January — USS Antietam recommissioned.[38]
  • 29 January — USS Independence sunk in weapons tests.[14]
  • 3 February — USS Tarawa recommissioned.[14]
  • 20 March — USS Hornet recommissioned.[14]
  • 10 May — USS Shangri-La recommissioned.[14]
  • 12 May — USS Hornet decommissioned for conversion to CVA.[14]
  • 6 June — USS Langley recommissioned as La Fayette.[17]
  • July — First trials of a steam catapult, on HMS Perseus.[64][69]
  • 31 July — HMS Vidal launched, first small ship designed to carry a helicopter.[8]
  • 10 September — USS Wasp recommissioned as CVA.[14]
  • 1 October — HMS Eagle commissioned.[47]

1952

  • First trial of angled flight deck, on HMS Triumph.[64][69]
  • First trial of mirror landing aid, on HMS Illustrious.[64][70]
  • 9 February — USS Intrepid recommissioned.[14]
  • 15 February — USS Kearsarge recommissioned.[14]
  • 31 January — USS Ticonderoga recommissioned.[14]
  • 4 April — USS Ticonderoga decommissioned for conversion to CVA.[14]
  • 9 April — USS Intrepid decommissioned for conversion to CVA.[14]
  • 23 April — HMS Powerful sold to Canada, work recommenced.[12][52]
  • 14 July — USS Forrestal laid down.[44]
  • 19 September — USS Lake Champlain recommissioned.[14]
  • October — USS Boxer reclassified CVA.[14]
  • 13 November — HMS Vengeance loaned to Australia, recommissioned as HMAS Vengeance;[48] USS Bennington recommissioned as CVA.[14]
  • 14 November — USS Shangri-La decommissioned for modernisation.[14]
  • 16 December — USS Saratoga laid down.[14]

1953

  • HMS Formidable sold for scrap.[29]
  • HMS Unicorn decommissioned, placed in reserve.[34]
  • 16 February — HMS Hermes launched.[57]
  • 20 February — USS Yorktown recommissioned.[14]
  • May — HMS Indomitable sold for scrap.[29]
  • 15 May — USS Bon Homme Richard decommissioned, commenced extensive refit.[14]
  • 1 July — USS Randolph recommissioned.[14]
  • 27 July — Korean War fighting ends with the Korean armistice agreement.
  • 1 September – HMS Centaur launched.[57]
  • 5 September — USS Belleau Wood loaned to France.[14]
  • 5 September — USS Belleau Wood recommissioned as Bois Belleau.[17]
  • 11 September — USS Hornet recommissioned.[14]

1954

  • HMS Perseus decommissioned, placed in reserve.[71]
  • Mid-1954 — HMS Implacable and HMS Indefatigable decommissioned.[33]
  • 15 February — USS Hancock recommissioned as CVA.[14]
  • 9 April — USS Bataan decommissioned, placed in reserve.[44]
  • 23 April – USS Franklin D. Roosevelt decommissioned for modernisation.[14]
  • 26 May — HMS Albion commissioned.[57][58]
  • 18 June — USS Intrepid recommissioned in reserve.[14]
  • 1 August — First Indochina War ends.
  • 2 August — USS Ranger laid down.[14]
  • September — HMS Pioneer decommissioned and sold for scrap;[12][45]
  • 11 September — USS Ticonderoga recommissioned after modernisation.[14]
  • 15 October — USS Intrepid returned to full commission.[14]
  • 4 November — HMS Bulwark commissioned.[57]
  • December — HMS Illustrious decommissioned.[12][29]
  • 11 December — USS Forrestal launched.[44]

1955

  • 10 January — USS Shangri-La recommissioned.[14]
  • 21 January — USS Cabot decommissioned, placed in reserve.[24]
  • 25 February — HMS Ark Royal commissioned.[47]
  • 6 April – USS Franklin D. Roosevelt recommissioned with angled flight deck, steam catapult and hurricane bow.[14]
  • 14 May — Warsaw Pact formed.
  • July — USS Midway decommissioned for modernisation.[24]
  • 1 July — USS Independence laid down.[44]
  • 13 August — HMS Vengeance returned to UK.[12][45]
  • 15 August — USS Lexington recommissioned as CVA.[14]
  • 6 September — USS Bon Homme Richard recommissioned.[14]
  • 29 September — USS Forrestal commissioned.[44]
  • 8 October — USS Saratoga launched.[14]
  • 25 October — HMAS Vengeance decommissioned.[48]
  • 26 October — HMS Majestic christened as HMAS Majestic.[72]
Australian carrier HMAS Melbourne
  • 28 October — HMAS Majestic renamed and commissioned as HMAS Melbourne;[73] HMS Vengeance recommissioned in reserve.[48]
  • November – HMS Implacable sold for scrap.[33]
  • 1 November — Clemenceau (France) laid down.[17]
  • 15 November — USS Boxer reclassified as CVS.[14]

1956

  • HMS Indefatigable sold for scrap.[33]
  • HMS Glory decommissioned, placed in reserve.[12][45]
  • 16 January — USS Monterey decommissioned, placed in reserve.[14]
  • 15 March — USS Wright decommissioned, placed in reserve.[14]
  • 13 April — USS Hancock decommissioned.[14]
  • 14 April — USS Saratoga commissioned.[14]
  • 26 September — USS Ranger launched.[14]
  • 29 October — Suez Crisis begins.
  • 3 November — HMS Illustrious sold for scrap.[29]
  • 15 November — USS Hancock recommissioned.[14]
Brazilian carrier NAeL Minas Gerais

1957

  • HMS Theseus decommissioned, placed in reserve.[45]
  • January — HMS Hercules sold to India, construction restarted.[75]
  • 2 January — USS Oriskany decommissioned, started modernisation.[14]
  • 17 January — HMS Powerful commissioned as HMCS Bonaventure.[52]
  • 15 February — Foch (France) laid down.[76]
  • 24 May — USS Coral Sea decommissioned for modernisation.[14]
  • 14 June — HMCS Magnificent returned to UK and placed in reserve as HMS Magnificent.[52]
  • 10 August — USS Ranger commissioned.[14]
  • 14 September — USS Constellation laid down.[74]
  • 30 September — USS Midway recommissioned.[14]
  • 3 October — USS Saipan decommissioned, placed in reserve.[14]
  • 5 December — HMS Ocean decommissioned, placed in reserve.[12][45]
  • 21 December — Clemenceau launched.[17][77]

1958

  • HMS Perseus and HMS Ocean sold for scrap.[45]
  • February — HMS Warrior decommissioned.[78]
  • 4 February — USS Enterprise laid down.[79]
  • 30 May — HMAS Sydney decommissioned, held in reserve.[51]
  • 6 June — USS Independence launched.[14]
  • 1 July — USS Enterprise (Yorktown class) sold for scrap.[14]
  • 4 November — Ex-HMS Warrior sold to Argentina.[78]
  • 28 December — USS Philippine Sea decommissioned, placed in reserve.[14]

1959

Argentine carrier ARA Independencia
  • 10 January — USS Independence commissioned.[14]
  • 26 January — Ex-HMS Warrior commissioned as ARA Independencia.[80]
  • 30 January — USS Boxer reclassified LPH.[24]
  • 2 March — USS Princeton reclassified LPH.[14]
  • 7 March — USS Oriskany recommissioned.[14]
  • 15 May — USS Leyte decommissioned, placed in reserve.[14]
  • June — HMS Unicorn sold for scrap.[12][34]
  • 1 November — USS Cowpens sold for scrap.[24]
  • 18 November — HMS Hermes commissioned.[57]

1960–1969[edit]

1960

  • Dixmude hulked as an accommodation ship.[81]
  • HMS Ocean and HMS Theseus sold for scrap.[45]
  • 25 January — USS Coral Sea recommissioned.[14]
  • May — USS Tarawa decommissioned, placed in reserve.[14]
  • 21 May — USS Kitty Hawk launched.[74]
  • 28 July — Foch launched.[76][82]
  • September — Bois Belleau (USS Belleau Wood) returned to US Navy.[17]
  • 24 September — USS Enterprise launched.[79]
  • 1 October — Bois Belleau struck.[14]
  • 8 October — USS Constellation launched.[74]
  • 21 November — USS Belleau Wood sold for scrap.[14]
  • 6 December — Ex-HMS Vengeance recommissioned as NAeL Minas Gerais.[48][65]

1961

French carrier Clemenceau
  • 9 January — USS America laid down.[44]
  • 4 March — HMS Hercules commissioned as INS Vikrant.[75]
  • 29 April — USS Kitty Hawk commissioned.[74]
  • May — USS Bataan sold for scrap.[24]
  • 1 July — USS Valley Forge reclassified LPH.[14]
  • 27 October — USS Constellation commissioned.[74]
  • 22 November — Clemenceau commissioned.[17][77]
  • 25 November — USS Enterprise commissioned;[79] first nuclear-powered aircraft carrier.[83]

1962

  • 7 March — HMAS Sydney recommissioned as fast troop carrier.[51]
  • 15 March — USS Wright conversion to command and control ship started.[14]
  • Mid 1962 – HMS Albion designated as commando carrier.[57]
  • August — Indonesia plans invasion of West New Guinea; war plans include sinking of Dutch carrier Karel Doorman using Soviet-supplied bombers with anti-ship missiles, but ceasefire ended the threat.

1963

1964

1965

  • 23 January — USS America commissioned.[44]
  • 8 April — USS Saipan renamed USS Arlington.[14]
  • July — HMS Magnificent sold for scrap.[52]

1966

  • HMS Centaur designated as depot ship.[57]
  • Béarn decommissioned.[17]
  • British 1966 Defence White Paper cancels defense projects such as CVA-01 and begins plans for phased end to UK carrier aviation.
  • Dixmude returned to U.S. Navy,[17] sunk as target.
  • 15 February — USS Midway decommissioned for further modernisation.[14]
  • 2 May — USS Lake Champlain decommissioned.[14]
  • 27 July — USS Franklin sold for scrap.[14]
  • 27 August — USS Arlington recommissioned as communication relay ship.[14]

1967

  • HMS Victorious decommissioned for re-fit, subsequently damaged in a minor fire leading to decision to scrap.[29][84]
  • 30 August — USS Cabot loaned to Spain, recommissioned as Dédalo.[85]
  • 31 March — Béarn sold for scrap.[17]
  • 27 May — USS John F. Kennedy launched.[74]

1968

  • Arromanches redesignated as a helicopter carrier.[86]
  • 26 April — HNLMS Karel Doorman decommissioned, placed in reserve, end of Dutch carrier aviation.[68]
  • 22 June — USS Nimitz laid down[87]
  • July — USS Franklin D. Roosevelt decommissioned for modernisation.[24]
  • 7 September — USS John F. Kennedy commissioned.[74]
  • 3 October — USS Tarawa sold for scrap.[14]
  • 15 October — HNLMS Karel Doorman sold to Argentina.[88]

1969

  • 1 January — USS Lexington reclassified as a training carrier (CVT).[14]
  • 13 February — USS Randolph decommissioned, placed in reserve.[14]
  • 12 March — Ex-HNLMS Karel Doorman recommissioned as ARA Veinticinco de Mayo.[88]
  • 26 May — USS Franklin D. Roosevelt recommissioned.[24]
  • 30 June — USS Essex decommissioned.[24]
  • July – HMS Victorious sold for scrap.[29]
  • 1 December — USS Boxer decommissioned;[44] USS Philippine Sea struck.[14]

1970–1979[edit]

1970

  • ARA Independencia decommissioned, placed in reserve.[89]
  • 14 January — USS Arlington decommissioned.[14]
  • 15 January — USS Bennington decommissioned, placed in reserve;[14] USS Valley Forge decommissioned.[14]
  • 30 January — USS Princeton decommissioned.[24]
  • 31 January — USS Midway recommissioned.[24]
  • 13 February — USS Kearsarge decommissioned, placed in reserve.[24]
  • 27 May — USS Wright decommissioned, placed in reserve.[14]
  • 26 June — USS Hornet decommissioned, placed in reserve.[14]
  • 27 June — USS Yorktown decommissioned.[14]
  • 3 July — HMCS Bonaventure decommissioned.[12][52]
  • 15 August — USS Dwight D. Eisenhower laid down.[87]
  • September — Soviet aircraft carrier Kiev laid down.[90]
  • September — USS Leyte sold for scrap.[24]

1971

  • HMS Centaur decommissioned.[57]
  • March — HMCS Bonaventure sold for scrap.[52]
  • 13 March — USS Boxer sold for scrap.[24]
  • 17 March — ARA Independencia sold for scrap.[88]
  • 23 March — USS Philippine Sea sold for scrap.[24]
  • May — USS Monterey and USS Princeton sold for scrap.[24]
  • 2 July — USS Bon Homme Richard decommissioned, placed in reserve.
  • 30 July — USS Shangri-La decommissioned, placed in reserve.[14]
  • 29 October — USS Valley Forge sold for scrap.[14]
  • 3 December — Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 begins. Indian carrier INS Vikrant carries out airstrikes against land and naval targets; Pakistani submarine PNS Ghazi sent to hunt the Vikrant, but sinks under mysterious circumstances.
  • 15 December — USS San Jacinto sold for scrap.[14]

1972

Spanish carrier Dédalo
  • HMS Centaur sold for scrap.[57]
  • HMS Albion decommissioned and sold for scrap.[57]
  • 26 January — HMS Eagle decommissioned.[12][47]
  • 28 April — USS Lake Champlain sold for scrap.[24]
  • 13 May — USS Nimitz launched.[87]
  • 1 July — USS Wasp decommissioned.[14]
  • 5 December — Loan of Dédalo (ex-USS Cabot) to Spain converted to sale.[85]
  • December — Kiev launched, Minsk laid down.[90]

1973

  • USS Bunker Hill sold for scrap.[14]
  • 27 January — Paris Peace Accords; U.S. forces withdraw from the Vietnam War.
  • 21 May — USS Wasp sold for scrap.[14]
  • 20 July — HMS Invincible laid down.[91]
  • 1 September — USS Ticonderoga decommissioned.[14]
  • 12 November — HMAS Sydney decommissioned.[51]

1974

  • 22 January — Arromanches decommissioned.[17]
  • 28 February — USS Antietam sold for scrap.[24]
  • 1 March — USS Kearsarge sold for scrap.[24]
  • 15 March — USS Intrepid decommissioned.[44]

1975

  • HMS Triumph decommissioned, placed in reserve.[45]
  • 1 April — USS Randolph sold for scrap.[44]
  • May — Kiev commissioned.[90]
  • 3 May — USS Nimitz commissioned.[87]
  • 1 June — USS Essex sold for scrap.[24]
  • 1 September — USS Ticonderoga sold for scrap.[24]
  • 30 September — Minsk launched;[92] Novorossiysk laid down.[93]
  • 11 October — USS Dwight D. Eisenhower launched;[87] USS Carl Vinson laid down.[87]
  • 13 October — USS Yorktown preserved as museum ship.[14]
  • 28 October — HMAS Sydney sold for scrap.[51]
Soviet carrier Kiev

1976

  • 30 January — USS Hancock decommissioned.[24]
  • March — HMS Bulwark decommissioned, placed in reserve.[57]
  • 1 June — USS Arlington sold for scrap.[24]
  • 1 September — USS Hancock sold for scrap.[24]
  • September STOVL Harriers equip Spanish aircraft carrier Dédalo, returning her to fixed-wing carrier operations; first STOVL aircraft carrier.
  • 30 September — USS Oriskany decommissioned, placed in reserve.[14]
  • 7 October — HMS Illustrious laid down.[91]

1977

  • 3 May — HMS Invincible launched.[91]
  • 30 September — USS Franklin D. Roosevelt decommissioned.[24]
  • 18 October — USS Dwight D. Eisenhower commissioned.[87]

1978

Soviet carrier Minsk
  • Arromanches sold for scrap.[17]
  • 1 April — USS Franklin D. Roosevelt sold for scrap.[24]
  • 27 September — Minsk commissioned.[92]
  • 17 February — Baku laid down.[94]
  • October — HMS Eagle sold for scrap.[47]
  • 1 December — HMS Illustrious launched.[91]
  • 14 December — HMS Ark Royal (Invincible class) laid down.[91]
  • 26 December — Novorossiysk launched.[93]

1979

1980–1989[edit]

1980

  • HMS Bulwark placed in reserve.[57]
  • 15 March — USS Carl Vinson launched.[87]
  • 11 July — HMS Invincible commissioned;[91] first purpose-built STOVL carrier, first ship to include a ski-jump ramp.
  • 1 August — USS Wright sold for scrap.[24]
  • 22 September — HMS Ark Royal (Audacious class) sold for scrap.[12][47]

1981

1982

  • 25 February — Australian government announces its intention to purchase HMS Invincible and rename it HMAS Australia.
  • 13 March — USS Carl Vinson commissioned.[87]
  • 19 March — Argentina invades South Georgia, launching the Falklands War; this war provides the impetus to slow the drawdown of the Royal Navy, including carrier aviation; deal to sell the HMS Invincible to Australia cancelled.
  • 23 March — USS Intrepid struck, preserved as a museum ship.[44]
  • 1 April — Baku launched.[94]
  • 1 May — Argentine carrier ARA Veinticinco de Mayo detects and attempts airstrike against British fleet, but is unable to launch due to unfavorable winds.
  • 2 May — Argentine cruiser ARA General Belgrano sunk by British submarine; carrier Veinticinco de Mayo withdraws to safe port for the duration of the war.
  • 22 May — Principe de Asturias launched.[95]
  • 30 May — HMAS Melbourne decommissioned.[73]
  • 14 June — Argentine land forces in the Falkland Islands surrender, ending the conflict.
  • 20 June — HMS Illustrious commissioned.[91]
  • 5 July — USS Shangri-La struck.[44]
  • September — Novorossiysk commissioned.[97]

1983

1984

  • 12 April — HMS Hermes decommissioned, placed in maintained reserve.[57]
  • 27 October — USS Theodore Roosevelt launched.[87]
  • 3 November — USS Abraham Lincoln laid down.[87]

1985

Italian carrier Giuseppe Garibaldi
  • ARA Veinticinco de Mayo inoperable, laid up for possible modernisation.[99]
  • HMAS Melbourne sold for scrap.[73]
  • 30 September — Giuseppe Garibaldi commissioned as helicopter anti-submarine warfare carrier.[96]
  • 1 November — HMS Ark Royal commissioned.[91]
  • 5 December — Leonid Brezhnev launched.[98]
  • 10 December — Riga laid down.[100]

1986

Spanish carrier Príncipe de Asturias

1987

  • 11 December — Baku commissioned.[94][102]

1988

  • 13 February — USS Abraham Lincoln launched.[87]
  • 30 May — Príncipe de Asturias commissioned.[95]
  • 9 August — USS Shangri-La sold for scrap.[44]
  • October — Leonid Brezhnev renamed Tbilisi.[100]
  • December — Ulyanovsk laid down.[100]
  • 4 December — Riga launched.[100]

1989

Indian carrier INS Viraat
  • Giuseppe Garibaldi takes on Harrier aircraft, initiating Italian fixed-wing carrier operations.
  • INS Vikrant ends CATOBAR operations and is converted with ski jump to all-STOVL operations.[101]
  • 14 April — Charles de Gaulle laid down;[103] first non-U.S. nuclear aircraft carrier.[104]
  • 20 May — Ex-HMS Hermes commissioned as INS Viraat.[101]
  • 25 July — USS Hornet struck, preserved as a museum ship;[14] USS Oriskany struck to be preserved as a museum ship or scrapped.[14]
  • 5 August — Dédalo decommissioned.[105]
  • 20 September — USS Bon Homme Richard and USS Bennington struck.[44]
  • 11 November — USS Abraham Lincoln commissioned.[87]

1990–1999[edit]

1990

1991

Russian carrier Admiral Kuznetsov

1992

  • Construction of Varyag stopped, transferred to the Ukraine.[108]
  • 4 February — Ulyanovsk scrapped;[107] USS Bon Homme Richard sold for scrap.[24]
  • 11 April — USS Midway decommissioned, preserved as a museum ship.[24]
  • 15 June — USS Lexington donated as a museum ship.[24]
  • 4 July — USS George Washington commissioned.[87]
  • September — Novorossiysk laid up in reserve.[107]

1993

  • 7 May — USS Coral Sea sold for scrap.[24]
  • 30 June — Kiev,[109] Minsk[92] and Novorossiysk[107] decommissioned.
  • 10 July — USS Ranger decommissioned, on donation hold as of 2004.[44]
  • 11 September — USS Forrestal decommissioned,[44] on donation hold.[24]
  • 13 November — USS John C. Stennis launched.[87]
  • 29 November — USS Harry S. Truman laid down.[87]

1994

  • 1 December — USS Bennington sold for scrap.[24]
  • 7 May — Charles de Gaulle launched.[103]
  • 12 July — HTMS Chakri Naruebet laid down.[110]
  • 20 August — USS Saratoga decommissioned.[24]

1995

  • 1 August — Novorossiysk and Minsk sold for scrap, Minsk not scrapped.[107]
  • 9 September — USS Oriskany sold for scrap, not scrapped.[24]
  • 9 December — USS John C. Stennis commissioned.[87]

1996

  • 20 January — HTMS Chakri Naruebet launched.[110]
  • 9 August — USS America decommissioned.[44]
  • 14 September — USS Harry S. Truman launched.[87]

1997

Thai carrier HTMS Chakri Naruebet
  • ARA Veinticinco de Mayo decommissioned.[111]
  • 31 January — INS Vikrant (R11) decommissioned, to be converted to a museum ship at Mumbai.[112]
  • 27 March — HTMS Chakri Naruebet commissioned.[110]
  • 30 July — USS Oriskany repossessed by the USN due to default by scrapping contractor.[24]
  • 1 October — Clemenceau decommissioned.[77]

1998

  • 12 February — USS Ronald Reagan laid down.[44]
  • April — Varyag sold to China.[108]
  • August — Minsk towed to China for use in an amusement park.[92]
  • 30 September — USS Independence decommissioned.[44]
  • 25 July — USS Harry S. Truman commissioned.[87]

1999

  • Varyag departed Ukraine under tow, refused passage through Bosporus Strait, stationed near the straits for three years.[108]
  • January — ARA Veinticinco de Mayo sold for scrap.[113]

2000–2009[edit]

2000

  • 1 January — USS Saratoga placed on donation hold.[24]
  • October — Scrapping of Dédalo commenced.[105]
  • 15 November — Foch decommissioned, and recommissioned as NAe São Paulo.[114]

2001

French carrier Charles de Gaulle
  • 10 March — USS Ronald Reagan launched.[44]
  • 18 May — Charles de Gaulle commissioned.[115]
  • 17 July — Cavour laid down.[116]
  • 7 October — War in Afghanistan begins.
  • 16 October — NAeL Minas Gerais decommissioned.[117]

2002

  • Varyag allowed passage through Bosporus Strait, arrived in Dalian Shipyard in northern China.[108]

2003

2004

  • NAeL Minas Gerais sold for scrap.[117]
  • 20 January — Admiral Gorshkov sold to India; being refurbished and renamed INS Vikramaditya.[119]
  • April — USS Independence nominated to be sunk as artificial reef.
  • 20 July — Cavour launched.[116]

2005

  • 11 April — INS Vikrant steel plate cutting started.[120]
  • 19 April — USS America towed to sea for live firing tests.[121]
  • May — Juan Carlos I laid down.[122]
  • 14 May — USS America scuttled.[24]
  • 3 August — HMS Invincible decommissioned, placed in reserve until 2010.[123]

2006

  • 17 May — USS Oriskany sunk as an artificial reef.[14][24]
  • 31 May — Minsk sold at auction, disposition unknown.[92]
  • 7 October — USS George H. W. Bush launched.[118]

2007

  • 1 August — USS John F. Kennedy decommissioned, placed in reserve.[44]

2008

Italian carrier Cavour
  • February — USS Forrestal prepared to be sunk as a reef; USS Independence and USS Constellation scheduled to be scrapped within five years.[124]
  • 10 March — Juan Carlos I launched.[122]
  • 27 March — Cavour commissioned.[116]

2009

2010–present[edit]

2010

Spanish carrier Juan Carlos I
  • 30 September — Juan Carlos I commissioned[129]

2011

2012

  • 8 June – INS Vikramaditya commenced sea trials[133]
  • 25 September – Ex-Varyag commissioned as Liaoning[134]
  • 10 October – India and Russia announce delay in handover of INS Vikramaditya delayed twelve months until fourth quarter 2013[135]
  • 1 December — USS Enterprise decommissioned[136]

2013

  • 6 February - Príncipe de Asturias (R-11) decommissioned.[137]
  • 12 August - INS Vikrant launched[138]
  • 9 November - USS Gerald R. Ford launched.[139]
  • 16 November - INS Vikramaditya commissioned.[140]

2014

HMS Queen Elizabeth
  • 17 July - HMS Queen Elizabeth launched.[141]
  • 28 August - HMS Illustrious decommissioned[142]

See also[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

^[I] For most carriers, the dates listed here are those when the carrier was laid down, launched, commissioned, decommissioned and disposed of. If the carrier was a conversion from another ship, then the first date listed is when she was taken in hand to be converted; however, if a carrier was subsequently redesignated, its history is followed until disposal. The first time a ship is named in the list, it is linked to the relevant page within Wikipedia; if the ship was renamed, the first instance of the new name is also linked. Additionally, key relevant historical dates are interspersed with the ship-related dates to provide context.

^[II] For the purposes of this timeline, an aircraft carrier is a commissioned naval ship with at least one permanent flush deck designed for the launch and recovery of fixed-wing aircraft. This timeline does not include ships with temporary landing or take-off platforms, vessels designed for helicopter operations, marine assault ships of various designs, catapult ships, WWII escort carriers, merchant aircraft carriers, CAM ships, nor seaplane carriers and tenders.

^[III] The timeline is mainly divided into decades, the exceptions being the two World Wars and the interwar period, which are each treated as separate blocks. For the purposes of this list, the First World War is considered to have started on 28 June 1914 and ended 11 November 1918, while the Second World War is considered to have started on 1 September 1939 and ended 14 August 1945.

^[IV] The actual text of the message from the First Lord of the Admiralty to the Wright Brothers, dated 7 March 1907, taken from The Old Flying Days by Charles Cyril Turner, p. 293, was:

I have consulted my expert advisers with regard to your suggestion as to the employment of aeroplanes and I regret to have to tell you, after the careful consideration of my Board, that the Admiralty, whilst thanking you for so kindly bringing the proposals to their notice, are of opinion that they would not be of any practical use to the Naval Service.

Citations[edit]

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  2. ^ The early years, USN official web site
  3. ^ Sturtivant (1990), p.8
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Sturtivant (1990), p.215
  5. ^ Chesneau (1998), p.79
  6. ^ 269 Squadron History: 1914–1923
  7. ^ H. M. Friedman and A. K. Friedman (2006)
  8. ^ a b c d e f g Fleet Air Arm Officers' Association web site
  9. ^ a b c d e Chesneau (1998), pp.89–90
  10. ^ a b c d HMS Furious 1917, RN official web site
  11. ^ a b c d Chesneau (1998), pp.92–93
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u A-Z list of the Aircraft Carriers, fleetairarmarchive.net
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  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl dm dn do dp dq dr ds dt du dv dw dx dy dz ea eb ec ed ee ef eg eh ei ej ek el em en eo ep eq er es et eu ev ew ex ey ez fa fb fc fd fe ff fg fh fi fj fk fl fm fn fo fp fq fr fs ft fu fv fw fx fy fz ga gb gc gd ge gf gg gh gi gj gk gl gm gn go gp gq gr gs gt gu gv gw gx gy gz ha hb hc hd he hf hg hh hi hj hk hl hm hn ho hp hq hr hs ht hu hv hw hx hy hz ia ib ic id ie if ig ih ii ij ik il im in io ip DANFS, United States Navy
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  16. ^ a b c d e Chesneau (1998), pp.159–160
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  18. ^ a b c Chesneau (1998), pp.161–162
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  23. ^ Sturtivant (1990), p.17
  24. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf The Carrier List, USN official web site
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  42. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab KIDO BUTAI!, Combinedfleet.com
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  51. ^ a b c d e f g HMAS Sydney (III), Sea Power Centre
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  56. ^ Chesneau (1998), pp.255–260
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  58. ^ a b c McCart (1990)
  59. ^ a b Chesneau (1998), pp.85–88
  60. ^ a b Colossus Class Light Fleet Aircraft Carriers (archived link, 3 December 2008)
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  62. ^ Murfett (2008), p.435
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  65. ^ a b Chesneau (1998), p.57
  66. ^ Hall (1982), p.70
  67. ^ Naval-History.net
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  69. ^ a b Sturtivant (1990), p.178
  70. ^ Sturtivant (1990), p.179
  71. ^ Bishop & Chant (2004), p.51
  72. ^ Cassells (2000), p.84
  73. ^ a b c HMAS Melbourne (II), Sea Power Centre
  74. ^ a b c d e f g h i Jane's Fighting Ships 2000–2001, p.796
  75. ^ a b Chesneau (1998), p.152
  76. ^ a b c Jane's Fighting Ships 2000–2001, p.220
  77. ^ a b c CV CLEMENCEAU (R 98), French Fleet Air Arm
  78. ^ a b The HMS Warrior Story, Ministry Of Defence web site
  79. ^ a b c Jane's Fighting Ships 2000–2001, p.798
  80. ^ Chesneau (1998), p.50
  81. ^ Chesneau (1998), p.67
  82. ^ a b CV FOCH (R 99), French Fleet Air Arm
  83. ^ USS Enterprise CVN-65, USN Official Web Site
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  85. ^ a b Chesneau (1998), p.196
  86. ^ Chesneau (1998), p.68
  87. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x Jane's Fighting Ships 2000–2001, p.793
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References[edit]

Books[edit]

  • Australian Naval Aviation Museum (1998). Flying Stations: a Story of Australian Naval Aviation. Sydney: Allen & Unwin. p. 289. ISBN 1-86448-846-8. 
  • Bishop, Chris; Chant, Christopher (2004). Aircraft Carriers: The World's Greatest Naval Vessels and their Aircraft. Zenith Press. p. 256. ISBN 978-0-7603-2005-1. 
  • Cassells, Vic (2000). The Capital Ships: Their Battles and Their Badges. East Roseville, NSW: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-7318-0941-6. OCLC 48761594. 
  • Chesneau, Roger (1998). Aircraft Carriers of the World, 1914 to the Present. An Illustrated Encyclopedia (Rev Ed). London: Brockhampton Press. ISBN 1-86019-875-9. 
  • Hall, Timothy (1982). HMAS Melbourne. North Sydney, NSW: George Allen & Unwin. p. 223. ISBN 0-86861-284-7. OCLC 9753221. 
  • Ireland, Bernard (2007). Aircraft Carriers of the World. London: Southwater. p. 160. ISBN 978-1-84476-363-4. 
  • McCart, Neil (1995). HMS Albion 1944–1973 The Old Grey Ghost. Fan Publications. p. 128. ISBN 0-9519538-6-9. 
  • Murfett, Malcolm H. (2008). Naval Warfare 1919–45 An Operational History of the Volatile War at Sea. Abington, Oxon, UK: Routledge. p. 656. ISBN 978-0-415-45804-7. 
  • Polmar, Norman (1991). The Naval Institute Guide to the Soviet Navy (5th ed.). Annapolis, Maryland: United States Naval Institute. p. 598. ISBN 0-87021-241-9. 
  • Rose, Lisle Abbott (2007). Power at Sea: The Breaking Storm, 1919–1945. University of Missouri Press. p. 514. ISBN 0-8262-1703-6. 
  • Captain Richard Sharpe OBE RN, ed. (2000). Jane's Fighting Ships 2000–2001 (103rd ed.). Coulsdon, Surrey, UK: Jane's Information Group Limited. p. 907. ISBN 0-7106-2018-7. 
  • Sturtivant, Ray (1990). British Naval Aviation: The Fleet Air Arm 1917–1990. London: Arms & Armour Press Ltd. p. 224. ISBN 0-85368-938-5. 

Articles[edit]

Web Sites[edit]

 

Other[edit]

External links[edit]